Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats

by Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council
     
 

ISBN-10: 0309086280

ISBN-13: 9780309086288

Pub. Date: 05/31/2006

Publisher: National Academies Press

Updating recommendations last made by the National Research Council in the mid-1980s, this report provides nutrient recommendations based on physical activity and stage in life, major factors that influence nutrient needs. It looks at how nutrients are metabolized in the bodies of dogs and cats, indications of nutrient deficiency, and diseases related to poor

Overview

Updating recommendations last made by the National Research Council in the mid-1980s, this report provides nutrient recommendations based on physical activity and stage in life, major factors that influence nutrient needs. It looks at how nutrients are metabolized in the bodies of dogs and cats, indications of nutrient deficiency, and diseases related to poor nutrition. The report provides a valuable resource for industry professionals formulating diets, scientists setting research agendas, government officials developing regulations for pet food labeling, and as a university textbook for dog and cat nutrition. It can also guide pet owners feeding decisions for their pets with information on specific nutrient needs, characteristics of different types of pet foods, and factors to consider when feeding cats and dogs.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780309086288
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Publication date:
05/31/2006
Series:
Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animal
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
424
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Contents

OVERVIEW....................1
1 COMPARATIVE DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF DOGS AND CATS....................5
Introduction....................5
Digestive Compartments and Functions....................6
Hormonal Aspects of Digestion....................12
Measurement of, and Factors Affecting, Digestibility....................12
References....................17
2 FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF DOGS AND CATS....................22
Food Ingestion by Feral Dogs and Cats....................22
Diurnal Rhythms, and Feeding and Drinking Patterns....................22
Role of Imprinting and Social Factors on Feeding Behavior....................23
Dietary Choice, Palatability, Learned Taste Aversions, and Preferences....................24
Control of Food Intake....................25
Feeding Recommendations....................25
References....................26
3 ENERGY....................28
Introduction....................28
Energy Evaluation....................28
Energy Requirements of Dogs....................33
Energy Requirements of Cats....................39
Energy Deficiency and Excess in Dogs and Cats....................45
References....................45
4 CARBOHYDRATES AND FIBER....................49
Definition, Classification, and Measurement....................49
Absorbable Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides and Sugar Alcohols)....................51
Digestible Carbohydrates (Disaccharides, Certain Oligosaccharides, and Nonstructural Polysaccharides)....................54
Fermentable Carbohydrates (Lactose, Certain Oligosaccharides, Dietary Fibers, and Resistant Starch)....................60
Poorly FermentableCarbohydrates (Cellulose and Wheat Bran)....................69
Carbohydrates in Dog and Cat Diet Formulations....................72
References....................74
5 FAT AND FATTY ACIDS....................81
Importance of Dietary Fats and Fatty Acids....................81
Types and Sources of Dietary Fats and Fatty Acids....................81
Analytical Procedures....................84
Fat Energy and Nutrient Density....................85
Digestion and Absorption....................85
Digestibility....................87
Biochemical Basis of Fatty Acid Essentiality....................88
Comparative Studies....................90
Canine Studies....................92
Feline Studies....................95
Requirements, Recommendations, and Allowances....................97
Dogs....................98
Cats....................102
References....................104
6 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS....................111
Basic Concepts....................111
Requirements, Allowances, and Tolerances of Protein and Amino Acids....................114
Amino Acid Imbalances and Antagonisms....................137
References....................138
7 MINERALS....................145
Introduction....................145
Minerals and Acid-Base Balance....................145
Macrominerals....................147
Trace Minerals....................168
Other Minerals....................184
References....................186
8 VITAMINS....................193
Introduction....................193
Vitamin A....................194
Vitamin D....................200
Vitamin E....................205
Vitamin K....................210
Thiamin (Vitamin [B.sub.1])....................212
Riboflavin....................216
Vitamin [B.sub.6]....................218
Niacin....................220
Pantothenic Acid....................223
Cobalamin (Vitamin [B.sub.12])....................225
Folic Acid....................227
Biotin....................230
Choline....................231
Ascorbic Acid....................234
Vitamin-Like Substances....................235
Vitamin Losses During Processing and Storage of Dog and Cat Foods....................236
References....................237
9 WATER....................246
General Principles....................246
Requirements of Dogs....................247
Requirements of Cats....................249
Recommended Allowances....................249
Toxicity in Dogs and Cats....................250
References....................250
10 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS....................252
Requirements....................252
Food Selection....................252
Feeding Management....................255
References....................256
11 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ENVIRONMENT....................258
Introduction....................258
Calculations and Assumptions....................258
How Much Exercise Do Dogs and Cats Undertake?....................259
Types of Exercise: Sprinting Versus Endurance....................260
Traditional Diets Fed to Racing Dogs....................260
Diet and Health During Exercise....................262
Exercise and Body Condition....................265
Effect of Confinement and Training....................266
Energy Requirements....................267
Effect of Exercise on Energy Required in the Absence of Exercise....................273
Nutrient Requirements....................284
References....................304
12 DIET FORMULATION AND FEED PROCESSING....................313
Petfood Processing....................313
Petfood Categories....................313
Diet Formulation....................317
Summary....................317
References....................318
13 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF INGREDIENTS USED IN DOG AND CAT FOODS....................319
References, 343 14 OTHER FOOD CONSTITUENTS....................344
Constituents Intended for Nutritive Value....................344
Constituents Intended for Technical or Nonnutritive Effects on Food....................348
References....................351
15 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS AND DIETARY NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS....................354
Use of Nutrient Requirement Tables....................355
References....................370
APPENDIXES A ABOUT THE AUTHORS....................371
B ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS....................374
INDEX....................377

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