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Phytochemicals are components acting individually, additively or synergistically, usually as a component of whole food, that have the characteristics of providing protective, preventative and possibly curative roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and other chronic disease progressions. Nutraceutical is a term used to describe beneficial phytochemicals. The mechanisms of action of nutraceuticals may be one of several. Free radical scavenger and antioxidant nutraceuticals can nullify damage by any number of biochemical mechanisms, but some also exert benefit by enhancing immune function.
A conservative economic analysis was done in 1993 of solely hospital care costs and the roles that three nutrient antioxidants could exert on cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and cataracts. The study considered the potential impact of only three antioxidants, vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene, and the possible annual savings in hospital care costs alone, which could exceed 8 billion dollars. Expert public health physicians believe that as much as 70% of disease is preventable.
The chapters in this book were organized to reveal existing and emerging knowledge of nutraceuticals found in garlic, soy and licorice. Lead chapters discuss the epidemiological evidence, and following chapters discuss chemical or biochemical evidence at the cellular level, as well as the presentation of some clinical data.
A major conclusion of the overall effort is that the science of nutraceuticals is very incomplete, but that findings to date have great promise.
SECTION I. PERSPECTIVES.
1. Plant Foods in Disease Prevention — Study of ProcedureLessons From Eastern Versus Western Diet (Devra L. Davis).
2. Saponins in Allium Vegetables (C. Lewandowski and C.Beecher).
SECTION II. THE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OFDESIGNER FOODS.
3. Overview of Analytical Techniques for the Fingerprinting ofPhytochemicals in Designer Foods (Robert T. Rosen and Thomas G.Hartman).
4. Chemcial Effects of Processing and Food Preparation onCarotenoids and Soy and Garlic Phytochemicals (Jin-R. Zhou and JohnW. Erdman, Jr.).
5. Phytochemicals: Biochemical Markers of Ingestion, Absorptionand Metabolism Using Flaxseed as a Model (Clare M. Hasler).
6. Research Approaches to Special Preclinical Safety andToxicological Evaluations (Shirley A.R. Blakely).
SECTION III: PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY OF GARLIC FOOD FORMS.
7. Phytochemistry of Garlic Horticultural and ProcessingProcedures (Hiromichi Matsuura).
8. International Phytotherapeutic Uses of Garlic Food Forms(Rajabather Krishnaraj).
9. Lipid Soluble Phytochemical Constituents in Garlic Food Forms(David S. Weinberg).
10. Chemical Methods Development for Quantitation ofPhytochemicals in Aqueous Garlic Extract (Richard S. Geary andMichael A. Miller).
11. Dietary Tolerance/Absorption/Metabolism of Phytochemicals inGarlic (Yukihiro Kodera).
12. Antioxidant Activities of Aged Garlic Extracts and CancerChemotherapy (S. Tsuyoshi and Ryusuke Kojinra).
13. Improvement of Age-Related Deterioration of LearningBehaviors and Immune Responses by Aged Garlic Extract (YongxiangZhang, Toru Moriguchi, Hiroshi Saito and Nobuyoshi Nishiyama).
14. Antioxidants In Garlic. II. Protection of Heart MitochondriaBy Garlic Extract and Diallyl Polysulfide From theDoxorubicin-Induced Lipid Peroxidation (Shoji Awazu and ToshiharuHorie).
15. Role of Garlic in Disease Prevention — PreclinicalModels (Shunso Hatono and Michael J. Wargovich).
16. Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Rat Brain Neurons (HiroshiSaito, Toru Moriguchi, Yongxiang Zhang, Hiroshi Katsuki andNobuyoshi Nishiyama).
17. Dietary Aged Garlic Extract Inhibits Suppression of ContactHypersensitivity By Ultraviolet B (UVB, 289-320 NM) Radiation orCis Urocanic Acid (Vivienne E. Reeve, Meira Bosnic, Emilia Rozinovaand Christa Boehm-Wilcox).
18. Garlic and Prevention of Prostate Cancer (John T. Pinto andRichard S. Rivlin).
19. Potential Interaction of Aged Garlic Extract With TheCentral Serotonergic Function: Biochemical Studies (Gilles M.Fillion, Marie-Paule Fillion, Francisco Bolaños-Jimenez, HalaSarhan and Brigitte Grimaldi).
20. Garlic and Serum Cholesterol (Dale D. Schmeisser).
21. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism By Garlic Extracts(Nikolay V. Dimitrov and Maurice R. Bennink).
SECTION IV. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY OF SOY FOOD FORMS.
22. Isolated Soy Protein Technology — Potential For NewDevelopments (Belinda H. Jerks, Doyle H. Waggle and E.C.Hemley).
23. Role of Soy Food Forms in Prevention of Human VascularDisease (Takemichi Kanazawa, Tomohiro Osanai, Tsugumichi Uemura,Takaatsu Kamada, Kogo Onodera, Hirobumi Metoki and YasaburoOike).
24. Commercial Phytochemicals From Soy (James P. Clark).
SECTION V. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY OF LICORICE FOOD FORMS.
25. Phytochemistry of Licorice Horticultural and ProcessingProcedures (Peter S. Vora and Lucia C.A. Testa).
26. Phytochemical Constituents in Licorice (James Duke).
27. Licorice: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and CancerChemoprevention (Rajendra G. Mehta, Vernon Steele, Herbert Pierson,Andreas Constantinou and Richard C. Moon).
28. Cancer Prevention by Licorice (Hoyoku Nishino).
29. Clinical Evaluation and Safety of Licorice-ContainingFormulations (Herbert F. Pierson).
SECTION VI. BRIDGING THE GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE FOR DESIGNER FOODAPPLICATIONS.
30. Studies of Plant Foods for Disease Protection (Brian D.Siebert).
31. Ongoing and Future Clinical Nutrition Research Needs (DanielW. Nixon).
32. Role of Phytochemicals in Chronic Disease Prevention (GerdaGuhr and Paul A. Lachance)