Nursing Assistant: A Nursing Process Approach / Edition 10

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Learn to become a certified nursing assistant qualified for the acute care, home care, and long-term care settings with this proven learning solution. Nursing Assistant: A Nursing Process Approach is your competency-based resource for the latest trends and practices in nursing assistant education. With more than 160 procedures presented in a step-by-step format and over 1,000 photos and drawings to illustrate key skills, you will see why this book is the leader in nursing assistant education.

New to Edition: Unit on care of bariatric clients promotes client and worker safety, Focus on ergonomics includes OSHA algorithms for patient handling and movement, Expanded coverage of mechanical ventilation, spinal surgery, radiation therapy, and brachytherapy, StudyWare CD-ROM features quizzes and games for each unit, plus case studies designed to stimulate critical thinking, Free Online Companion website with additional procedures, Internet links, and industry updates.

Features and Benefits: Guidelines feature highlights important steps and considerations for specific care situations, Alerts highlight urgent information on Infection Control, Safety, Culture, Working with Difficult Patients, OSHA, Communication, Age-appropriate Care, and Legal Implications, Unit Reviews and Nursing Assistant Challenge test and reinforce your skills.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Carole Ann Kenner, PhD, RN, FAAN (The College of New Jersey)
Description: Using a sound pedagogical approach, this book presents easy to read objectives, vocabulary, alerts, guidelines, procedures, and review materials for nursing assistant students.
Purpose: It is intended to prepare individuals for nursing assistant positions.
Audience: Anyone seeking or in a nursing assistant position is the intended audience. Although the author targets just those individuals preparing for the position, this material could easily be used by those already in the position wishing to brush up in certain areas.
Features: The book moves logically from describing healthcare and organizations, to scientific principles, on through common procedures such as bed making, to principles of fluids and nutrition, wound care, death and dying, and special populations including emergencies, obstetrics, and pediatrics. Throughout the book, the descriptions of procedures include discussion of the role of the nursing assistant. The book includes a WebTutor(™) that contains online resources if the instructor wishes to use them. The list of procedures has color symbols to indicate if the procedure is more fully explained online, on DVD, etc., but there are no explanations of acronyms such as OBRA and PPE. This edition includes information on HIPAA, electronic medical records, safe handling, changes in CPR, and newer topics such as safe handling, bariatrics, affective disorders, defense mechanisms, and CDC guidelines for personal protective equipment. In the discussion of vital signs, there is no mention of vital sign differences across the lifespan. There are no references.
Assessment: This is the most comprehensive book for nursing assistants on the market. It is user-friendly for students and it contains a wealth of faculty resources as well. This edition presents many of the newer trends in healthcare, such as concerns over back injuries and how to prevent them. This is a good resource for any would-be nursing assistant.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781418066062
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 7/12/2007
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 960
  • Sales rank: 832,180
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Barbara Hegner, MS, RN Former Professor Emeritus Nursing and Life Science Long Beach City College, CA.

Barbara Acello has worked in long-term care for more than four decades. Currently a nurse consultant and educator, she owns a school for nursing assistants, where she helped to write and develop mandatory state curricula for nurse aides and EMTs. She has also written and contributed to dozens of textbooks, instructor guides, quick reference guides, and supplemental instructional materials for health care personnel. Formerly a practicing nurse, Ms. Acello was also a director of nursing and a long-term care facility consultant. Her interests and expertise include clinical geriatrics, resident safety, pain assessment and management, restraints, pressure ulcers, and infection control. She is particularly committed to improving working conditions, education, and professionalism for personnel in the long-term care industry.

