Nursing Fundamentals DeMYSTiFieD: A Self-Teaching Guide / Edition 1

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Overview

Nursing success begins with the fundamentals!

Nursing Fundamentals Demystified offers a fast and interesting way for you to understand the foundational concepts and information that will be the cornerstone of your entire nursing education and career. It helps you sort through the mountain of information nursing students face and focus on the essentials – that which you truly must know to be a successful nurse. You’ll also learn how apply this information to real-world clinical situations.

In order to make the learning process as effective as possible, you’ll find learning aids such as chapter objectives; key terms, tables and boxed information which summarize important concepts; nursing alerts which spotlight critical safety information; nursing care plans in selected chapters which help you identify key assessment data, nursing diagnoses, and interventions; selected procedure tips to assist you with the clinical application of content, questions that appear throughout each chapter to help you evaluate your comprehension; and NCLEX®-style questions at the end of each chapter.

Get a working understanding of these important concepts:

The nursing process,

Communication and Documentation,

Vital sign assessment,

Health assessment,

Medication Administration,

Safety,

Skin integrity,

Activity and mobility,

Sensory and cognition,

Sleep and comfort,

Oxygenanation,

Nutrition,

Fluid, electrolyte, acid-base balance,

Urinary elimination,

Bowel elimination,

Psychosocial needs

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071495707
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
  • Publication date: 7/13/2010
  • Series: Demystified Nursing Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 332
  • Sales rank: 415,166
  • Product dimensions: 9.46 (w) x 11.06 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Bennita W. Vaughans, MSN, RN

