Nutritional Assessment of Athletes, Second Edition

Overview

Nutritional assessment is a key to determining the health and performance efficiency of professional, collegiate, and recreational athletes. Expanded to include new chapters, the second edition of
Nutritional Assessment of Athletes examines the dietary, nutritional, and physical needs of athletes and describes critical biochemical and clinical assessment factors.

Reflecting growing evidence on the importance of hydration and fluid replacement ...

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Overview

Nutritional assessment is a key to determining the health and performance efficiency of professional, collegiate, and recreational athletes. Expanded to include new chapters, the second edition of
Nutritional Assessment of Athletes examines the dietary, nutritional, and physical needs of athletes and describes critical biochemical and clinical assessment factors.

Reflecting growing evidence on the importance of hydration and fluid replacement on physical performance, this edition includes a new chapter on this topic, as well as a new chapter on nutrigenomics and the molecular aspects of physical performance and nutritional assessment.

The book gives detailed descriptions of the methods utilized in collecting assessment data and discusses the advantages and limitations of each method. It also summarizes evidence-based practical information relating to nutritional assessment of athletes.

This volume is a valuable resource for nutritionists, dietitians, exercise scientists, coaches, trainers, and physicians, as well as athletes who wish to improve their performance.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"… provides a complete and thorough examination of the nutritional status and physical assessments needed to ensure optimal athletic performance. Experts in the fields of nutrition, physiology, and fitness have contributed to an in-depth coverage of the nutritional assessments and basic requirements and recommendations for athletes that includes timely information regarding fat, minerals, vitamins, supplements, sports drinks, and protein consumption. This information is combined with sections that deal with the physical assessment of the athlete, including hydration status, body composition assessment, and energy expenditure, as well as the assessment of the athlete from a clinical perspective. A must read for athletes of all levels and coaches, trainers, and physicians who assess the physical and nutritional status of their patients."
Michael G. Bemben, Ph.D., Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Oklahoma

"Sports at all levels have become fiercely competitive, primarily because the rewards for winning continue stretching into previously unimaginable economic territories. Giving athletes the necessary edge to compete, now requires sophisticated nutrition and exercise protocols making the individual nutritional assessment process more important than ever in order to deliver ideal nutrition versus adequate. … a must have for all sports performance practitioners whether working with recreational or elite athletes. … thorough up-to-date content spans the nutritional assessment spectrum from the simple, practical and economical processes to the most sophisticated clinical assessment procedures demanded by world class athletes and their organizations."
Neal Spruce, founder and CEO, dotFIT Worldwide

"… a welcome second edition. … a great up-to-date reference. … full of facts and scientific data on nutritional assessment, nutritional needs of the professional and recreational athletes. There are step-by-step instructions and methods on determining what food items are needed for various tissue functions. … very instructive. Each chapter is written by leading authorities in that area. The chapters are balanced with scientific and practical information so they are easy to read and understand. … useful for nutritional scientists, biochemists, physicians, dietitians, trainers and athletes. … contains a wealth of information making it a perfect text for teaching nutrition and sports or sports medicine."
Kimberlee Michals Matalon Ph.D., R.D., Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston


Praise for the First Edition

"…a comprehensive, well-written, and well-referenced text that would be a valuable addition to the library of both the sports nutrition practitioner and researcher."
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

"It represents a great asset to those involved in the profession, and represents a bridge-builder between disciplines."
European Journal of Lipid Science & Technology

"A strength of this book is its organization, where it combines coverage of the functions and controls of adipose tissue at the cellular level with reviews of the research on the effects of aerobic exercise on adipose mass. With the current interdisciplinary focus on treating obesity, practitioners and students in exercise physiology, nutrition and medicine will benefit from this book."
Anthony Wilcox, Ph.D., Oregon State University, for divine, inc. (Formerly Doody Publishing)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781439818213
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 10/6/2010
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 420
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

The Editors

Contributors

SECTION I Dietary Assessment of Athletes

Chapter 1 Estimation of Food and Nutrient Intakes of Athletes Ashley M. Deetz Deetz, Ashley M. 3

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Methods of Assessing Food Intake 4