Esther Caldwell, MA, PhD, is a Consultant in Vocational Education.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors     xvii
Preface     xviii
Acknowledgments     xx
How to Use This Textbook     xxii
Introduction to Nursing Assisting     1
Community Health Care     2
Introduction     3
Overview of Health Care     3
Needs of the Community     4
Community Health Care Services     4
Financing Health Care     7
Regulatory Agencies     7
Quality Assurance     8
Role of the Nursing Assistant     11
The Interdisciplinary Health Care Team     11
The Nursing Team     15
Organization of Nursing Care     16
Patient-Focused Care     17
Regulation of Nursing Assistant Practice     17
Lines of Authority     18
Guidelines for the Nursing Assistant     18
The Role and Responsibilities of the Nursing Assistant     19
Expanded Scope of Practice     19
Personal Vocational Adjustments     20
Personal Health and Hygiene     23
Consumer Rights and Responsibilities in Health Care     27
Consumer Rights     27
Responsibilities of Health Care Consumers     28
Ethical and Legal Issues Affecting the Nursing Assistant     35
Ethical Standards and Legal Standards     35
Ethics Questions     36
Respect for Life     36
Respect for the Individual     37
Patient Information     37
Tipping     38
Legal Issues     38
Sexual Harassment     42
Scientific Principles     45
Medical Terminology and Body Organization     46
Medical Terminology     46
Medical Word Parts     47
Body Organization     56
Anatomic Terms     56
Organization of the Body     58
Classification of Disease     65
Introduction     65
Disease     65
Major Conditions     67
Diagnosis     68
Therapy     70
Neoplasms     71
Body Defenses     71
Basic Human Needs and Communication     75
Communication Skills     76
Introduction     76
Communication in Health Care     77
Communicating with Staff Members     78
Communicating with Patients     82
Guidelines for Communicating with Patients     83
Working with Interpreters     87
Observation, Reporting, and Documentation     90
Introduction     90
Nursing Process     90
Making Observations     97
Pain     102
Reporting     102
Documentation     103
Guidelines for Documentation on the Computerized Medical Record     109
Guidelines for Charting     110
Meeting Basic Human Needs     113
Introduction     113
Human Growth and Development     114
Basic Human Needs     119
Comfort, Pain, Rest, and Sleep     127
Patient Comfort     127
Noise Control     127
Pain     130
Rest     135
Sleep     136
Developing Cultural Sensitivity     142
Introduction     142
Race, Ethnicity, and Culture     143
Traditions     149
Guidelines for Developing Cultural Sensitivity     150
Infection and Infection Control     153
Infection     154
Introduction     155
Microbes     155
The Chain of Infection      156
Types of Infections     160
Body Flora     160
How Pathogens Affect the Body     161
Body Defenses     161
Immunity     161
Immunizations     161
Immunosuppression     162
Serious Infections in Health Care Facilities     162
Bacterial Infections     162
Infectious Diarrhea     166
Viral Infections     166
Other Important Infections     170
Guidelines for Preventing Infection     171
Bioterrorism     171
Parasites     173
Outbreak of Infectious Disease in a Health Care Facility     176
Self-Care     176
Infection Control     179
Disease Prevention     180
Medical Asepsis     180
Guidelines for Maintaining Medical Asepsis     180
Handwashing     181
Handwashing     182
Protecting Yourself     183
Standard Precautions     184
Guidelines for Standard Precautions     185
Guidelines for Environmental Procedures     386
Transmission-Based Precautions     187
Isolation Technique      194
Personal Protective Equipment     194
Putting on a Mask     199
Putting on a Gown     201
Putting on Gloves     202
Removing Contaminated Gloves     203
Removing Contaminated Gloves, Eye Protection, Gown, and Mask     204
Serving a Meal in an Isolation Unit     205
Measuring Vital Signs in an Isolation Unit     206
Transferring Nondisposable Equipment Outside of the Isolation Unit     207
Specimen Collection from a Patient in an Isolation Unit     207
