Nutrition: Science and Applications / Edition 3

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This book helps develop the scientific understanding to support personal and professional decisions. Using a critical thinking approach, the book brings nutrition out of the classroom and allows students to apply the logic of science to their own nutrition concerns-both as consumers and as future scientists and health professionals. The text and WileyPLUS course has been developed through a collaboration between the authors and the Nutrition Advisory Board, a team of dedicated nutrition instructors who help review and develop all of Wiley's nutrition resources.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118288269
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/4/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 880
  • Sales rank: 52,361
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Lori A. Smolin, Ph.D. received her B.S. degree from cornell University, where she studied human nutrition and food science. She recieved her doctorate from the Universtiy of Wisconsin at Madison. Her doctoral research focused on B Vitamins, homocysteine accumulation, and genetic defects in homocysteine metabolism. She completed postdoctoral training both at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, where she studied human obesity, and at the University of California at San Diego, where she studied genetic defects in amino acid metabolism. She Has published in these areas in peer-reviewed journals.. Dr. Smolin is currently at the University of Connecticut, where she teaches both in the Department of Nutritional Sciences and in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. Courses she has taught include introductory nutrition, lifecycle nutrition, food preparation, nutrional biochemistry, general biochemistry, and biology. Dr. Smolon spent the 2001/2002 academic year in England where she was able to experience the food and nutrition culture on the other side of the Atlantic.

Mary B. Grosvenor, MS., R.D. received her B.A. degree in English from Georgetown University and her M.S. in Nutrition Science from the University of California at Davis. She is a registered dietitian who worked for many years managing nutrition research studies at the General Clinical Research Center at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. She has published in peer-reviewed jornals in the areas of nutrition and cancer and methods of assessing dietary intake. She has taught introductory nutrition at the community college level and currently lives with her family in a small town in Colorado. She is continuing her teaching and writing career and is still involved in nutrition research via the electronic superhighway.

