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Overview

The Object-Oriented Thought Process

Third Edition

Matt Weisfeld

An introduction to object-oriented concepts for developers looking to master modern application practices.

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the foundation of modern programming languages, including C++, Java, C#, and Visual Basic .NET. By designing with objects rather than treating the code and data as separate entities, OOP allows objects to fully utilize other objects’ services as well as inherit their functionality. OOP promotes code portability and reuse, but requires a shift in thinking to be fully understood. Before jumping into the world of object-oriented programming languages, you must first master The Object-Oriented Thought Process.

Written by a developer for developers who want to make the leap to object-oriented technologies as well as managers who simply want to understand what they are managing, The Object-Oriented Thought Process provides a solution-oriented approach to object-oriented programming. Readers will learn to understand object-oriented design with inheritance or composition, object aggregation and association, and the difference between interfaces and implementations. Readers will also become more efficient and better thinkers in terms of object-oriented development.

This revised edition focuses on interoperability across various technologies, primarily using XML as the communication mechanism. A more detailed focus is placed on how business objects operate over networks, including client/server architectures and web services.

“Programmers who aim to create high quality software–as all programmers should–must learn the varied subtleties of the familiar yet not so familiar beasts called objects and classes. Doing so entails careful study of books such as Matt Weisfeld’s The Object-Oriented Thought Process.”

–Bill McCarty, author of Java Distributed Objects, and Object-Oriented Design in Java

Matt Weisfeld is an associate professor in business and technology at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio. He has more than 20 years of experience as a professional software developer, project manager, and corporate trainer using C++, Smalltalk, .NET, and Java. He holds a BS in systems analysis, an MS in computer science, and an MBA in project management. Weisfeld has published many articles in major computer trade magazines and professional journals.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Introduces the fundamental object-oriented concepts to experienced programmers interested in learning object-oriented programming languages. Class design, inheritance, composition, interfaces, and abstract classes are covered. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780672330162
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 9/8/2008
  • Series: Developer's Library Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 330
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Matt Weisfeld is an associate professor in business & technology at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) in Cleveland, Ohio.A member of the information technology faculty, he focuses on programming, web development, and entrepreneurship. Prior to joining Tri-C,Weisfeld spent 20 years in the information technology industry gaining experience in software development, project management, small business management, corporate training, and part-time teaching. He holds an MS in computer science and an MBA in project management. Besides the first two editions of The Object-Oriented Thought Process, he has published two other computer books and articles in magazines and journals such as developer.com, Dr. Dobb’s Journal, The C/C++ Users Journal, Software Development Magazine, Java Report, and the international journal Project Management.

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Read an Excerpt

IntroductionIntroductionThis Book's Scope

As the title indicates, this book is about the object-oriented (OO) thought process. Obviously, choosing the theme and title of the book are important decisions; however, these decisions were not all that simple. Numerous books deal with various levels of object orientation. Several popular books deal with topics including OO analysis, OO design, OO programming, design patterns, OO data (

However, while pouring over all of these books, many people forget that all of these topics are built on a single foundation: how you think in OO ways. It is unfortunate, but software professionals often dive into these books without taking the appropriate time and effort to really understand the concepts behind the content.

I contend that learning OO concepts is not accomplished by learning a specific development method or a set of tools. Doing things in an OO manner is, simply put, a way of thinking. This book is all about the OO thought process.

Separating the methods and tools from the OO thought process is not easy. Many people are introduced to OO concepts via one of these methods or tools. For example, years ago, most C programmers were first introduced to object orientation by migrating directly to C++—before they were even remotely exposed to OO concepts. Other software professionals were first introduced to object orientation by presentations that included object models using UML—again, before they were even exposed directly to OO concepts. It is not unusual to find that programming books and courses defer OO concepts until later in the learning process.

It is important to understand the significantdifference between learning OO concepts and using the methods and tools that support the paradigm. This came into focus for me before I worked on the first edition of this book when I read articles such as Craig Larman's "What the UML Is—and Isn't," In this article he states,

Unfortunately, in the context of software engineering and the UML diagramming language, acquiring the skills to read and write UML notation seems to sometimes be equated with skill in object-oriented analysis and design. Of course, this is not so, and the latter is much more important than the former. Therefore, I recommend seeking education and educational materials in which intellectual skill in object-oriented analysis and design is paramount rather than UML notation or the use of a case tool.