Caring for Linens in an Isolation Unit     208
Transporting Patient to and from the Isolation Unit     209
Disinfection and Sterilization     211
Sterile Procedures     212
Opening a Sterile Package     212
Safety and Mobility     217
Environmental and Nursing Assistant Safety     218
Introduction     218
The Patient Environment     219
Safety Measures     222
Fire Safety     226
Other Emergencies     228
Violence in the Workplace     229
Nursing Assistant Safety     230
Guidelines for Violence Prevention     230
Guidelines for Dealing with a Violent Individual     231
Patient Safety and Positioning     236
Patient Safety     236
Guidelines for Preventing Patient Falls     237
Use of Physical Restraints     237
Guidelines for the Use of Restraints     246
Prevention of Other Incidents     247
Introduction to Procedures     249
Common Steps in All Procedures     249
Body Mechanics for the Patient     253
Moving and Lifting Patients     255
Turning the Patient toward You     235
Turning the Patient Away from You     256
Moving a Patient to the Head of the Bed     257
Logrolling the Patient     258
Guidelines for the Use of Splints     264
The Patient's Mobility: Transfer Skills     267
Introduction     267
Nursing Assistant Safety     268
Types of Transfers     268
Guidelines for Safe Patient Transfers     269
Transfer Belts     271
Applying a Transfer Belt     271
Transferring the Patient from Bed to Chair-One Assistant     272
Transferring the Patient from Bed to Chair-Two Assistants     274
Sliding-Board Transfers      276
Sliding-Board Transfer from Bed to Wheelchair     276
Transferring the Patient from Chair to Bed-One Assistant     277
Transferring the Patient from Chair to Bed-Two Assistants     278
Independent Transfer, Standby Assist     279
Stretcher Transfers     280
Transferring the Patient from Bed to Stretcher     280
Transferring the Patient from Stretcher to Bed     281
Moving the Patient with a Mechanical Lift     282
Transferring the Patient with a Mechanical Lift     283
Toilet Transfers     285
Transferring the Patient onto and off the Toilet     285
Tub Transfers     286
Car Transfers     286
The Patient's Mobility: Ambulation     288
Ambulation     288
Guidelines for Safe Ambulation     290
Assistive Devices     290
Assisting the Patient to Walk with a Cane and Three-Point Gait     292
Assisting the Patient to Walk with a Walker and Three-Point Gait     294
The Falling Patient     295
Wheelchair Mobility     295
Assisting the Falling Patient     296
Positioning the Dependent Patient in a Wheelchair     297
Guidelines for Wheelchair Safety      297
Wheelchair Activity     300
Guidelines for Chair and Wheelchair Positioning     300
Transporting a Patient by Stretcher     302
Measuring and Recording Vital Signs, Height, and Weight     305
Body Temperature     306
Introduction     306
Temperature Values     306
Definition of Body Temperature     307
Temperature Control     307
Measuring Body Temperature     308
Clinical Thermometers     308
Guidelines for Using an Oral or Rectal Thermometer     311
Measuring Temperature Using a Sheath-Covered Thermometer     312
Guidelines for the Safe Use of a Glass Thermometer     312
Measuring an Oral Temperature (Electronic Thermometer)     313
Measuring a Rectal Temperature (Electronic Thermometer)     314
Measuring an Axillary Temperature (Electronic Thermometer)     315
Guidelines for Using a Tympanic (Ear) Thermometer     316
Measuring a Tympanic Temperature     316
Pulse and Respiration     321
Introduction     321
The Pulse     321
Counting the Radial Pulse     323
Guidelines for Using a Stethoscope     324
Counting the Apical-Radial Pulse     324
Respiration     325
Counting Respirations     326
Blood Pressure     329
Introduction     329
Equipment     330
Measuring the Blood Pressure     331
Guidelines for Preparing to Measure Blood Pressure     333
How to Read the Gauge     334
Taking Blood Pressure     335
Guidelines for Electronic Blood Pressure Monitoring     336
Taking Blood Pressure with an Electronic Blood Pressure Apparatus     337
Measuring Height and Weight     339
Weight and Height Measurements     339