1.2.1 Diet Records 5

1.2.2 Twenty-Four Hour Dietary Recall 5

1.2.3 Food Frequency Questionnaires 6

1.2.4 Issues with Nutrition Assessment 6

1.2.4.1 Misreporting 7

1.2.4.2 Snacking 8

1.2.4.3 Openness in Reporting 9

1.2.4.4 Time Frame for Determination of Nutrient Status 9

1.2.4.5 Dietary Assessment vs. Clinical Testing 9

1.2.5 Exchange Lists System 10

1.2.6 Dietary Assessment Abroad 11

1.3 Special Issues with Assessing Food Intake in Athletes 13

1.3.1 Periodization of Training and Dietary Periodization 13

1.3.2 Fluid Intake 16

1.3.3 Vegetarian Diets and Assessment 20

1.3.4 Gastrointestinal Issues and Assessment 21

1.3.5 Supplements 23

1.3.6 Traveling 25

1.3.6.1 Jet Lag 25

1.3.6.2 Dining Out and Eating on the Road 25

1.3.7 Weight Management 26

1.4 Translation of Dietary Assessment into Analysis 30

1.4.1 Internet Web Sites 30

1.4.2 Special Considerations When Choosing Software 32

1.4.3 Databases 35

1.4.4 Recipes 37

1.4.4.1 New Foods 37

1.4.4.2 Default Assumptions 38

1.4.4.3 Ethnic Foods 38

1.4.5 Fluids and Hydration 39

1.4.5.1 Sports Drinks 39

1.4.5.2 Water 41

1.4.5.3 Other Beverages 41

1.4.5.4 Fluid Hydration Status 41

1.4.6 Supplement Analysis 42

1.5 Conclusions 42

References 44

Chapter 2 Evaluation of Nutrient Adequacy of Athletes' Diets Melinda M. Manore Manore, Melinda M. 51

2.1 Introduction 51

2.2 Dietary Assessment 52

2.3 Dietary Guidelines 52

2.4 Dietary Reference Intakes 54

2.5 Approaches to Assessing Dietary Adequacy 55

2.6 Dietary Recommendations for Sport and Exercise 58

2.6.1 Energy Intake 58

2.6.2 Carbohydrates 59

2.6.3 Protein 62

2.6.4 Fat 62

2.6.5 Micronutrients 63

2.6.6 Fluid 65

2.7 Future Research and Directions 66

2.8 Conclusions 66

References 66

SECTION II Anthropometric Assessment of Athletes

Chapter 3 Physique Assessment of Athletes: Concepts, Methods, and Applications Fiona E. Pelly Pelly, Fiona E. 73

3.1 Introduction 73

3.2 Hydrodensitometry 74

3.3 Total Body Water 77

3.4 Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry 79

3.5 Air Displacement Plethysmography 81

3.6 Bioelectrical Impedance 82

3.7 Surface Anthropometry 84

3.8 Specified Landmarks for the Assessment of Skinfolds 88

3.9 Ultrasound 102

3.10 Three- and Four-Compartment Models 103

3.11 New Technologies 104

3.11.1 Computed Tomography 104

3.11.2 Magnetic Resonance 105

3.11.3 Three-Dimensional Photonic Scanning 106

3.12 Practical Recommendations 107

3.13 Future Research Needs 108

3.14 Conclusions 108

References 109

Chapter 4 Body Composition and Gender Differences in Performance Xanne Janse de Jonge de Jonge, Xanne Janse 121

4.1 Introduction 121

4.2 Gender and Strength 123

4.2.1 Gender Differences in Strength Performance 123

4.2.2 Factors Influencing Strength Performance 123

4.2.2.1 Muscle Characteristics 123

4.2.2.2 Neural Activation 125

4.2.2.3 Hormonal Factors 126

4.2.2.4 Menstrual Cycle 127

4.3 Gender and Anaerobic Performance 127

4.3.1 Gender Differences in Anaerobic Performance 127

4.3.2 Factors Influencing Anaerobic Performance 130

4.3.2.1 Muscle Mass 130

4.3.2.2 Bioenergetics and Energy Metabolism 131

4.4 Gender and Endurance Performance 133

4.4.1 Gender Differences in Endurance Performance 133

4.4.2 Factors Influencing Endurance Development 133

4.4.2.1 VO2max 134

4.4.2.2 Lactate Threshold 137

4.4.2.3 Economy 138

4.4.2.4 Muscle Mass 138

4.4.2.5 Blood Volume 139

4.4.2.6 The Role of Estrogen 139

4.5 Summary and Conclusion 139

References 139

SECTION III Physical Activity Needs Assessment of Athletes

Chapter 5 Laboratory Methods for Determining Energy Expenditure of Athletes Robert G. McMurray McMurray, Robert G. 151