Nurse Recruiter

Central Alabama Veterans Health Care System

H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College

Tuskegee, AL

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Table of Contents

Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Author

PART I INTRODUCTION TO THE NURSING PROFESSION

Chapter 1 Nursing---An Evolving Profession 3

Overview 4

Historical Review 4

Theoretical Foundation 5

Nursing Roles and Education 6

Legal Perspectives 7

Ethical Perspective 8

Cultural Perspective 9

The Future of Nursing 9

Chapter 2 The Nursing Process 13

Overview 14

Assessment 15

Types of Assessment 15

Data Collection 15

Diagnosis 18

Definition 18

Diagnostic Process 18

NANDA's Nursing Diagnosis Taxonomy 20

Planning 21

Prioritizing Diagnoses 21

Expected Outcomes and Outcome Criteria 22

Nursing Interventions 23

Nursing Care Plans 24

Implementation 24

Evaluation 26

Evaluation at the Individual Patient Level 26

Evaluation at the Organizational Level 27

Conclusion 27

PART II FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF NURSING CARE

Chapter 3 Communication and Documentation 33

Overview 34

Communication 34

Basic Principles 34

Nursing and the Communication Process 36

Documentation 39

Purpose of Documentation 39

Principles of Documentation 40

Methods of Documentation 41

Reporting 43

Conclusion 44

Chapter 4 Vital Sign Assessment 47

Overview 48

Temperature 50

Thermoregulation 50

Temperature Variations 51

Procedural Tips 51

Pulse 53

Pulse Characteristics 53

Procedural Tips 55

Respirations 56

Respiratory Characteristics 56

Procedural Tips 56

Blood Pressure 58

Blood Pressure Variations 59

Procedural Tips 59

Vital Sign Documentation 61

Conclusion 62

Chapter 5 Health Assessment 65

Overview 66

Nursing Health History 66

Components of the Health History 67

Physical Examination 69

General Techniques 69

Preparing for the Examination 72

Performing the Examination 76

Conclusion 81

Chapter 6 Medication Administration 85

Overview 86

Basic Pharmacological Principles 87

Pharmacokinetics 87

Pharmacodynamics 90

Legal Guidelines for Medication Administration 91

Medication Administration Principles 91

Right Patient 94

Right Medication 95

Right Dose 95

Right Route 96

Right Time 96

Right Documentation 98

Nursing Process and Medication Administration 99

Assessment 99

Nursing Diagnosis 99

Planning 101

Implementation 101

Evaluation 101

Conclusion 102

Chapter 7 Safety 105

Overview 106

Infection Control 106

Infection Cycle 106

Infection Control Strategies 109

Asepsis 109

Health Promotion 115

Injury Prevention and Security 115

Injury Prevention: General Guidelines 116

Injury Prevention in the Healthcare Setting 117

Conclusion 117

PART III MEETING BASIC HUMAN NEEDS

Chapter 8 Skin Integrity 123

Overview 124

The Structure and Physiology of the Skin 124

Factors Influencing Skin Function 125

Age 125

Nutrition and Hydration 126

Hygiene 126

Environment 127

Health Deviations 127

The Nursing Process and Skin Integrity 129

Assessment 129

Nursing Diagnosis 130

Planning and Implementation 130

Health Promotion 130

Prevention of Skin Impairment in At-Risk Patients 131

Interventions for Impaired Skin Integrity 132

Evaluation 133

Conclusion 133

Chapter 9 Activity and Mobility 137

Overview 138

Physiology of Mobility 138

Factors Influencing Mobility 139

Effects of Immobility 140

The Nursing Process and Mobility 140

Assessment 141

Nursing Diagnoses 142

Planning 142

Implementation 143

Health Promotion 143

Restorative Interventions 144

Evaluation 146

Conclusion 146

Chapter 10 Sensory and Cognition 149

Overview 150

Physiology of Sensory and Cognitive Function 150

Sensory Reception 151

Cognitive Processing of Stimuli 151

Cognitive Components 151

Factors Influencing Sensory and Cognitive Function 154

Age 154

Environment 154

Lifestyle and Previous Experiences 154

Culture, Values, and Beliefs 155

Health Deviations 155

Medications 156

Alteration in Sensory and Cognitive Function 156

Sensory Alterations 157

Cognitive Alterations 157

Nursing Process and Sensory and Cognitive Function 160

Assessment 160

Nursing Diagnosis 162

Planning and Implementation 162

Interventions for Cognitive Impairment 165

Conclusion 166

Chapter 11 Sleep and Comfort 171

Overview 172

Sleep and Rest 172

Physiology of Sleep 173

Factors Influencing Sleep and Rest 173

Effects of Sleep Disturbances 176

The Nursing Process and Sleep/Rest Disturbances 178

Pain and Comfort 181

Physiology of Pain 182

Types of Pain 184

Factors Influencing Comfort and Pain 186

The Nursing Process and Pain 187

Conclusion 192

Chapter 12 Oxygenation 197

Overview 198

Physiology of Oxygenation 198

Factors Influencing Oxygenation 198

Physiological Factors 198

Age and Developmental Stage 199

Environmental Factors 199

Diet 199

Lifestyle 200

Health Alterations 201

Alterations in Oxygenation 202

The Nursing Process and Oxygenation 203

Assessment 203

Nursing Diagnoses 203

Planning 205

Implementation 205

Evaluation 207

Conclusion 208

Chapter 13 Nutrition 211

Overview 212

Physiology of Nutrition 212

Nutrients 212

Digestive Process 215

Factors Influencing Nutrition 216

Age and Developmental Stage 216

Lifestyle and Culture 217

Health Alterations and Therapeutic Interventions 218

The Nursing Process and Nutrition 219

Assessment 219

Nursing Diagnoses 220

Planning and Implementation 220

Evaluation 225

Conclusion 227

Chapter 14 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 231

Overview 232

Physiology of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Regulation 233

Fluids 233

Electrolytes 234

Acid-Base Balance 237

Factors Influencing Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 240

Food and Fluid Intake 240

Drugs 240

Health Alterations 240

Age 241

Alterations in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 241

Fluid Imbalances 241

Electrolyte and Acid-Base Imbalances 242

The Nursing Process and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 249

Assessment 249

Nursing Diagnosis 249

Planning 249

Nursing Interventions 251

Evaluation 253

Conclusion 254

Chapter 15 Urinary Elimination 259

Overview 260

Factors Influencing Urinary Elimination 260

Age and Developmental Stage 260

Diet and Fluid Intake 261

Psychosocial Factors 261

Health Alterations 261

Medical and Surgical Interventions 262

Alterations in Urinary Elimination 263

Urinary Retention 263

Urinary Incontinence 264

Urinary Tract Infections 264

Urinary Diversions 265

The Nursing Process and Urinary Elimination 266

Nursing Interventions 266

Conclusion 270

Chapter 16 Bowel Elimination 273

Overview 274

Factors Influencing Bowel Elimination 274

Age and Developmental Stage 275

Diet and Fluid Intake 275

Activity and Exercise 275

Psychosocial Factors 275

Medical and Surgical Interventions 276

Alterations in Bowel Elimination 278

Constipation 278

Impaction 279

Diarrhea 279

Fecal Incontinence 279

Flatulence 279

Bowel Diversions 280

The Nursing Process and Bowel Elimination 281

Assessment 281

Nursing Diagnosis 282

Planning 283

Implementation 283

Conclusion 285

Chapter 17 Psychosocial Needs 289

Overview 290

Self-concept 290

Components of Self-concept 291

Influencing Factors 291

Alterations in Self-concept 292

Families, Roles, and Relationships 292

Influencing Factors 292

Alterations in Roles and Relationships 294

Human Sexuality 295

Basic Concepts 296

Influencing Factors 297

Alterations in Sexuality 299

Spirituality 300

Influencing Factors 300

Stress, Loss, Grief, and Coping 301

Stress and Coping 301

Loss and Grief 303

The Nursing Process and Meeting Psychosocial Needs 304

Assessment 304

Nursing Diagnoses 304

Planning 305

Implementation 305

Conclusion 306

Final Exam 311

Index 321

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