Guidelines for Obtaining Accurate Weight and Height Measurements     341
Weighing and Measuring the Patient Using an Upright Scale     341
Weighing the Patient on a Chair Scale     342
Measuring Weight with an Electronic Wheelchair Scale     343
Measuring and Weighing the Patient in Bed     344
Patient Care and Comfort Measures     347
Admission, Transfer, and Discharge     348
Introduction     348
Admission     348
Family Dynamics     349
Transfer     350
Guidelines for Family Dynamics      351
Admitting the Patient     352
Transferring the Patient     354
Discharge     355
Discharging the Patient     356
Bedmaking     359
Introduction     359
Operation and Uses of Beds in Health Care Facilities     359
Guidelines for Handling Linens and Making the Bed     361
Guidelines for Low Beds     362
Making a Closed Bed     364
Opening the Closed Bed     369
Making an Occupied Bed     369
Making the Surgical Bed     371
Patient Bathing     373
Introduction     373
Patient Bathing     375
Guidelines for Giving a Whirlpool Bath     376
Guidelines for Patient Bathing     377
Assisting with the Tub Bath or Shower     378
Bed Bath     380
Changing the Patient's Gown     383
Waterless Bed Bath     384
Partial Bath     386
Female Perineal Care     388
Male Perineal Care     390
Guidelines for Providing Hand, Foot, and Nail Care     393
Hand and Fingernail Care     393
Bed Shampoo     395
Dressing a Patient      397
Guidelines for Dressing and Undressing Patients     397
Dressing and Undressing the Patient     398
General Comfort Measures     402
Introduction     402
AM Care and PM Care     402
Oral Hygiene     404
Assisting with Routine Oral Hygiene     404
Dentures     406
Assisting with Special Oral Hygiene     407
Assisting the Patient to Floss and Brush Teeth     407
Caring for Dentures     409
Backrubs     410
Guidelines for Applying Lotion to the Patient's Skin     411
Backrub     412
Daily Shaving     413
Guidelines for Safety in Shaving     414
Shaving a Male Patient     414
Daily Hair Care     415
Daily Hair Care     416
Comfort Devices     416
Elimination Needs     418
Giving and Receiving the Bedpan     418
Giving and Receiving the Urinal     421
Assisting with Use of the Bedside Commode     422
Principles of Nutrition and Fluid Balance     425
Nutritional Needs and Diet Modifications     426
Introduction     427
Normal Nutrition      427
Essential Nutrients     427
The Five Food Groups     428
Basic Facility Diets     430
Special Diets     432
Supplements and Nourishments     436
Calorie Counts and Food Intake Studies     437
Dysphagia     437
Fluid Balance     439
Changing Water     441
Food Acceptance     442
Prevention of Foodborne Illness     442
Feeding the Patient     443
Assisting the Patient Who Can Feed Self     444
Feeding the Dependent Patient     445
Documenting Meal Intake     446
Alternative Nutrition     447
Special Care Procedures     451
Warm and Cold Applications     452
Introduction     452
Therapy with Heat and Cold     452
Use of Cold Applications     453
Guidelines for Warm and Cold Treatments     454
Use of Warm Applications     455
Applying an Ice Bag     456
Applying a Disposable Cold Pack     457
Applying an Aquamatick-Pad     459
Abnormalities in Temperature Regulation     460
Giving a Sitz Bath      461
Temperature Control Measures     463
Assisting with Application of a Hypothermia Blanket     464
Assisting with the Physical Examination     468
Introduction     468
Positioning the Patient     469
Physical Examination     471
The Surgical Patient     474
Introduction     474
Pain Perception     475
Anesthesia     475
Surgical Care     476
Preoperative Care     476
During the Operative Period     479
Postoperative Care     479
Guidelines for Postoperative Care     480
Assisting the Patient to Deep Breathe and Cough     486
Performing Postoperative Leg Exercises     487
Guidelines for Applying Anti-Embolism Stockings     488
Applying Elasticized Stockings     489
Applying an Elastic Bandage     490
Applying Pneumatic Compression Hosiery     493
Assisting the Patient to Dangle     493
Guidelines for Assisting the Patient in Initial Ambulation     494
