Object-Oriented Methods: A Foundation, UML Edition / Edition 2

Object-Oriented Methods: A Foundation, UML Edition / Edition 2

by James Martin, James J. Odell, James J. Odell

ISBN-10: 0139055975

ISBN-13: 9780139055973

Pub. Date: 11/26/1997

Publisher: Pearson Education

This is an essential guide to understanding object orientation using the new Unified Modeling Language (UML). James Odell and James Martin build a foundation that can be used to communicate with others using the new UML standard. Furthermore, they explain precisely how to build UML models based on ideas that are fundamental to human thinking-not just


This is an essential guide to understanding object orientation using the new Unified Modeling Language (UML). James Odell and James Martin build a foundation that can be used to communicate with others using the new UML standard. Furthermore, they explain precisely how to build UML models based on ideas that are fundamental to human thinking-not just program-language specification. Finally, they show how their object-oriented foundation can be used to generate fully executable programs as well as to model and reengineer business processes and to integrate virtually any new technology.

Object-Oriented Methods: A Foundation, UML Edition brings together all the basic ideas needed to specify any system, presenting a formally based foundation that can be understood by both "real-world" developers and formalists. It includes extensive examples and review questions and reflects recent work by the OMG's Object Analysis and Design Task Force. Based on the UML meta-model and notation, Odell and Martin:

  • Present the fundamental concepts of object orientation using the UML model and notation.
  • Provide a sound approach to modeling systems that is completely independent of programming considerations.
  • Clarify how to conceptualize system requirements using an OO approach that leads to sound design and programming efforts.
  • Show how an OO approach encourages serial, concurrent, and synchronized processing specification and incorporates event-driven and component-based technology.
  • Demonstrate how to develop systems that evolve with future changes in technology.
  • Identify powerful ways to reflect-and extend-OO concepts in the enterprise repository and data warehouse.

Shows how OO can organize and interconnect many other systems approaches, including business rules, logic, functions, neural nets, SQL, and client-server.

With exceptional insight and clarity, Object-Oriented Methods: A Foundation, UML Edition presents the best available approach to developing systems today-and planning for tomorrow.

JAMES MARTIN SEMINARS are presented directly by James Martin + Co., 3050 Chain Bridge Road, Suite 600, Fairfax, VA 22030, U.S.A. Tel: 800-248-4562.

http://www.phptr.com @ISBN: 0-13-905597-5

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Pearson Education
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.

I. The Basic OO Foundation: Object Structure.

2. Concepts.
Concepts and Reality. Documenting Concepts. Domains. Summary. Review Questions. References.

3. Objects.
Objects. Object Lifecycles. Summary. Review Questions. References.

4. Concept Versus Type.
Why Change Terms Now? The Intension and Extension of Concept/Type. Summary. Review Questions.

5. Connecting Objects.
Connections. Relationships. Mappings. Mappings and Relationships: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Summary. Review Questions. References.

6. Mappings.
Mappings and Their Reverse. Cardinality Constraints. Object Properties. Base and Derived Mappings. Type-Level Mappings. Summary. Review Questions.

7. Associations.
Associations as Relationships. Associations as Types. Three Common Representations of Associations. Expressing History. Summary. Review Questions. References.

8. Handling Object Complexity.
Classification. Generalization. Aggregation. Other Mechanisms for Handling Object Complexity. Summary. Review Questions. References.

9. Subtypes and Supertypes: Part I.
Generalization. Type Partitions. Complete Versus Incomplete Partitions. Multiple Supertypes. Generalization and Inheritance. Summary. Review Questions. References.

10. Subtypes and Supertypes: Part II.
Levels of Generalization. Association Subtypes. Derived Types and Partitions. Summary. Review Questions. References.

11. States.
What is State? State and Time. State and Mappings: A Closer Look. Naming States. Summary. Review Questions.


12. State Changes.
Object State Changes. Summary. Review Questions.

13. Events.
Events Versus State Changes. Basic Events. Compound Events. Event Prestates and Poststates. Internal, External, and Temporal Events. Event Occurrences and Events. Events Are Object History. Summary. Review Questions.

14. Operations.
Operation Basics. Operation Input Variables. Operation Output Variables. Operations and Their Events. Preconditions and Postconditions. Operations as Clocks. Summary. Review Questions. References.