Although learning a modeling language is an important step, it is much more important to learn OO skills first. Learning UML before OO concepts is similar to learning how to read an electrical diagram without first knowing anything about electricity.

The same problem occurs with programming languages. As stated earlier, many C programmers moved into the realm of object orientation by migrating to C++ before being directly exposed to OO concepts. This would always come out in an interview. Many times developers who claim to be C++ programmers are simply C programmers using C++ compilers. Even now, with languages such as C# .NET, VB .NET, and Java well established, a few key questions in a job interview can quickly uncover a lack of OO understanding.

Early versions of Visual Basic are not OO. C is not OO, and C++ was developed to be backward compatible with C. Because of this, it is quite possible to use a C++ compiler (writing only C syntax) while forsaking all of C++'s OO features. Even worse, a programmer can use just enough OO features to make a program incomprehensible to OO and non-OO programmers alike.

Thus, it is of vital importance that while you're on the road to OO development, you first learn the fundamental OO concepts. Resist the temptation to jump directly into a programming language (such as VB .NET, C++, C# .NET or Java) or a modeling language (such as UML), and take the time to learn the object-oriented thought process.

In my first class in Smalltalk in the late 1980s, the instructor told the class that the new OO paradigm was a totally new way of thinking (despite the fact that it has been around since the 60s). He went on to say that although all of us were most likely very good programmers, about 10%–20% of us would never really grasp the OO way of doing things. If this statement is indeed true, it is most likely because some people never really take the time to make the paradigm shift and learn the underlying OO concepts.What's New in the Third Edition

As stated often in this introduction, my vision for the first edition was primarily a conceptual book. Although I still adhere to this goal for the second and third editions, I have included several application topics that fit well with object-oriented concepts. For the third edition I expand on many of the topics of the second edition and well as include totally new chapters. These revised and updated concepts

  • Object persistence and serialization.

  • Adding properties to attributes.

  • Client/Server technologies.

  • Expanded code examples in Java, C# .NET and VB .NET.

The chapters that cover these topics are still conceptual in nature; however, many of the chapters include Java code that shows how these concepts are implemented. In this third edition, a code appendix is included that presents the chapter's examples in C# .NET and Visual Basic .NET.The Intended Audience

This book is a general introduction to fundamental OO concepts with code examples to reinforce the concepts. One of the most difficult juggling acts was to keep the material conceptual while still providing a solid, technical code base. The goal of this book is to allow a reader to understand the concepts and technology without having a compiler at hand. However, if you do have a compiler available, then there is code to be investigated.

The intended audience includes business managers, designers, developers, programmers, project managers, and anyone who wants to gain a general understanding of what object orientation is all about. Reading this book should provide a strong foundation for moving to other books covering more advanced OO topics.

Of these more advanced books, one of my favorites remains Object-Oriented Design in Java by Stephen Gilbert and Bill McCarty. I really like the approach of the book, and have used it as a textbook in classes I have taught on OO concepts. I cite Object-Oriented Design in Java often throughout this book, and I recommend that you graduate to it after you complete this one.

Other books that I have found very helpful include Effective C++ by Scott Meyers, Classical and Object-Oriented Software Engineering by Stephen R. Schach, Thinking in C++ by Bruce Eckel, UML Distilled by Martin Flower, and Java Design by Peter Coad and Mark Mayfield.

The conceptual nature of this book provides a unique perspective in regards to other computer technology books. While books that focus on specific technologies, such as programming languages, struggle with the pace of change, this book has the luxury of presenting established concepts that, while certainly being fine-tuned, do not experience radical changes. With this in mind, many of the books that were referenced several years ago, are still referenced because the concepts are still fundamentally the same.This Book's Scope

It should be obvious by now that I am a firm believer in becoming comfortable with the object-oriented thought process before jumping into a programming language or modeling language. This book is filled with examples of code and UML diagrams; however, you do not need to know a specific programming language or UML to read it. After all I have said about learning the concepts first, why is there so much Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET code and so many UML diagrams? First, they are all great for illustrating OO concepts. Second, both are vital to the OO process and should be addressed at an introductory level. The key is not to focus on Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, but to use them as aids in the understanding of the underlying concepts.