Caring for the Emotionally Stressed Patient     497
Introduction     497
Mental Health     498
Anxiety Disorders      498
Guidelines for Managing the Patient Who Is Anxious or Agitated     499
Affective Disorders     500
Guidelines for Assisting the Patient Who Is Depressed     503
Eating Disorders     504
Substance Abuse     505
Alcoholism     505
Defense Mechanisms     506
Assisting Patients to Cope     507
The Demanding Patient     507
Maladaptive Behaviors     508
Professional Boundaries     509
Guidelines for Reality Orientation     509
Guidelines for Assisting Patients Who Have Behavior Problems     511
Caring for the Bariatric Patient     515
Introduction     515
Weight and Body Mass Index     516
Effects of Obesity on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems     518
Stereotyping and Discrimination     520
Interdisciplinary Team Approach to Care     520
Environmental Modifications     521
Anticipating Patient Care Needs     525
Assisting with ADLs     525
Moving the Bariatric Patient     528
Complications of Immobility     533
Bariatric Surgery     534
Ongoing Care and Support      537
Death and Dying     540
Introduction     540
Five Stages of Grief     541
Preparation for Death     543
Common Fears     543
The Patient Self-Determination Act     544
The Role of the Nursing Assistant     545
Hospice Care     548
Physical Changes as Death Approaches     549
Postmortem Care     549
Organ Donations     550
Giving Postmortem Care     551
Postmortem Examination (Autopsy)     552
Other Health Care Settings     555
Care of the Elderly and Chronically III     556
Introduction     556
Types of Long-Term Care Facilities     557
Legislation Affecting Long-Term Care     558
Role of the Nursing Assistant in a Skilled Care Facility     558
Effects of Aging     559
Spiritual Needs     560
Nutritional Needs     563
Hydration Needs     565
Preventing Infections in Residents     566
Delirium     567
General Hygiene     568
Guidelines for Bathing the Elderly     569
Mental Changes     571
Caring for Residents with Dementia     571
Guidelines for Activities of Daily Living for Residents with Dementia     574
Special Problems     575
Guidelines for Reality Orientation     580
The Organization of Home Care: Trends in Health Care     585
Introduction     585
Providers of Home Health Care     586
Benefits of Working in Home Health Care     586
Source of Referral     587
Payment for Home Health Care     587
The Home Health Care Team     588
The Assessment Process     589
Liability and the Nursing Assistant     589
Recordkeeping     589
Guidelines for Avoiding Liability     589
Time Management     593
Working With Families     593
The Nursing Assistant in Home Care     596
The Home Health Caregiver     596
The Home Health Assistant and the Nursing Process     596
Characteristics of the Home Care Nursing Assistant and Homemaker Assistant     597
The Nursing Bag     598
Personal Safety     599
Home Health Care Duties     599
The Home Environment     602
Safety In the Home     602
Elder Abuse      603
Guidelines for Supervising Self-Administration of Medications     603
Infection Control     604
Housekeeping Tasks     604
Subacute Care     608
Description of Subacute Care     608
Special Procedures Provided in the Subacute Care Unit     610
Pain Management Procedures     615
Guidelines for Caring for Patients with Intravenous Lines     615
Caring for Subacute Patients with Respiratory Conditions     618
Checking Capillary Refill     620
Using a Pulse Oximeter     622
Caring for the Patient Receiving Dialysis Treatments     624
Oncology Treatments     626
Wound Management     626
Documentation of Care in the Subacute Unit     627
Alternative, Complementary, and Integrative Approaches to Patient Care     630
Alternatives to Mainstream Health Care     630
Integrative (Integrated) Health Care Practices     634
Common CAM Therapies     636
Spirituality     641
Body Systems, Common Disorders, and Related Care Procedures     645
Integumentary System     646
Integumentary System Structures     646
Skin Functions      648
Aging Changes     648
Skin Lesions     648
Guidelines for Preventing Pressure Ulcers     656
