Occupied America: A History of Chicanos / Edition 7

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Authored by Rodolfo F. Acuna, one of the most influential and highly-regarded scholars of Chicano history and ethnic studies, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos is the leading textbook for Chicano history courses. Beginning with the Mesoamerican civilizations before the 1519 Spanish invasion, continuing through Mexico's conquests as a developing nation and ending with an examination of immigration, labor, education, and equality issues during the last 100 years, this text serves as an ideal foundation for understanding and analyzing Chicano history. Extensively researched and passionately written, Occupied America not only covers the major developments and incidents in Mexican history, but also explores the complicating factors of race, class, and gender in forming Chicano identity.

New to the sixth edition: The entire text has been streamlined, making it more concise, contextualized, and student-oriented, while still preserving its passionate voice. Timelines at the beginning of Chapters 8 through 15 help plot cause and effect, and lend context to important events and eras in Chicano history. Up-to-date references and new sources throughout the text encourage students to investigate further scholarship in the field. "The Map Room" section at the end of the book provides students with Web addresses for important maps that trace the migrations of peoples throughout the Americas.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"An excellent job explaining the role of race, class divisions, and gender in the developing political, social, and cultural interactions between Anglos and Mexicans in Texas and New Mexico."

- Ashley Sousa, West Valley College

"I sincerely think that Dr. Acuña does provides an excellent analysis throughout his book because he is constantly making connections with Mexico and this inclusion help the student understand immigration, social movements and ideology."

- Laura Larque, Santa Rosa Junior College

"I consider Rodolfo Acuña’s Occupied America: A History of Chicanos as one of the few books that offers a comprehensive, in-depth analysis of the major historical experiences of Chicanos that invokes critical thinking and intellectual discussion."

- James Barrera, South Texas College

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205786183
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/4/2010
  • Series: Retrieving the American Past Series
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Rodolfo F. Acuña received his Ph.D. in 1968 from the University of Southern California in Latin American Studies. A teacher in the Los Angeles City Schools from 1958–1965, he transferred to community colleges, where he taught for three years. In 1969, Acuña was the founding chair of Chicano Studies at San Fernando Valley State (today California State University Northridge), which is the largest in the United States with 30 tenured professors. Black Issues in Higher Education selected Acuna as one of the “100 Most Influential Educators of the 20th Century”; three of his works have received the Gustavus Myers Award for an Outstanding Book on Race Relations in North America. He has also received the Distinguished Scholar Award from National Association for Chicano Studies, and numerous academic and community service awards, such as an homenaje from the University of Guadalajara Feria Internacional del Libro and the State of Guadalajara, Mexico, for the Outstanding Scholar of U.S.