Observation and Experiment in the Natural and Social Sciences / Edition 1

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Traditionally, philosophers of science have distinguished between a "context of justification" and a "context of discovery". Only the first was conceived as the proper field of application of philosophy of science, while the second was regarded as concerning scientists, not philosophers. Recently it was admitted that the context of justification forms a continuum with the context of discovery, and as a result observation and experimentation have become an important field of inquiry. The present volume is meant as a contribution to the ongoing debate on this topic. This volume is meant for researchers and advanced students in Philosophy of Science, and for natural and social scientists interested in foundational topics. It combines the viewpoint of philosophers and scientists and casts a new interdisciplinary perspective on the problem of observation and experimentation. It spans a wide range of disciplines, including physics, economics and psychology.

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Table of Contents

From Theory to Experiment and Back Again 1
Naive Probability 43
From Theory to Experiments and Back Again ... and Back Again ... Comments on Patrick Suppes 57
Emergence and Future of Experimental Economics 63
Rationality in Experimental Economics: An Analysis of Reinhard Selten's Approach 71
Experiments, Heuristics and Social Diversity: A Comment on Reinhard Selten 85
Where Do New Ideas Come From? A Heuristics of Discovery in the Cognitive Sciences 99
Comments on Gerd Gigerenzer 141
On the Concept of Discovery. Comments on Gerd Gigerenzer 153
Styles of Experimentation 159
On French Concepts and Objects. Comments on Ursula Klein 187
Some Comments on "Styles of Experimentation" by Ursula Klein 199
Improving "Styles of Experimentation". A Comment on Ursula Klein 203
Experiments and Thought Experiments in Natural Science 209
The Advantage of Theft over Honest Toil. Comments on David Atkinson 227
Thinking About Thought Experiments in Physics. Comment on "Experiments and Thought Experiments in Natural Science" 237
The Dynamics of Thought Experiments. A Comment on David Atkinson 243
An Attempt at a Philosophy of Experiment 259
An Attempt at a Philosophy of Experimental Error. A Comment on Giora Hon 285
O Happy Error. A Comment on Giora Hon 295
Bayesian Evidence 301
On Bayesian Logic. Comments on Colin Howson 321
On Bayesian Induction (and Pythagoric Arithmetic) 327
Probability and Logic. Comments on Colin Howson 333
Index of Names 339
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