Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design / Edition 2

Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design / Edition 2

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by Joey F. George, Dinesh Batra, Joseph S. Valacich, Jeffrey A. Hoffer

For undergraduate and graduate courses in Systems Analysis & Design where an object-oriented approach is taken.

This text focuses on a business rather than a technology perspective. As such, it emphasizes the mind-set of the systems analyst and project manager as opposed to that of the programmer. While this text focuses on

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For undergraduate and graduate courses in Systems Analysis & Design where an object-oriented approach is taken.

This text focuses on a business rather than a technology perspective. As such, it emphasizes the mind-set of the systems analyst and project manager as opposed to that of the programmer. While this text focuses on object-oriented systems analysis and design and adheres to UML 2 standards, it also contains elements from other approaches, such as relational database system design, that remain a part of systems development in business organizations today.

Product Details

Prentice Hall
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
8.46(w) x 11.20(h) x 0.91(d)

Table of Contents

Foundations for Object-Oriented Systems Development     1
The Object-Oriented Systems Development Environment     1
What Is Information Systems Analysis and Design?     3
Systems Analysis and Design: Core Concepts     3
Systems     5
Definitions of a System and Its Parts     5
Important Systems Concepts     6
Information Systems Analysis and Design     9
Project Management and Planning     9
Systems Analysis     9
Systems Design     10
Systems Implementation and Operation     10
Types of Information Systems and Systems Development     11
Transaction Processing Systems     12
Management Information Systems     12
Decision Support Systems     13
The Analyst's Role in Systems Development     13
Systems Analysts in the Systems Development Process     15
The Evolution of Systems Development Methodologies     16
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)     17
Structured Analysis and Design     17
Data-Oriented Methodologies     19
The Object-Oriented Methodology     19
Agile Methodologies     19
Why Should We Use Object-Oriented SystemsAnalysis and Design (OOSAD)?     20
Iterative and Incremental Development     22
RUP's Iterative, Incremental Approach to OOSAD     22
Our Approach to Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design     25
Key Points Review     26
Key Terms Checkpoint     27
Review Questions     28
Problems and Exercises     28
Discussion Questions     29
Case Problems     29
Introduction to Object Orientation     31
Object Orientation     32
What Is an Object?     32
Class     33
Operation     34
Attribute     34
Encapsulation     35
Object Identity     36
Generalization     36
Polymorphism     37
Interface     38
Component     38
Package     39
Association     39
Systems Modeling     40
What Is Modeling?     40
What Is Unified Modeling Language (UML)?     40
Key Points Review     42
Key Terms Checkpoint     43
Review Questions     43
Problems and Exercises      44
Discussion Questions     44
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     44
Company Background     44
Project Management and Planning     51
Managing the Object-Oriented Information Systems Project     51
Managing an OOSAD Project     52
Characteristics of the OOSAD Project     55
Initiating the Project     62
Planning the Project     64
Executing the Project     70
Closing Down the Project     72
Representing and Scheduling Project Plans     74
Understanding the Critical Path of a Network Diagram     76
Defining the Work Breakdown Structure for OOSAD Projects     79
Calculating Expected Time Durations Using the Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)     79
Constructing a Gantt Chart and Network Diagram for an OOSAD Project in Microsoft Project     80
Establishing a Project Starting Date     81
Entering Tasks and Assigning Task Relationships     81
Selecting a Scheduling Method to Review Project Reports     82
Key Points Review     84
Review Questions     85
Key Terms Checkpoint     85
Problems and Exercises     86
Discussion Questions      87
Case Problems     88
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     89
Managing an Object-Oriented Information Systems Project     89
Selecting and Planning Projects     92
Identifying and Selecting OOSAD Projects     93
The Process of Identifying and Selecting OOSAD Projects     94
Deliverables and Outcomes     97
Initiating, Planning, and Executing OOSAD Projects     97
The Process of Initiating, Planning, and Executing OOSAD Projects     98
Deliverables and Outcomes     100
Pine Valley Furniture Company Background     101
Identification and Selection of the WebStore     102
Initiating and Planning the WebStore     102
Assessing Project Feasibility     102
Assessing Economic Feasibility     104
Assessing Technical Feasibility     110
Assessing Other Feasibility Concerns     111
Building and Reviewing the Baseline Project Plan     113
Building the Baseline Project Plan     113
Introduction Section of the Baseline Project Plan     113
Reviewing the Baseline Project Plan     117
Key Points Review     121
Key Terms Checkpoint     122
Review Questions     123
Problems and Exercises     123
Case Problems     124
Discussion Questions     124
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     126
Initiating and Planning a Web-Based Customer Relationship Management System     126
System Analysis     130
Determining Object-Oriented Systems Requirements     130