15. Methods.
The Basics of Methods. Operations Can Consist of Other Operations. Methods Are Isolated from Cause-and-Effect Considerations. Methods as Structured Specifications. Cohesion and Coupling. Local and Input/Output Variables. Multiple Methods for an Operation. Summary. Review Questions. References.

16. Triggers.
Trigger Basics. Triggers and Their Mappings. Multiple Invocations. Triggers that Use Local Variables. Data Flows Versus Triggers. Summary. Review Questions.

17. Control Conditions.
Control Condition Basics. Control Conditions Provide Synchronization. Control Conditions Provide Branching. Multiple Synchronizations. Expressing Conditional Statements. Notation Summary. Summary. Review Questions.

III. The Extended Level OO Foundation.

18. Aggregation.
Kinds of Aggregation. Nonaggregational Relationships. Summary. Review Questions. References.

19. Constraints.
Beyond Zero, One, and Many Cardinalities. Constraints on Mapping to Collections. Constraints on Mapping to Duplicate Objects (Bags). Constraints on Mappings where Duplicates Are Not Allowed (Sets). Constraining the Order of Objects (Tree, Lattice, etc.). Common Association Constraints. Immutable Mapping Constraints. Uniqueness Constraints. Using Constraints with Generalization and Aggregation. Other Mapping Constraints. Behavioral Constraints. Summary. Review Questions. References.

20. Rules.
Introduction to Rules. Rules Expressed in Natural Language. Categories of Rules. Global, Local, and Temporal Application of Rules. Summary. Review Questions. References.

21. Using Rules with Diagrams.
Using Rules and/or Diagrams. Rules and OO. Attaching Rules to Diagrams. Rule Syntax: Executability Versus Readability. Summary. Review Questions.

22. Meta-Modeling.
Meta-Modeling Basics. Representation of Meta-Model Constructs. Extending the Meta-Model. Summary. Review Questions. Reference.

23. Power Types.
Introduction to the Need for Power Types. Power Types and Their Representation. Implementing Power Types. Summary. Review Questions.

IV. Representing OOA Constructs.

24. Representing Object Structure.
Interpreted Predicate Logic Models. Binary-Relationship Models. Entity-Relationship-Attribute Models. The Ramifications of Types for OO Design. Ensuring ERA Models Support OO Design. Should Mappings Be Labeled with Nouns or Verbs? Summary. Review Questions. References.

25. Approaches to Object Structure Modeling.
Introduction. Booch Class Diagrams. Coad/Yourdon OOA Model. OMT Object Model. Shlaer/Mellor Information Structure Diagram. Jacobson Analysis Model Diagram. Summary. Review Questions. Reference.

26. Representing Object Behavior.
Introduction. Finite-State Machines. Scenario-based Specification. Decision-based Specification. Language-based Specification. Summary. Review Questions. References.

27. Approaches to Finite-State Machine Modeling.
Varieties of FSMs. Behavior between Types. When to Use or Avoid FSM-based Representation. Summary. Review Questions. References.

28. Approaches to Scenario-Based Modeling.
Scenarios. Specific Scenarios. General Scenarios. Validation with Scenarios. Discovery with Scenarios. Caveats about Scenarios. Review Questions. References.

29. Other Modeling Approaches.
Context Specification. Functional Specification. Decomposition in Terms of Types. Other Representations. Summary. Review Questions. References.


30. Considerations for Design and Implementation.
Design and OO. Design and Relational Databases. OO Analysis and Non-OO Design. Representing Design Constructs. Conclusion. Review Questions. Reference.


A. Glossary of Terms.
B. Summary of Diagram Symbols.
Basic Class Diagram Notation. Basic Activity Diagram Notation. Basic Object-Flow Diagram Notation. Diagram Layering.

C. Order Processing Modeling Example.
About the Model. Glossary Notation. Order Processing System Description. Class Diagram and Glossary. Activity Diagram and Glossary.

D. Toward a Formalization of OO Analysis.
Introduction. Concepts. Classification Relations. Generalization/Specialization Relations. Relations in General. Functions. Attributes, Roles, and Invariants. Conclusion.


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