The Java, C# .NET and VB .NET examples in the book illustrate concepts such as loops and functions. However, understanding the code itself is not a prerequisite for understanding the concepts; it might be helpful to have a book at hand that covers specific languages syntax if you want to get more detailed.

I cannot state too strongly that this book does not teach Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, all of which can command volumes unto themselves. It is my hope that this book will whet your appetite for other OO topics, such as OO analysis, object-oriented design, and OO programming.This Book's Conventions

The following conventions are used in this book:

  • Code lines, commands, statements, and any other code-related terms appear in a monospace typeface.

  • Placeholders that stand for what you should actually type appear in italic monospace. Text that you should type appears in bold monospace.

  • Throughout the book, there are special sidebar elements, such as

***

Note - A Note presents interesting information related to the discussion—a little more insight or a pointer to some new technique.

***
***

Tip - A Tip offers advice or shows you an easier way of doing something.

***
***

Caution - A Caution alerts you to a possible problem and gives you advice on how to avoid it.

***
Source Code Used in This Book

You can download all the source code and examples discussed within this book from the publisher's website.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

1 Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts 5

Procedural Versus OO Programming 6

Moving from Procedural to Object-Oriented Development 9

Procedural Programming 9

OO Programming 10

What Exactly Is an Object? 10

Object Data 10

Object Behaviors 11

What Exactly Is a Class? 14

Classes Are Object Templates 15

Attributes 17

Methods 17

Messages 17

Using UML to Model a Class Diagram 18

Encapsulation and Data Hiding 19

Interfaces 19

Implementations 20

A Real-World Example of the Interface/Implementation Paradigm 20

A Model of the Interface/Implementation Paradigm 21

Inheritance 22

Superclasses and Subclasses 23

Abstraction 23

Is-a Relationships 25

Polymorphism 25

Composition 28

Abstraction 29

Has-a Relationships 29

Conclusion 29

Example Code Used in This Chapter 30

2 How to Think in Terms of Objects 37

Knowing the Difference Between the Interface and the Implementation 38

The Interface 40

The Implementation 40

An Interface/Implementation Example 41

Using Abstract Thinking When Designing Interfaces 45

Giving the User the Minimal Interface Possible 47

Determining the Users 48

Object Behavior 48

Environmental Constraints 48

Identifying the Public Interfaces 49

Identifying the Implementation 50

Conclusion 50

References 51

3 Advanced Object-Oriented Concepts 53

Constructors 53

The Default Constructor 54

When Is a Constructor Called? 54

What’s Inside a Constructor? 54

The Default Constructor 54

Using Multiple Constructors 55

The Design of Constructors 59

Error Handling 60

Ignoring the Problem 60

Checking for Problems and Aborting the Application 60

Checking for Problems and Attempting to Recover 61

Throwing an Exception 61

The Concept of Scope 63

Local Attributes 64

Object Attributes 65

Class Attributes 67

Operator Overloading 68

Multiple Inheritance 69

Object Operations 70

Conclusion 71

References 71

Example Code Used in This Chapter 72

4 The Anatomy of a Class 75

The Name of the Class 75

Comments 77

Attributes 77

Constructors 79

Accessors 80

Public Interface Methods 83

Private Implementation Methods 83

Conclusion 84

References 84

Example Code Used in This Chapter 84

5 Class Design Guidelines 87

Modeling Real World Systems 87

Identifying the Public Interfaces 88

The Minimum Public Interface 88

Hiding the Implementation 89

Designing Robust Constructors (and Perhaps Destructors) 89

Designing Error Handling into a Class 90

Documenting a Class and Using Comments 91

Building Objects with the Intent to Cooperate 91

Designing with Reuse in Mind 91

Documenting a Class and Using Comments 91

Designing with Extensibility in Mind 92

Making Names Descriptive 92

Abstracting Out Nonportable Code 93

Providing a Way to Copy and Compare Objects 93

Keeping the Scope as Small as Possible 94

A Class Should Be Responsible for Itself 95

Designing with Maintainability in Mind 96

Using Iteration 97

Testing the Interface 97

Using Object Persistence 99

Serializing and Marshaling Objects 100

Conclusion 100

References 101

Example Code Used in This Chapter 101

6 Designing with Objects 103

Design Guidelines 103

Performing the Proper Analysis 107

Developing a Statement of Work 107

Gathering the Requirements 107

Developing a Prototype of the User Interface 108