Performing Requirements Determination     131
What Is a Requirement?     132
The Process of Determining Requirements     132
Deliverables and Outcomes     133
Requirements Structuring     133
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements     134
Interviewing and Listening     134
Directly Observing Users     138
Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents     139
Modern Methods for Determining System Requirements     144
Joint Application Design     144
Using Prototyping during Requirements Determination     147
Using Agile Methodologies during Requirements Determination     148
Agile Usage-Centered Design     148
The Planning Game from eXtreme Programming     149
PVF Webstore: Determining System Requirements     150
Determining System Requirements for Pine Valley Furniture's WebStore     151
Key Points Review     153
Key Terms Checkpoint     154
Review Questions     154
Problems and Exercises     155
Discussion Questions     155
Case Problems     155
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     156
Determining Requirements for the Web-Based Customer Relationship Management System     156
Structuring System Requirements: Use-Case Description and Diagrams     161
Use Cases     162
What Is a Use Case?     163
Deliverables and Outcomes     163
Use-Case Diagrams     164
Definitions and Symbols     165
Developing Use-Case Diagrams: Three Examples     167
Developing Use Cases for Pine Valley Furniture's WebStore     171
Written Use Cases     172
Level     172
The Rest of the Template     173
Writing Use Cases for Pine Valley Furniture's WebStore     176
Developing Use Cases     179
Key Points Review     180
Key Terms Checkpoint     180
Review Questions     181
Problems and Exercises     181
Discussion Questions     182
Case Problems     182
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     183
Use-Case Modeling for the Web-Based Customer Relationship Management System     183
Conceptual Data Modeling     187
Conceptual Data Modeling     189
The Process of Conceptual Data Modeling     189
Gathering Information for Conceptual Data Modeling     190
Introduction to UML Data Modeling     192
Class     192
Object     193
Attributes     193
Identifiers     194
Important Considerations for Selecting Primary Keys (Identifiers)     194
Multivalued Attributes     195
Composite Attributes     196
Relationships     196
Association     200
Aggregation Relationship     202
Composite Structure Diagram     204
An Example of Conceptual Data Modeling for PVF WebStore     207
Generalization Relationship     205
Key Points Review     208
Key Terms Checkpoint     209
Review Questions     210
Problems and Exercises     210
Discussion Questions     211
Case Problems      211
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     213
Conceptual Data Modeling for the Web-Based Customer Relationship Management System     213
Object-Relational Modeling     216
Object-Relational Data Modeling     218
Relational Data Model (RDM)     218
Well-Structured Relations     219
Normalization     220
Object Extensions to Relational Data Model     224
Generalization/Specialization     225
Multivalued Attributes     225
Mechanisms to Support Aggregation     225
Object Identifiers     226
Relationship by References     226
Incorporation of Methods in an Object Relation     226
Richer Set of Types     226
Translating Conceptual Data Models into Object Relations     227
Translating Classes     227
Translating Relationships     228
Merging Object Relations     231
Logical Design of PVF WebStore     232
Key Points Review     233
Key Terms Checkpoint     234
Review Questions     234
Problems and Exercises     235
Discussion Questions     237
Case Problems      237
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     237
Designing the Object-Relational Data Model for the Customer Relationship Management System     237
Analysis Classes     239
Analysis Classes     241
Stereotyping Classes     241
Entity Class     242
Boundary Class     242
Control Class     242
Drawing Sequence Diagrams     243
Sequence Diagram for the Place Order Use Case     245
Sequence Diagram for the Make Reservation Use Case     249
Robustness Analysis of Sequence Diagrams     249
Drawing Communication Diagrams     251
Analysis Class Diagram     252
Activity Diagram     253
When to Use an Activity Diagram     255
When Not to Use an Activity Diagram     256
State (or Statechart) Diagram     256
When to Use State Diagrams     257
Modeling Business Rules in Analysis Classes     258
Constraints     258
Calculations     259
Value Inferences     259
Action Enablers     261
The Object Constraint Language (OCL)     261
Key Points Review     263
Key Terms Checkpoint      264
Review Questions     265
Problems and Exercises     265
Discussion Questions     267
Case Problems     267
Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     268
Designing the Analysis Classes for the Customer Relationship Management System     268
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy     271
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy     273
The Process of Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy     273
Deliverables and Outcomes     274
Generating Alternative Design Strategies     274
Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives     276
Outsourcing     276
Sources of Software     277
Choosing Off-the-Shelf Software     281
Hardware and System Software Issues     283
Implementation Issues     284
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy for Pine Valley Furniture's WebStore     285
Selecting the Most Likely Alternative     285
A Description of the Chosen Alternative     287
Updating the Baseline Project Plan     287