–Mexico Studies; the Emil Freed Award for Community Service; Southern California Social Science Library; the Founder's Award for Community Service from the Liberty Hill Foundation; academic fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies Award; the Rockefeller Humanities Scholar’s Grant. Acuña was also a founder of the Latin American Civic Association Headstart program. Acuña was under contract as a columnist for the Los Angeles Herald-Express and the Los Angeles Times from 1986 to 1992, and has contributed to leading newspapers and magazines. He is currently featured in Counterpunch, a magazine founded by the late Alexander Cockburn. Among his best-known books are Latino Voices (Greenwood Press, 2008); Corridors of Migration: the Odyssey of Mexican Laborers, 1600–1933 (Arizona 2007); US Latinos: An Inquiry (Greenwood Press, 2003); Occupied America: A History of Chicanos, 7th edition (Longman, 2011); Sometimes There is No Other Side: Essays on Truth and Objectivity (Notre Dame, 1998); Anything But Mexican: Chicanos in Contemporary Los Angeles (Verso Press, 1996); and The Making Of Chicana/o Studies: In the Trenches of Academe (Rutgers 2011). Acuña has also written three children’s books and has three other books in production.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xvi
Not Just Pyramids, Explorers, and Heroes     1
The Cradles of Civilization     2
The Corn People     2
The Olmeca 1500 BC-500 BC     3
The Maya     5
Maya Hieroglyphic Writing     6
Maya Society     6
The Decline of Mayan Civilization     7
Teotihuacan     8
Urbanism and Trade     8
Other Corn Civilizations     9
The Tolteca     10
The Tarasco     10
The Azteca     11
En El Norte     13
Conclusion: The World System in 1519     15
The Core Zones     15
The Semi-Peripheral Zones     16
The Mesoamerican Periphery     16
The Occupation of Middle America     17
Africa Begins at the Pyrenees     17
The Spanish Conquest     18
Faith Versus Rationality     19
The Spanish Invasion of the Mexica     19
The Colonization of Native Mesoamerica     20
Smallpox and Other Plagues     20
The Conquest of Race and Labor in Mesoamerica     20
Women in Colonial Mesoamerica     22
The ChangingRoles of Women     22
The Assimilation of Native Women     23
Al Norte: God, Gold, Glory, Silver, and Slaves     25
The Decline of the Indigenous Population     25
The Changing Order     26
The Bonanzas     27
Forced Labor     27
The Northern Corridor     28
The Decline of the Native Population     29
The Colonization of Texas     30
El Paso del Norte     30
The Tlaxcalan and the Castas     31
The Importance of San Antonio and Links to the Rio Bravo     31
The Occupation of Alta California: Paradise Lost     32
Los Indios     32
The Missions: Myth and Reality     33
Conclusion: On the Eve of the Mexican War of Independence     33
A Legacy of Hate: The Conquest of Mexico's Northwest     35
Mexican Independence from Spain     35
The Colonial Legacy     36
The Nation-State     36
Background to the Invasion of Texas     36
Broken Promises     37
Causes of the War     37
Follow the Money: The Land Companies and Trade     38
Wanna-Be Sam Adamses     38
The Point of No Return     39
The Invasion of Texas     39
The Pretext: Myths of the Alamo     40
The Defense of the Mexican Homeland     40
Mexicans Win the Battles but Lose the War     41
The Invasion of Mexico     42
The Manufactured War     42
An Unwarranted Aggression     43
The Pretext for Conquest     43
Religious Justifications for War     43
History as Propaganda     44
The Myth of a Nonviolent Nation     44
Peacemakers Expose the Violence of War     45
The San Patricio Battalion     46
The War Crimes     46
Mexicans on the Front Lines     47
The Prosecution of the War     47
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo     48
The Controversy     48
The Deception     49
The Honorable Man     50
Conclusion     50
Remember the Alamo: The Colonization of Texas     52
The Years Between 1836 and 1845     53
To the Victor Belong the Spoils     53
The Border     54
The Founding Fathers?     55
The Robber Barons Become Captains of Industry      56
Social and Political Ostracization and Control     57
The Consolidation of Texas Wealth     58
Socialization     59
The Indian Savage, the Mexican Bandit     59
Controlling the Mexicans     59
Politics of Race and Gender     61
The Resistance     62
Runaway Slaves     63
Trade Wars     63
Social Banditry     64
The Case of Juan Cortina     64
The People's Revolt     66
The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez     66
The Transformation     67
The Restructuring     67
The Railroad and the Advent of Industrial Capitalism     67
Mexico Comes to Texas     68
Reform Politics and Mexicans     69
The Growth of the Mexican Population     69