Identifying the Classes 108

Determining the Responsibilities of Each Class 108

Determining How the Classes Collaborate with Each Other 109

Creating a Class Model to Describe the System 109

Case Study: A Blackjack Example 109

Using CRC Cards 111

Identifying the Blackjack Classes 112

Identifying the Classes’ Responsibilities 115

UML Use-Cases: Identifying the Collaborations 120

First Pass at CRC Cards 124

UML Class Diagrams: The Object Model 126

Prototyping the User Interface 127

Conclusion 127

References 128

7 Mastering Inheritance and Composition 129

Reusing Objects 129

Inheritance 130

Generalization and Specialization 133

Design Decisions 134

Composition 135

Representing Composition with UML 136

Why Encapsulation Is Fundamental to OO 138

How Inheritance Weakens Encapsulation 139

A Detailed Example of Polymorphism 141

Object Responsibility 141

Conclusion 145

References 146

Example Code Used in This Chapter 146

8 Frameworks and Reuse: Designing with Interfaces and Abstract Classes 151

Code: To Reuse or Not to Reuse? 151

What Is a Framework? 152

What Is a Contract? 153

Abstract Classes 154

Interfaces 157

Tying It All Together 159

The Compiler Proof 161

Making a Contract 162

System Plug-in-Points 165

An E-Business Example 165

An E-Business Problem 165

The Non-Reuse Approach 166

An E-Business Solution 168

The UML Object Model 168

Conclusion 173

References 173

Example Code Used in This Chapter 173

9 Building Objects 179

Composition Relationships 179

Building in Phases 181

Types of Composition 183

Aggregations 183

Associations 184

Using Associations and Aggregations Together 185

Avoiding Dependencies 186

Cardinality 186

Multiple Object Associations 189

Optional Associations 190

Tying It All Together: An Example 191

Conclusion 192

References 192

10 Creating Object Models with UML 193

What Is UML? 193

The Structure of a Class Diagram 194

Attributes and Methods 196

Attributes 196

Methods 197

Access Designations 197

Inheritance 198

Interfaces 200

Composition 201

Aggregations 201

Associations 201

Cardinality 204

Conclusion 205

References 205

11 Objects and Portable Data: XML 207

Portable Data 207

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) 209

XML Versus HTML 209

XML and Object-Oriented Languages 210

Sharing Data Between Two Companies 211

Validating the Document with the Document Type Definition (DTD) 212

Integrating the DTD into the XML Document 213

Using Cascading Style Sheets 220

Conclusion 223

References 223

12 Persistent Objects: Serialization and Relational Databases 225

Persistent Objects Basics 225

Saving the Object to a Flat File 227

Serializing a File 227

Implementation and Interface Revisited 229

What About the Methods? 231

Using XML in the Serialization Process 231

Writing to a Relational Database 234

Accessing a Relational Database 236

Loading the Driver 238

Making the Connection 238

The SQL Statements 239

Conclusion 242

References 242

Example Code Used in This Chapter 242

13 Objects and the Internet 247

Evolution of Distributed Computing 247

Object-Based Scripting Languages 248

A JavaScript Validation Example 250

Objects in a Web Page 253

JavaScript Objects 254

Web Page Controls 255

Sound Players 257

Movie Players 257

Flash 258

Distributed Objects and the Enterprise 258

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) 259

Web Services Definition 263

Web Services Code 267

Invoice.cs 267

Invoice.vb 268

Conclusion 270

References 270

14 Objects and Client/Server Applications 271

Client/Server Approaches 271

Proprietary Approach 272

Serialized Object Code 272

Client Code 273

Server Code 275

Running the Proprietary Client/Server Example 276

Nonproprietary Approach 278

Object Definition Code 278

Client Code 280

Server Code 281

Running the Nonproprietary Client/Server Example 283

Conclusion 283

References 284

Example Code Used in This Chapter 284

15 Design Patterns 287

Why Design Patterns? 288

Smalltalk’s Model/View/Controller 289

Types of Design Patterns 290

Creational Patterns 291

Structural Patterns 295

Behavioral Patterns 298

Antipatterns 299

Conclusion 300

References 300

Example Code Used in This Chapter 301

Index 309

Read More Show Less

Preface

Introduction

This Book's Scope

As the title indicates, this book is about the object-oriented (OO) thought process. Obviously, choosing the theme and title of the book are important decisions; however, these decisions were not all that simple. Numerous books deal with various levels of object orientation. Several popular books deal with topics including OO analysis, OO design, OO programming, design patterns, OO data (XML), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), OO Internet development, various OO programming languages, and many other topics related to OO development.