Before and After Baseline Project Plans for PVF's WebStore     290
Key Points Review     293
Key Terms Checkpoint     294
Review Questions     294
Problems and Exercises     295
Discussion Questions     296
Case Problems     296
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     298
Formulating a Design Strategy for the Web-Based Customer Relationship Management System     298
Systems Design     301
Physical Database Design     301
Physical Database Design     303
Structured Query Language (SQL)     304
Designing Fields     307
Choosing Data Types     309
Controlling Data Integrity     310
Designing Physical Tables and Denormalization     311
File Organization     314
Secondary Storage Concepts     315
Hashed File Organizations     317
Indexed File Organizations     317
Design of Object-Relational Features     323
Generalization     323
Aggregation     324
Multivalued Attributes     325
Object Identifier     326
Relationship by Reference     326
Physical Database Design of PVF WebStore     327
Key Points Review     329
Key Terms Checkpoint      329
Review Questions     330
Problems and Exercises     330
Discussion Questions     331
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     332
Designing the Physical Database for the Customer Relationship Management System     332
Design Elements     334
Design Elements     336
Design Architecture     337
Tiered Architecture     337
Two-Tier Architecture     338
Three-Tier Architecture     338
N-Tier Architecture     339
Mapping from Analysis Classes to Design Elements     340
Components     341
Component Standards     342
COM, COM1, and Distributed COM (DOOM)     342
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)     343
Enterprise Java Beans (EJB)     343
COM, CORBA, and EJB: Comparisons and Problems     346
XML/SOAP: An Integration Solution     346
Frameworks     347
.NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET     347
Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE)     349
Logic at the Browser: Scripting Languages     349
Encapsulation at the Database End     350
Packages     352
Design Class Diagrams     353
Verifying Responsibility Allocation     353
Visibility     354
Attribute Types     356
PVF Example     357
Key Points Review     358
Key Terms Checkpoint     359
Review Questions     361
Problems and Exercises     361
Discussion Questions     362
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     362
Developing Design Elements for the Customer Relationship Management System     362
Designing the Human Interface     364
Designing Forms and Reports     365
The Process of Designing Forms and Reports     366
Deliverables and Outcomes     367
Formatting Forms and Reports     370
General Formatting Guidelines     371
Highlighting Information     372
Displaying Text     373
Designing Tables and Lists     374
Paper Versus Electronic Reports     376
Designing Web Layouts     377
Designing Interfaces and Dialogues     378
The Process of Designing Interfaces and Dialogues     379
Deliverables and Outcomes     379
Designing Interfaces     380
Designing Layouts     380
Structuring Data Entry     383
Controlling Data Input     383
Providing Feedback     385
Errors and Warning Messages     386
Providing Help     387
Designing Web Interfaces     389
Designing Dialogues     390
Designing the Dialogue Sequence     391
Building Prototypes and Assessing Usability     393
Key Points Review     394
Key Terms Checkpoint     395
Review Questions     395
Problems and Exercises     396
Discussion Questions     396
Case Problems     397
Case: Broadway Entertainment Company, Inc.     398
Designing the Human Interface for the Customer Relationship Management System     398
Systems Implementation and Operation     403
OOSAD Implementation and Operation     403
Systems Implementation and Operation     405
The Processes of Program Coding, Testing, and Installation     406
Deliverables and Outcomes from Program Development, Testing, and Installation     406
The Processes of Documenting the System, Training Users, and Supporting Users     407
Deliverables and Outcomes from Documenting the System, Training Users, and Supporting Users     407
The Process of Maintaining Information Systems     408
Deliverables and Outcomes from Maintaining Information Systems     409
Coding     409
Combining Coding and Testing     410
Reuse     410
Object Frameworks     413
Software Application Testing     413
Seven Different Types of Tests     413
The Testing Process     415
Acceptance Testing by Users     416
Installation     417
Planning Installation     417
Documenting the System     419
User Documentation     420
Preparing User Documentation     421
Training and Supporting Users     422
Training Information System Users     422
Supporting Information System Users     424
Why Implementation Sometimes Fails     425
Project Closedown     427
Conducting Systems Maintenance     427
Types of Maintenance     428
The Cost of Maintenance     428
Measuring Maintenance Effectiveness     430
Controlling Maintenance Requests     430
Role of Case and Automated Development Tools in Maintenance      432
Systems Implementation and Operation for Pine Valley Furniture's WebStore     432
Developing Test Cases for WebStore     432
Bug Tracking and System Evolution     433
Alpha and Beta Testing the WebStore     433
WebStore Installation     434
Key Points Review     434
Key Terms Checkpoint     436
Review Questions     437
Problems and Exercises     437
Discussion Questions     438
Case Problems     438
Case: Broadway Entertairmient Company, Inc.     439
Designing a Testing Plan for the Customer Relationship Management System     439
References     443
Acronymn Glossary     449
Glossary     451
Index     459

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