5.1 Introduction 151

5.2 Methods for the Measurement of Metabolic Rate 153

5.2.1 Direct Calorimetry 153

5.2.2 Indirect Calorimetry 154

5.2.3 Doubly-Labeled Water 158

5.2.4 Indirect Methods of Estimating Energy Expenditure 159

5.3 Energy for Work and Sport 161

5.4 Metabolic Measurements Specific to Athletes 163

5.4.1 Aerobic Power or VO2max 163

5.4.2 Anaerobic Threshold 166

5.4.3 Economy of Movement 168

5.5 Resting Energy Expenditure 169

5.5.1 Measurement of Resting Energy Expenditure 170

5.5.2 Estimating Resting Energy Expenditure 170

5.5.3 Factors Influencing Resting Energy Expenditure 171

5.6 Estimating Daily Energy Expenditure 175

5.7 Future Research Concerns 175

5.8 Conclusions 176

References 177

Chapter 6 Field Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure among Athletes Andrew P. Hills Hills, Andrew P. 183

6.1 Introduction 183

6.2 Definitions 185

6.3 Methods of Assessing Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure 187

6.3.1 Objective Measures 187

6.3.1.1 The Doubly-Labeled Water (DLW) Technique 187

6.3.1.2 Heart Rate Monitoring 190

6.3.1.3 Pedometers 191

6.3.1.4 Accelerometers 193

6.3.1.5 Combined Approaches and New Devices 198

6.3.2 Subjective Approaches 199

6.3.2.1 Direct Observation 200

6.3.2.2 Physical Activity Records or Diaries 201

6.3.2.3 Physical Activity Questionnaires 201

6.3.2.4 Self-Report Physical Activity Questionnaires 203

6.4 Conclusions 204

References 205

Chapter 7 Molecular Aspects of Physical Performance and Nutritional Assessment Janos Zempleni Zempleni, Janos 213

7.1 Introduction 213

7.2 Physical Performance Genes 214

7.2.1 Cardiorespiratory and Endurance Genes 214

7.2.2 Muscle Growth and Repair Genes 215

7.2.3 Pain Relief Genes 216

7.2.4 Fracture Repair Genes 217

7.3 Molecular and Epigenetic Changes during Exercise 218

7.4 Implications for Nutritional Assessment 220

7.5 Gene Transfer and Potential Applications in the Field of Sports Nutrition 221

7.6 Gene "Doping" and Its Detection 222

7.7 Conclusions 224

Acknowledgment 224

References 224

SECTION IV Biochemical Assessment of Athletes

Chapter 8 Assessment of Lipid Status of Athletes Amy F. Bragg Bragg, Amy F. 235

8.1 Introduction 235

8.2 General Lipid Metabolism 236

8.2.1 Dietary Lipids 236

8.2.2 Digestion and Absorption 237

8.2.3 Lipid Transport 238

8.2.4 Endogenous Production 240

8.2.5 Reverse Cholesterol Transport 240

8.3 Athlete Screening 240

8.3.1 Types of Lipid Disorders 241

8.3.2 Lipid Markers and Norms 242

8.3.3 Screening Process 244

8.3.4 Other Methods of Determination 246

8.4 Lowering Blood Lipids 246

8.5 Implications for Athletes 249

8.6 Future Research Directions 249

8.7 Conclusions 250

References 250

Chapter 9 Assessment of Protein Status of Athletes Matthew M. Robinson Robinson, Matthew M. 255

9.1 Introduction 256

9.1.1 Importance of Protein for Athletic Performance 256

9.1.2 Proteins versus Amino Acids 256

9.1.3 Protein Quality 257

9.1.4 Adaptation to Exercise: Signals, Transcription, and Translation 259

9.2 Protein Metabolism 260

9.2.1 Protein Turnover 260

9.2.1.1 Protein Synthesis 260

9.2.1.2 Protein Breakdown 261

9.2.1.3 Net Balance 261

9.2.2 Fates of Amino Acids Other than Protein Synthesis 263

9.2.3 Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover 264

9.2.4 Turnover of Protein in Other Tissues 264

9.3 Importance of Energy Balance 264

9.4 Determinations of Protein Status 266

9.4.1 Laboratory Determinations of Protein Status 266

9.4.1.1 Whole Body Protein Turnover 266

9.4.1.2 Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover 269

9.4.2 Clinical Evaluation of Protein Status 275

9.4.2.1 Dietary Records 275

9.4.2.2 Body Mass and Body Composition 275

9.5 Protein Turnover and Exercise 276

9.5.1 Protein Turnover and Resistance Exercise 276

9.5.2 Protein Turnover and Endurance Exercise 276

9.5.3 Timing of Protein Intake 277

9.6 Protein Requirements 278

9.7 Special Considerations 279

9.7.1 Sex Differences 279

9.7.2 Aging 279

9.8 Future Directions 280

9.9 Conclusions 281

References 281

Chapter 10 Assessment of Vitamin Status of Athletes Kelcie L. Hubach Hubach, Kelcie L. 289