However, while pouring over all of these books, many people forget that all of these topics are built on a single foundation: how you think in OO ways. It is unfortunate, but software professionals often dive into these books without taking the appropriate time and effort to really understand the concepts behind the content.

I contend that learning OO concepts is not accomplished by learning a specific development method or a set of tools. Doing things in an OO manner is, simply put, a way of thinking. This book is all about the OO thought process.

Separating the methods and tools from the OO thought process is not easy. Many people are introduced to OO concepts via one of these methods or tools. For example, years ago, most C programmers were first introduced to object orientation by migrating directly to C++—before they were even remotely exposed to OO concepts. Other software professionals were first introduced to object orientation by presentations that included object models using UML—again, before they were even exposed directly to OO concepts. It is not unusual to find that programming books and courses defer OO concepts until later in the learning process.

It is important to understand the significant difference between learning OO concepts and using the methods and tools that support the paradigm. This came into focus for me before I worked on the first edition of this book when I read articles such as Craig Larman's "What the UML Is—and Isn't," In this article he states,

Unfortunately, in the context of software engineering and the UML diagramming language, acquiring the skills to read and write UML notation seems to sometimes be equated with skill in object-oriented analysis and design. Of course, this is not so, and the latter is much more important than the former. Therefore, I recommend seeking education and educational materials in which intellectual skill in object-oriented analysis and design is paramount rather than UML notation or the use of a case tool.

Although learning a modeling language is an important step, it is much more important to learn OO skills first. Learning UML before OO concepts is similar to learning how to read an electrical diagram without first knowing anything about electricity.

The same problem occurs with programming languages. As stated earlier, many C programmers moved into the realm of object orientation by migrating to C++ before being directly exposed to OO concepts. This would always come out in an interview. Many times developers who claim to be C++ programmers are simply C programmers using C++ compilers. Even now, with languages such as C# .NET, VB .NET, and Java well established, a few key questions in a job interview can quickly uncover a lack of OO understanding.

Early versions of Visual Basic are not OO. C is not OO, and C++ was developed to be backward compatible with C. Because of this, it is quite possible to use a C++ compiler (writing only C syntax) while forsaking all of C++'s OO features. Even worse, a programmer can use just enough OO features to make a program incomprehensible to OO and non-OO programmers alike.

Thus, it is of vital importance that while you're on the road to OO development, you first learn the fundamental OO concepts. Resist the temptation to jump directly into a programming language (such as VB .NET, C++, C# .NET or Java) or a modeling language (such as UML), and take the time to learn the object-oriented thought process.

In my first class in Smalltalk in the late 1980s, the instructor told the class that the new OO paradigm was a totally new way of thinking (despite the fact that it has been around since the 60s). He went on to say that although all of us were most likely very good programmers, about 10%–20% of us would never really grasp the OO way of doing things. If this statement is indeed true, it is most likely because some people never really take the time to make the paradigm shift and learn the underlying OO concepts.

What's New in the Third Edition

As stated often in this introduction, my vision for the first edition was primarily a conceptual book. Although I still adhere to this goal for the second and third editions, I have included several application topics that fit well with object-oriented concepts. For the third edition I expand on many of the topics of the second edition and well as include totally new chapters. These revised and updated concepts

  • XML is used for object communication.
  • Object persistence and serialization.
  • XML integrated into the languages object definition.
  • Adding properties to attributes.
  • XML-based Internet applications.
  • Client/Server technologies.
  • Expanded code examples in Java, C# .NET and VB .NET.