The Growth of Racist Nativism     69
Mexican Resistance     70
Conclusion     71
Freedom in a Cage: The Colonization of New Mexico     73
On the Frontier     73
The Santa Fe Trail: The Trojan Horse     74
Anti-American Sentiment     75
The Euroamerican Invasion     75
The Taos Revolt      75
Inventing Tradition     76
The Transition     77
The Illusion of Inclusion     78
Gringos and Ricos     78
How Was It Done?     79
The Santa Fe Ring and the Land Grab     80
The Lincoln County War     81
Socialization     83
The Americanization of the Catholic Church     83
The New Mexican Diaspora     84
It's the Chili     84
New Mexico in Colorado     85
The Resistance     85
The Land Grabbers     86
The Village People Defend Their Land     86
More Illusions of Inclusion     87
The End of the Frontier     88
The Growth of Industrial Mining     88
Changes in Society     89
Federal Encroachment     89
Conclusion     90
Sonora Invaded: The Occupation of Arizona     91
The Frontier     92
The Gadsden Purchase     92
The Silent War with Sonora     93
Filibustering Expeditions into Sonora     93
Mexicans in Early Arizona     94
Tensions     94
"All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others."      95
Marrying Up!     95
The Alliance of Elites     96
The War Against the Apache     97
The Fate of the "Friendly Indian"     97
The Land-Grab Grant     97
The Transformation of Arizona     98
From Adobe to Copper     98
Border Conflicts     99
The Industrialization of Arizona     99
The Importance of Mining     99
The Expansion of Capital     100
Industrial Mining     100
The 1890s: The De-Skilling of Mine Work     101
The Pull Factor     101
The Impact of Industrialization on Mexicans     101
Mutual Aid Societies     102
The Mexican Middle Class     102
Small Favors to Women     103
Miners Organize: The Emergence of Trade Unions     103
It's the Water     103
Conclusion     104
California Lost: America for Euroamericans     106
Indians Count     106
The Spanish Occupation     107
The Mexican Period     108
The Gap Between Classes     108
No Utopia! Women and the Transformation of California     109
The Bear Flag      109
John C. Fremont and the Bear Flag     110
U.S. Invasion of California     110
Gold Transforms California     111
The Gold Rush Creates a Template     111
Complicity of the Californios     111
Legalized Theft: The Foreign Miners' Tax     112
Decline of the Californios     112
The Locusts     113
Taxation Without Representation     113
Marrying White     114
The Whitening of California     114
Legitimization of Violence     115
The Mexican Prostitute     115
The American Dream, The Lugos Trial     116
The Disillusionment     117
El Clamor Publico     117
Class Divisions     119
Social Banditry     120
Tiburcio Vasquez     120
Mexicans in a Changing Society     121
Becoming a Minority     122
The Church's Role     122
Labor     123
The Exclusion of the Other     123
Colonias     123
Conclusion     124
Immigration, Labor, and Generational Change     126
Overview     126
The Transformation      127
The Push     127
The Pull     128
Opposition to Diaz     129
The Pinos Altos Strike     129
Precursors to Revolution     129
The Triangle     130
Teresa de Urrea     132
Disciplining Mexicans: Forty Blonde Babies     132
The Mexican Diaspora     132
Exploitation Begets Resistance     133
The Struggle for Equal Education     134
The Mexican Revolution     135
A Changing Society     137
Mexican Workers Under Siege     137
Pancho Villa Drives the Gringos Crazy     139
The Hysteria: The Plan of San Diego     140
World War I: The Big Shift     141
Shifts in Political Consciousness     141
Mexican Responses to Industrial Transformation     142
The Failure of American Brotherhood     143
The Westward Movement of King Cotton     143
Conclusion     144
The 1920s: The Effects of World War I     145
Americanization: A Study of Extremes     145
Protestant Churches and Americanization of the Mexican     147
Catholic Churches React to Americanization      147
Nationalism Versus Americanization     148
Mexicans and Mexican Americans     148
The Influence of World War I on Becoming Mexican American     149
The League of United Latin American Citizens     150