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Table of Contents

1 Nutrition: Food for Health 3

Nutrition and Our Diet 4

Food Provides Nutrients 6

Food Choices for a Healthy Diet 11

The Science Behind Nutrition 16

Evaluating Nutrition Information 23


Summary 29

Review Questions 30

References 31

2 Nutrition Guidelines: Applying the Science of Nutrition 33

The Development of Nutrition Recommendations 34

Dietary Reference Intakes 36

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 39

MyPlate: Putting the Dietary Guidelines into Practice 44

Food and Supplement Labels 50


Summary 72

Review Questions 73

References 73

3 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism 75

Food Becomes Us 76

The Digestive System 77

Digestion and Absorption 80

Digestion and Health 89

Delivering Nutrients to Body Cells 99

Metabolism of Nutrients: An Overview 103

Elimination of Metabolic Wastes 105


Summary 108

Review Questions 109

References 109

4 Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fiber 111

Carbohydrates in Our Food 112

Types of Carbohydrates 116

Carbohydrates in the Digestive Tract 121

Carbohydrates in the Body 126

Carbohydrates and Health 131

Meeting Recommendations for Carbohydrate Intake 141


Summary 152

Review Questions 154

References 154

5 Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Cholesterol 157

Fats in Our Food 158

Types of Lipids 160

Lipids in the Digestive Tract 168

Lipid Transport in the Body 169

Lipid Functions in the Body 173

Lipids and Health 178

Meeting Recommendations for Fat Intake 185


Summary 197

Review Questions 199

References 199

FOCUS ON Alcohol 202

What’s in Alcoholic Beverages? 203

Alcohol Absorption and Excretion 204

Alcohol Metabolism 205

Adverse Effects of Alcohol Consumption 207

Benefits of Alcohol Consumption and Safe Drinking 210

References 212

6 Proteins and Amino Acids 215

Protein in Our Food 216

Protein Molecules 217

Protein in the Digestive Tract 220

Amino Acid Functions in the Body 222

Functions of Body Proteins 227

Protein, Amino Acids, and Health 230

Meeting Recommendations for Protein Intake 236


Summary 249

Review Questions 250

References 250

7 Energy Balance and Weight Management 253

The Obesity Epidemic 254

Exploring Energy Balance 256

Estimating Energy Requirements 265

Body Weight and Health 268

Guidelines for a Healthy Body Weight 271

What Determines Body Size and Shape? 276

Recommendations for Managing Body Weight 282

Approaches to Weight Loss 288


Summary 299

Review Questions 300

References 300

FOCUS ON Eating Disorders 304

What Are Eating Disorders? 305

What Causes Eating Disorders? 306

Anorexia Nervosa 309

Bulimia Nervosa 311

Binge-Eating Disorder 313

Eating Disorders in Special Groups 314

Preventing and Getting Treatment for Eating Disorders 319

8 The Water-Soluble Vitamins 323

What Are Vitamins? 324

Thiamin 332

Riboflavin 336

Niacin 337

Biotin 341

Pantothenic Acid 342

Vitamin B6 343

Folate (Folic Acid) 347

Vitamin B12 353

Vitamin C 357

Choline 362


Summary 364

Review Questions 366

References 366

9 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins 369

Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Our Diet 370

Vitamin A 370

Vitamin D 381

Vitamin E 387

Vitamin K 390

Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements 392


Summary 397

Review Questions 398

References 399

FOCUS ON Phytochemicals 400

Phytochemicals in Our Food 401

How to Choose a Phytochemical-Rich Diet 404

10 Water and the Electrolytes 409

Water: The Internal Sea 410

Electrolytes: Salts of the Internal Sea 421

Hypertension 425

Healthy Electrolyte Intakes 428


Summary 435

Review Questions 436

References 437

11 Major Minerals and Bone Health 439

What Are Minerals? 440

Minerals, Osteoporosis, and Bone Health 444

Calcium (Ca) 454

Phosphorus (P) 462

Magnesium (Mg) 464

Sulfur (S) 466


Summary 468

Review Questions 469

References 469

12 The Trace Minerals 473

Trace Minerals in Our Diet 474

Iron (Fe) 474

Zinc (Zn) 486

Copper (Cu) 490

Manganese (Mn) 492

Selenium (Se) 493

Chromium (Cr) 501

Molybdenum (Mo) 505

Other Trace Elements 506


Summary 508

Review Questions 509

References 510

FOCUS ON Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Supplements 512

What Is a Dietary Supplement? 513

Macronutrient Supplements 514

Substances Made in the Body 515

Phytochemical Supplements 518

Herbal Supplements 519

13 Nutrition and Physical Activity 525

Exercise, Fitness, and Health 526

Exercise Recommendations 530

Exercise and Energy Metabolism 534

Energy and Nutrient Needs for Physical Activity 540

Fluid Needs for Physical Activity 547

Food and Drink to Maximize Performance 551

Ergogenic Aids: Do Supplements Enhance Athletic Performance? 556


Summary 565

Review Questions 567

References 567

14 Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation 571

The Physiology of Pregnancy 572

The Nutritional Needs of Pregnancy 579

Factors That Increase the Risks of Pregnancy 588

Lactation 595

The Nutritional Needs of Infancy 598

Feeding the Newborn 604


Summary 610

Review Questions 611

References 612

15 Nutrition from Infancy to Adolescence 615

Starting Right for a Healthy Life 616

Nourishing Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children 618

Nutrition and Health Concerns in Children 629

Adolescents 634

Special Concerns of Teenagers 639


Summary 644

Review Questions 645

References 645

16 Nutrition and Aging: The Adult Years 649

What Is Aging? 650

What Causes Aging? 653

Aging and the Risk of Malnutrition 654

Nutritional Needs and Concerns of Older Adults 664

Keeping Older Adults Healthy 668


Summary 675

Review Questions 676

References 676

17 Food Safety 679

How Can Food Make Us Sick? 680

Keeping Food Safe 682

Pathogens in Food 686

Agricultural and Industrial Chemicals in Food 698

Food Technology 704


Summary 713

Review Questions 714

References 714

FOCUS ON Biotechnology 716

How Does Biotechnology Work? 717

Applications of Modern Biotechnology 722

Safety and Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods 725

18 World Hunger and Malnutrition 731

The Two Faces of Malnutrition 732

Causes of Hunger and Undernutrition 735

Eliminating World Hunger 743

Hunger at Home 749


Summary 757

Review Questions 758

References 758

Appendices A-1

A. Additional DRI Tables A-2

B. Standards for Body Size A-3

C. Normal Blood Values of Nutritional Relevance A-8

D. U.S. Nutrition Recommendations and

Guidelines A-10

E. Food and Supplement Labeling Information A-16

F. Energy Expenditure for Various Activities A-20

G. Chemistry and Structures A-22

H. Calculations and Conversions A-37

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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