The chapters that cover these topics are still conceptual in nature; however, many of the chapters include Java code that shows how these concepts are implemented. In this third edition, a code appendix is included that presents the chapter's examples in C# .NET and Visual Basic .NET.

The Intended Audience

This book is a general introduction to fundamental OO concepts with code examples to reinforce the concepts. One of the most difficult juggling acts was to keep the material conceptual while still providing a solid, technical code base. The goal of this book is to allow a reader to understand the concepts and technology without having a compiler at hand. However, if you do have a compiler available, then there is code to be investigated.

The intended audience includes business managers, designers, developers, programmers, project managers, and anyone who wants to gain a general understanding of what object orientation is all about. Reading this book should provide a strong foundation for moving to other books covering more advanced OO topics.

Of these more advanced books, one of my favorites remains Object-Oriented Design in Java by Stephen Gilbert and Bill McCarty. I really like the approach of the book, and have used it as a textbook in classes I have taught on OO concepts. I cite Object-Oriented Design in Java often throughout this book, and I recommend that you graduate to it after you complete this one.

Other books that I have found very helpful include Effective C++ by Scott Meyers, Classical and Object-Oriented Software Engineering by Stephen R. Schach, Thinking in C++ by Bruce Eckel, UML Distilled by Martin Flower, and Java Design by Peter Coad and Mark Mayfield.

The conceptual nature of this book provides a unique perspective in regards to other computer technology books. While books that focus on specific technologies, such as programming languages, struggle with the pace of change, this book has the luxury of presenting established concepts that, while certainly being fine-tuned, do not experience radical changes. With this in mind, many of the books that were referenced several years ago, are still referenced because the concepts are still fundamentally the same.

This Book's Scope

It should be obvious by now that I am a firm believer in becoming comfortable with the object-oriented thought process before jumping into a programming language or modeling language. This book is filled with examples of code and UML diagrams; however, you do not need to know a specific programming language or UML to read it. After all I have said about learning the concepts first, why is there so much Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET code and so many UML diagrams? First, they are all great for illustrating OO concepts. Second, both are vital to the OO process and should be addressed at an introductory level. The key is not to focus on Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, but to use them as aids in the understanding of the underlying concepts.

The Java, C# .NET and VB .NET examples in the book illustrate concepts such as loops and functions. However, understanding the code itself is not a prerequisite for understanding the concepts; it might be helpful to have a book at hand that covers specific languages syntax if you want to get more detailed.

I cannot state too strongly that this book does not teach Java, C# .NET, and VB .NET or UML, all of which can command volumes unto themselves. It is my hope that this book will whet your appetite for other OO topics, such as OO analysis, object-oriented design, and OO programming.

This Book's Conventions

The following conventions are used in this book:

  • Code lines, commands, statements, and any other code-related terms appear in a monospace typeface.
  • Placeholders that stand for what you should actually type appear in italic monospace . Text that you should type appears in bold monospace .
  • Throughout the book, there are special sidebar elements, such as

Note - A Note presents interesting information related to the discussion—a little more insight or a pointer to some new technique.



Tip - A Tip offers advice or shows you an easier way of doing something.



Caution - A Caution alerts you to a possible problem and gives you advice on how to avoid it.


Source Code Used in This Book

You can download all the source code and examples discussed within this book from the publisher's website.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 29, 2003

    A Great Way to Understand the OO Logical Model

    I am a Business Applications Designer/Developer. My primary education consists of a Bachelors Degree Business Administration and 10 years of experience designing and developing client-server applications. I also have being programming in Visual Basic, C, C++, Java and Unix Shell, setting up and implementing several relational databases like MSSQL Server, Oracle, MS Access, etc. What I most like about The Object-Oriented Thought Process is its approach of the Object Oriented Logical Model as a concept apart from any OO programming language. When designing and developing efficient business applications, it is essential to understand the domain of the Logical Model adopted before trying to fit the solution into any developing technology.

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    Posted May 29, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

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