The Move to the Cities     152
San Antonio's West Side     152
Los Angeles: "Where Only the Weeds Grow"     153
Mexicans in the Midwest and Points East     156
Mexican Labor in the 1920s     158
Importance of the Sugar-Beet Industry     159
Mexicans in the Northwest     160
Mexicans in Texas     161
Mexicans in the Midwest     161
The Growth of California Agribusiness     162
Mexican Unions     162
Greasers Go Home     164
Keeping America Blond and White     164
Conclusion     166
Mexican American Communities in the Making: The Depression Years     167
The Great Depression: La Crisis     168
Stresses and Strains During La Crisis     169
Life During the Great Depression     169
The Importance of Being San Antonio     172
Nativist Deportations of the 1930s     173
Repatriation Texas-Style      174
The Fate of the Deportee in Mexico     174
Factories in the Fields     175
Texas Farms     175
Renting Mexicans     176
The Farm Workers' Revolt     176
The El Monte Strike     177
The Tagus Ranch     178
The San Joaquin Valley Cotton Strike     178
The Imperial Valley, 1934     180
CUCOM and Mexican Strikes     180
The Congress of Industrial Organizations     181
Rural Workers in the Lone Star State     182
Colorado and the Manitos     183
The City     184
Los Angeles Mexican Women Garment Workers     184
San Antonio Mexicana Workers     185
La Pasionaria, the Pecan Shellers' Strike, and San Antonio     186
Unionization in Los Angeles     187
Labor in the Midwest: Chicago     188
The Mexican American Miners' Revolt     189
The Mexican-Origin Community     190
The Los Angeles Community     191
The Mexican American Movement     192
El Congreso de los Pueblos de Habla Espanol     192
Fighting Segregation     193
The Manitos     194
Move to the Windy City: Chicago      195
Conclusion     195
World War II: The Betrayal of Promises     197
Changing Identities     197
World War II and the Mexican     198
El Soldado Raso     198
The Case of Guy Gabaldon     199
The Story of Company E: The All-Mexican Unit     199
Racism at Home and Abroad     200
Chicanas Go to War     200
The Home Front     201
A Profile of Courage     201
Finding Scapegoats     201
The Sleepy Lagoon Trial     202
Mutiny in the Streets of Los Angeles     204
Mexicanas Support the War Effort     205
Rosita the Riveter     206
The Federal Employment Practices Commission     207
The Making of the Cold War: The Politics of Control     209
Control of Labor     209
The Communists Are Coming     210
Postwar Opportunities     210
Toward a Civil Rights Agenda     212
The American G.I. Forum     212
A Transitional Period     213
Police and Institutional Brutality     213
Controlling Mexican Labor     215
The Return of Farm Labor Militancy      215
Importing Mexicans     217
Conclusion     219
"Happy Days": Chicano Communities Under Siege     221
The Cold War     222
The Korean War: Historical Amnesia     222
Keeping America American     223
Militarization of the Immigration and Naturalization Service     225
The Diaspora: An American Odyssey     226
The Cities     227
Seduced by the Game     230
New Mexico: The Illusion of It All     330
Los Angeles     231
San Antonio     233
El Paso     233
Civil Rights     234
The "Salt of the Earth"     234
Toward Equality     235
California     236
National Spanish-Speaking Council     237
The Struggle to Preserve the Barrios     237
The FHA Mortgage-Loan and the G.I. Bill     238
Urban Renewal: The Day of the Bulldozer     238
The Dodgers and Chavez Ravine     239
Gentrification in the Midwest     240
Conclusion: The Importance of 1959     241
Goodbye, America: The Chicano in the 1960s     242
The Early 1960s      243
Inequality     243
Harvest of Shame     245
High Hopes: Illusions of the Sleeping Giant     246
San Antonio     246
Los Angeles     247
Organizing in Chicago     248
The Building of a Civil Rights Coalition     248
Viva Johnson     249
Building the Great Society     249
The Walkout     250
The Black-White Syndrome     250
The Illusion Fades     251
Impact of the War on Poverty     252
Magnetization of the Border     252
The Immigration Act of 1965     253
Mexican American Reaction to the Memories of Nativism     253