Respiratory System     665
Introduction     665
Structure and Function     666
Patients at Risk of Poor Oxygenation     667
Upper Respiratory Infections     668
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     669
Surgical Conditions     670
Diagnostic Techniques     674
Special Therapies Related to Respiratory Illness     674
Collecting a Sputum Specimen     681
Collecting a Sputum Specimen     681
Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System     684
Introduction     684
Structure and Function     684
Common Circulatory System Disorders     687
Peripheral Vascular Diseases     688
Guidelines for Caring for Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease     692
Heart Conditions     693
Blood Abnormalities     698
Diagnostic Tests     698
Musculoskeletal System     701
The Musculoskeletal System     702
Common Conditions     706
Guidelines for Caring for Patients with THA      716
Assisting with Continuous Passive Motion     718
Guidelines for Caring for Patients after Spinal Surgeries     721
Range of Motion     722
Guidelines for Assisting Patients with Range-of-Motion Exercises     723
Performing Range-of-Motion Exercises (Passive)     724
Diagnostic Techniques     728
Endocrine System     731
Structure and Function     732
Common Conditions of the Thyroid Gland     734
Common Conditions of the Parathyroid Glands     734
Common Conditions of the Adrenal Glands     734
Diabetes Mellitus     735
Diagnostic Techniques     739
Blood Glucose Monitoring     739
Obtaining a Fingerstick Blood Sugar     742
Nervous System     745
Structure and Function     746
Common Conditions     753
Caring for the Eye Socket and Artificial Eye     771
Applying Warm or Cool Eye Compresses     774
Guidelines for Caring for a Hearing Aid     775
Troubleshooting Hearing Aids     776
Diagnostic Techniques     777
Gastrointestinal System     780
Introduction     780
Structure and Function      780
Common Conditions     783
Common Problems Related to the Lower Bowel     785
Guidelines for Assisting Patients with Bowel Elimination     787
Special Diagnostic Tests     788
Collecting a Stool Specimen     789
Enemas     790
Giving a Soap-Solution Enema     791
Giving a Commercially Prepared Enema     794
Inserting a Rectal Suppository     796
Urinary System     798
Introduction     798
Structure and Function     799
Common Conditions     800
Responsibilities of the Nursing Assistant     802
Urinary Incontinence     802
Diagnostic Tests     803
Guidelines for Caring for the Patient with Incontinence     803
Collecting a Routine Urine Specimen     803
Collecting a Clean-Catch Urine Specimen     805
Renal Dialysis     806
Collecting a 24-Hour Urine Specimen     807
Urinary Drainage     808
Routine Drainage Check     810
Giving Indwelling Catheter Care     811
Emptying a Urinary Drainage Unit     812
Disconnecting the Catheter     814
Applying a Condom for Urinary Drainage     815
Connecting a Catheter to a Leg Bag     817
Emptying a Leg Bag     818
Reproductive System     821
Structure and Function     822
Conditions of the Male Reproductive Organs     825
Conditions of the Female Reproductive Organs     826
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)     828
Diagnostic Tests     832
Vaginal Douche     833
Giving a Nonsterile Vaginal Douche     833
Expanded Role of the Nursing Assistant     837
Caring for the Patient with Cancer     838
Introduction     838
Cancer Prevention and Detection     839
Treatment     840
Guidelines for Working with Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy Patients     844
Pain     845
Mental and Emotional Needs     846
Palliative Care     846
Rehabilitation and Restorative Services     849
Introduction to Rehabilitation and Restorative Care     849
Reasons For Rehabilitation/Restorative Care     851
The Interdisciplinary Health Care Team     851
The Role of the Nursing Assistant in Rehabilitation and Restorative Care     851
Principles of Rehabilitation      852
Complications From Inactivity     852
Restorative Programs     854
Guidelines for Implementing Restorative Programs     859
Obstetrical Patients and Neonates     861