10.1 Introduction 289

10.2 Analytical Considerations 290

10.2.1 Stability of Vitamins 290

10.2.2 Vitamin Bioavailability, Active Forms, and Storage 290

10.2.3 Biochemical Indices to Assess Vitamin Status 300

10.3 Assessment Guidelines and Considerations 300

10.4 Assessment Methods 304

10.5 Future Research 305

10.6 Conclusions 306

References 306

Chapter 11 Assessment of Mineral Status of Athletes Angus G. Scrimgeour Scrimgeour, Angus G. 311

11.1 Introduction 312

11.1.1 Dietary Intake 313

11.1.2 Biochemical Measures 313

11.1.2.1 Sample Collection 314

11.1.2.2 Sample Contamination 314

11.1.2.3 Analytical Methods 315

11.1.2.4 Quality Control 315

11.2 Calcium 315

11.2.1 Methods for Assessing Calcium Status 316

11.2.1.1 Total Serum Calcium 316

11.2.1.2 Serum Ionized Calcium 316

11.2.1.3 Urinary Calcium Excretion 316

11.2.1.4 Calcium Reference Intervals and Data from Athletes 317

11.3 Chromium 318

11.3.1 Methods for Assessment of Chromium Status 318

11.3.1.1 Chromium Reference Intervals and Data from Athletes 319

11.4 Copper 319

11.4.1 Methods for Assessment of Copper Status 320

11.4.1.1 Serum and Plasma Copper 320

11.4.1.2 Ceruloplasmin 320

11.4.1.3 Copper, Zinc Superoxide Dismutases 321

11.4.1.4 Cytochrome c Oxidase 321

11.4.1.5 Copper Reference Intervals and Data from Athletes 322

11.5 Iron 323

11.5.1 Methods for Assessment of Iron Status 323

11.5.1.1 Hemoglobin and Hematocrit 323

11.5.1.2 Ferritin 323

11.5.1.3 Serum Iron, Total Iron-Binding Capacity, Transferrin, and Transferrin Saturation 324

11.5.1.4 Soluble Transferrin Receptor 324

11.5.1.5 Free Erthrocyte Protoporphyrin and Zinc Protoporphyrin 325

11.5.1.6 Iron Reference Intervals and Data from Athletes 325

11.6 Magnesium 326

11.6.1 Methods for Assessment of Magnesium Status 326

11.6.1.1 Serum and Plasma Magnesium 327

11.6.1.2 Ionized Magnesium 327

11.6.1.3 Muscle Magnesium 327

11.6.1.4 Blood Cells 327

11.6.1.5 Magnesium Load Test 328

11.6.1.6 Magnesium Reference Intervals and Data from Athletes 328

11.7 Phosphorus 328

11.7.1 Methods for Assessment of Phosphorus Status 329

11.7.1.1 Phosphorus Reference Intervals and Data from Phosphate Supplementation Trials 329

11.8 Zinc 330

11.8.1 Methods for Assessment of Zinc Status 330

11.8.1.1 Plasma and Serum Zinc 330

11.8.1.2 Zinc-Containing Enzymes 330

11.8.1.3 Zinc Reference Intervals and Data from Athletes 331

11.9 Inflammation and Mineral Status 331

11.10 Future Research Needs 332

11.11 Conclusions 333

Note 333

References 334

Chapter 12 Assessment of Hydration of Athletes Tanya M. King King, Tanya M. 341

12.1 Introduction 341

12.2 Impact of Hypohydration 342

12.2.1 The Effects of Hypohydration on Thermoregulatory and Cardiovascular Function 342

12.2.2 The Effect of Hypohydration on Exercise Performance 343

12.2.3 Hydration and Health 344

12.2.4 Current Drinking Practices of Athletes 345

12.3 Assessment of Hydration Status 345

12.3.1 Body Mass Changes 348

12.3.2 Urinary Indices 349

12.3.2.1 Urine Specific Gravity 349

12.3.2.2 Urine Osmolality 350

12.3.2.3 Urine Color 350

12.3.2.4 Urine Volume 351

12.3.2.5 Interpretation of Urinary Indices 351

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