The Road to Delano     254
Echoes of Delano     255
The Road to Brown Power     256
The Making of a Movement     257
The Formation of Core Groups     258
The East L.A. Walkouts     258
Chicana/o Student Militancy Spreads     260
The Brown Berets     260
Tlatelolco, Mexico     261
"Wild tribes of...the inner mountains of Mexico"     261
Gringos and Tejanos     262
The Land Struggle     263
The Crusade for Justice     264
Chicanas Speak!     265
Other Voices     266
The Chicano Youth Movement Gains Steam     266
Where Is God?     267
Violence at Home     267
Chicanas/os Under Siege     268
Conclusion     270
The 1970s and 1980s: The Deconstruction of the Sixties     271
Redefining Racism     273
Government Legitimizes Racism     273
The Politics of Cynicism: Nixon's Hispanic Strategy     273
Dismantling the War on Poverty     274
Chicano Power     274
La Raza Unida Party     275
Failure to Build a National Third Party     276
The Last Days of La Raza Unida     277
Inequality from Within     277
Chicana Voices     277
Inevitable Factions     278
Las Hermanas     279
Sterilization     280
The Road to Delano     281
The Farah Strike: The Breaking of Labor     281
Sin Fronteras     282
Nativism Is Racism     282
Centro de Accion Social Autonoma-Hermandad de General de Trabajadores     283
Get the Mexican Bandits     283
The Media Perpetuates Racist Nativism     284
Getting Away with Terrorism     284
In Defense of the Foreign Born     285
The Growth of the Chicano Middle Class     285
Chicanos as Commodities     286
Redefinition of the Political Middle     286
Political Gains     287
Education: the Stairway to the American Dream     288
Education Equality     289
Importance of the EOPs     289
Expanding Political Vocabularies     290
The "Pochoization" of the Vocabulary     291
The Myth of a Color-Blind Society     291
Legacy Admits     292
Why Progressive Organizations Fail     292
Violence as an Instrument of Control     293
Conclusion     293
Becoming a National Minority: 1980-2001     295
The Tyranny of Words and Actions     295
Shared Space     296
El Salvador     297
Nicaragua     297
Guatemala     298
Mexico     298
Manufacturing the Crisis     298
The Militarization of the Border     299
Organizing Immigrant Workers     299
The Hotel and Restaurant Workers      300
The Janitors     300
From Autos to Buses     301
The Miners     301
Boycott Levis-and Dockers, Too!     302
Cesar Chavez and the UFW     302
The Movement for Inclusion     303
The Sleeping Giant     304
Texas: The Lone Star     304
Chicago: Where the Wind Blows     305
New Mexico: The Illusion     306
Colorado     306
The Glass Ceiling     307
A Profile of Chicanas     307
Bucking the Glass Ceiling     307
The Tejana Gender Gap     308
Immigrant Women Workers     309
The 1990s: A Portrait of Inequality     310
Can You Smell the Refried Beans?     310
Tejano Population Boom     310
California: Political Gains     311
Under the Influence of the Illusion     311
The North American Free Trade Agreement     312
The Zapatistas     313
"Don't Mourn, Organize!"     313
The Political Refugees     314
Forging Communities     314
The Idealists     315
The Backlash     315
It Didn't Happen by Accident     316
Proposition 187: The American Way     316
Proposition 209 and the Color-Blind Society     317
Proposition 227: If You Speak One Language, You're American     318
The National Scene: Census 2000     318
The Big Three     319
The California Revolution     319
Texas: Gringos Speaking Spanish     320
Chicago     320
The Northwest: The Spread of the Tortilla Curtain     321
The Age of the Believers     322
Unsettled Scores     322
Conclusion     323
Epilogue: Is Antonio Banderas a Chicano?     325
Identity and Interests     326
Where Are the Other Latinos?     328
Not an Identifiable Minority     328
Is There a Latino Identity?     330
Identifiable Inequality     331
Immigration     331
The Search for Equality     332
The Poor     334
"Be all that you can be"     334
What's in the Future?     334
The Search for Inclusion     336
Conclusion     336
The Map Room     338
Creating a Timeline      340
Book Notes     341
Index     399
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