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Traditionally, philosophers of science have distinguished between a "context of justification" and a "context of discovery". Only the first was conceived as the proper field of application of philosophy of science, while the second was regarded as concerning scientists, not philosophers. Recently it was admitted that the context of justification forms a continuum with the context of discovery, and as a result observation and experimentation have become an important field of inquiry. The present volume is meant as a contribution to the ongoing debate on this topic. This volume is meant for researchers and advanced students in Philosophy of Science, and for natural and social scientists interested in foundational topics. It combines the viewpoint of philosophers and scientists and casts a new interdisciplinary perspective on the problem of observation and experimentation. It spans a wide range of disciplines, including physics, economics and psychology.
Foreword; M.C. Galavotti.
From Theory to Experiment and Back Again; P. Suppes.
Naïve Probability; P. Legrenzi.
From Theory to Experiments and Back Again... and Back Again... Comments on Patrick Suppes; L. Szabó.
Emergence and Future of Experimental Economics; R. Selten.
Rationality in Experimental Economics: An Analysis of Reinhard Selten's Approach; W. Gonzalez.
Experiments, Heuristics and Social Diversity: A Comment on Reinhard Selten; R. Scazzieri.
Where Do New Ideas Come From? A Heuristics of Discovery in the Cognitive Sciences; G. Gigerenzer.
Comments on Gerd Gigerenzer; D. Papineau.
On the Concept of Discovery. Comments on Gerd Gigerenzer; J. Peijnenburg.
Styles of Experimentation; U. Klein.
On French Concepts and Objects. Comments on Ursula Klein; A. Baltas.
Some Comments on 'Styles of Experimentation' by Ursula Klein; D. Gillies.
Improving 'Styles of Experimentation'. A Comment on Ursula Klein; G. Irzik.
Experiments and Thought Experiments in Natural Science; D. Atkinson.
The Advantage of Theft over Honest Toil. Comments on David Atkinson; D. Andler.
Thinking About Thought Experiments in Physics. Comment on 'Experiments and Thought Experiments in Natural Science'; M. Rédei.
The Dynamics of Thought Experiments. A Comment on David Atkinson; M. Stöltzner.
An Attempt at a Philosophy of Experiment; G. Hon.
An Attempt at a Philosophy of Experimental Error. A Comment on Giora Hon; R. Campaner.
0 Happy Error. A Comment on Giora Hon; G. Wolters.
Bayesian Evidence; C. Howson.
On Bayesian Logic. Comments on Colin Howson; I.E.J. Douven.
On Bayesian Induction (and Pythagoric Arithmetic); P.Garbolino.
Probability and Logic. Comments on Colin Howson; I. Niiniluoto.
Index of Names.