Introduction     861
Prenatal Care     862
Preparation for Birth     863
Prenatal Testing     864
Labor and Delivery     864
Cesarean Birth     867
Postpartum Care     868
Toileting and Perineal Care     870
Breast Care     870
Guidelines for Assisting with Breast-Feeding     871
Neonatal Care     871
Changing a Diaper     874
Security     875
Bathing an Infant     875
Discharge     877
Pediatric Patients     880
Introduction     880
Pediatric Units     881
Developmental Tasks     881
Caring for Infants (Birth-1 Year)     881
Admitting a Pediatric Patient     882
Weighing the Pediatric Patient     884
Changing Crib Linens     884
Changing Crib Linens (Infant in Crib)     883
Measuring Temperature      887
Determining Heart Rate (Pulse)     889
Counting Respiratory Rate     889
Measuring Blood Pressure     890
Bottle-Feeding an Infant     891
Burping an Infant     891
Collecting a Urine Specimen from an Infant     893
Childhood Obesity     894
Guidelines for Ensuring a Safe Environment for Infants     894
Caring for Toddlers (1-3 Years)     895
Guidelines for Ensuring a Safe Environment for Toddlers     897
Caring for Preschool Children (3-6 Years)     898
Guidelines for Ensuring a Safe Environment for Preschoolers     900
Caring for School-Age Children (6-12 Years)     900
Guidelines for Ensuring a Safe Environment for School-Age Children     902
Caring for the Adolescent (12-18 Years)     902
Guidelines for Ensuring a Safe Environment for Adolescents     904
Special Advanced Procedures     906
Introduction     906
Urine and Stool Tests     907
Testing for Occult Blood Using Hemoccult and Developer     907
Collecting a Urine Specimen Through a Drainage Port     908
Removing an Indwelling Catheter     910
Removing an Indwelling Catheter     910
Ostomies      911
Guidelines for Caring for an Ostomy     913
Giving Routine Stoma Care (Colostomy)     913
Routine Care of an Ileostomy (with Patient in Bed)     915
Sterile Technique     916
Guidelines for Sterile Procedures     917
Setting Up a Sterile Field Using a Sterile Drape     917
Adding an Item to a Sterile field     918
Adding Liquids to a Sterile field     918
Applying and Removing Sterile Gloves     919
Using Transfer Forceps     921
Introduction to Advanced Airway Management     921
Guidelines and Nursing Assistant Responsibilities for Caring for Mechanically Ventilated Patients     923
Response to Basic Emergencies     929
Response to Basic Emergencies     930
Dealing with Emergencies     931
Guidelines for Responding to an Emergency     931
Being Prepared     932
First Aid     932
Code Emergencies     932
Emergency Care     933
Maintaining the Patient's Breathing     933
Cardiac Arrest     934
Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift Maneuver     935
Jaw-Thrust Maneuver     936
Mask-to-Mouth Ventilation      936
Guidelines for Performing CPR     937
The Recovery Position     938
Early Defibrillation     938
Positioning the Patient in the Recovery Position     938
Choking     939
Heimlich Maneuver-Abdominal Thrusts     939
Assisting the Adult Who Has an Obstructed Airway and Becomes Unconscious     940
CPR and Obstructed Airway Procedures for Infants and Children     941
Obstructed Airway: Infant     941
Child with Foreign Body Airway Obstruction     942
Other Emergencies     942
Bleeding     943
Guidelines for Non-Cardiac Facility Emergencies     943
Shock     944
Fainting     945
Heart Attack     946
Stroke     946
Seizures     947
Vomiting and Aspiration     948
Electric Shock     948
Burns     949
Orthopedic Injuries     949
Head Injury     950
Accidental Poisoning     951
Moving Forward     953
Employment Opportunities and Career Growth     954
Introduction     954
Self-Appraisal     954
Search for All Employment Opportunities     955
Assemble a Proper Resume     955
Validate References     956
Make Specific Applications for Work     956
Participate in a Successful Interview     956
Accept a Job     958
Keep the Job     959
Continue to Grow throughout Your Career     960
Resign Properly from Employment     960
Glossary     962
Index     985
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