Occupied America: A History of Chicanos / Edition 7

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Authored by one of the most influential and highly-regarded voices of Chicano history and ethnic studies, Occupied America is the most definitive introduction to Chicano history. This comprehensive overview of Chicano history is passionately written and extensively researched. With a concise and engaged narrative, and timelines that give students a context for pivotal events in Chicano history, Occupied America illuminates the struggles and decisions that frame Chicano identity today.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"An excellent job explaining the role of race, class divisions, and gender in the developing political, social, and cultural interactions between Anglos and Mexicans in Texas and New Mexico."

- Ashley Sousa, West Valley College

"I sincerely think that Dr. Acuña does provides an excellent analysis throughout his book because he is constantly making connections with Mexico and this inclusion help the student understand immigration, social movements and ideology."

- Laura Larque, Santa Rosa Junior College

"I consider Rodolfo Acuña’s Occupied America: A History of Chicanos as one of the few books that offers a comprehensive, in-depth analysis of the major historical experiences of Chicanos that invokes critical thinking and intellectual discussion."

- James Barrera, South Texas College

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205786183
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/4/2010
  • Series: Retrieving the American Past Series
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Rodolfo F. Acuña, the founding chair of Chicano Studies at then San Fernando Valley State -- the largest Chicano Studies Department in the United States with 30 tenured professors -- has authored 19 books, three of which received the Gustavus Myers Award for the Outstanding Book on Race Relations in North America. Acuña has received the Distinguished Scholar Award, National Association for Chicano Studies, the Emil Freed Award for Community Service, Southern California Social Science Library, the Founder's Award for Community Service from the Liberty Hill Foundation among others. Black Issues In Higher Education selected Acuña one of the “100 Most Influential Educators of the 20th Century. Among his best-known books are Sometimes There is No Other Side: Essays on Truth and Objectivity (Notre Dame, 1998); Anything But Mexican: Chicanos in Contemporary Los Angeles. (Verso Press, 1996), US Latinos: An Inquiry (Greenwood Press, 2003), Community Under Siege (UCLA, 1984), The Sonoran Strongman (University of Arizona, 1974). His most recent works include Corridors of Migration (Greenwood Press, 2008). In the Trenches of Academe is in progress. Acuña has also written three children’s books and has another book in production and authored more than 160 academic and public articles in addition to over 140 book reviews. As an activist scholar he has been a leading voice in the Mexican American community.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Not Just Pyramids, Explorers, and Heroes

The Cradles of Civilizations

The Corn People: An Overview

The Olmeca 1500 bc—500 bc

The Maya

Maya Hieroglyphic Writing

Maya Society

The Decline of Mayan Civilization


Urbanism and Trade

Los Tolteca

Other Corn Civilizations

The Tarasco

The Azteca

Los Norteños

Conclusion: The World System in 1519

Chapter 2 The Occupation of Middle America

What Drove the Conquest

Africa Begins at the Pyrenees

The Spanish Conquest

Faith Versus Rationality

The Spanish Invasion of the Mexica

The Colonization of Native Mesoamerica

Smallpox and Other Plagues

The Conquest of Race and Labor in Mesoamerica

Women in Colonial Mesoamerica

The Changing Roles of Women

The Assimilation of Native Women

Al Norte: God, Gold, Glory, Silver, and Slaves

The Decline of the Indigenous Population

The Changing Order

The Bonanzas

Forced Labor

The Northern Corridor

The Decline of the Native Population

The Colonization of Texas

El Paso del Norte

The Tlaxcalán and the Castas

The Importance of San Antonio and Links to the Rio Bravo

The Occupation of Alta California: Paradise Lost

Los Indios

The Missions: Myth and Reality

Conclusion: On the Eve of the Mexican War of Independence

Chapter 3 Legacy of Hate: The Conquest of Mexico’s Northwest

What’s the Evidence?

Mexican Independence from Spain

Background to the Invasion of Texas

Broken Promises

Follow the Money: The Land Companies and Trade

Wanna-Be Sam Adamses

The Point of No Return

The Invasion of Texas

The Pretext: Myths of the Alamo

The Defense of the Mexican Homeland

Mexicans Win the Battles but Lose the War

The Invasion of Mexico

The Manufactured War

An Unwarranted Aggression

The Pretext for Conquest

Religious Justifications for War

History as Propaganda

Peacemakers Expose the Violence of War

The San Patricio Battalion

The War Crimes

Mexicans on the Front Lines

The Prosecution of the War

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Controversy

The Deception

The Honorable Man



Chapter 4 Remember the Alamo: The Colonization of Texas

The Years Between 1836 and 1845

Crossing the Northwest Texas Mexican Border

The Mexican Corridor

Control of the Corridor

Trade Wars and the Rise of Juan Cortina

Enter “Cheno” Cortina

The Civil War

The Transformation

Hang’em High!

The Historian as an Agent of Social Control

Controlling the Mexicans

Politics of Race and Gender


The People’s Revolt

The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez

Boss Rule The Railroad and the Advent of Industrial Capitalism

Mexico Comes to Texas

Reform Politics and Mexicans

The Growth of the Mexican Population

The Growth of Racist Nativism

Mexican Resistance


Chapter 5 Freedom in a Cage: The Colonization of New Mexico

On the Frontier

The Santa Fe Trail: The Trojan Horse

Anti-American Sentiment

The Euro-American Invasion

The Taos Revolt: The Myth of the Bloodless Conquest

Inventing Whiteness

The Transition

The Illusion of Inclusion

Gringos and Ricos

How Was It Done?

The Santa Fe Ring and the Land Grab

The Lincoln County War


The Americanization of the Catholic Church

The New Mexican Diaspora

The Marketplace

New Mexico in Colorado

The Resistance

Barb Wire, Irrigation and the Railroad

The Village People Defend Their Land

More Illusions of Inclusion

The End of the Frontier

The Growth of Industrial Mining

Changes in Society

Federal Encroachment


Chapter 6 Sonora Invaded: The Occupation of Arizona

The Frontier

The Gadsden Purchase

The War with Sonora

Filibustering Expeditions into Sonora

Mexicans in Early Arizona

The War of the Races

The Race Question

Marrying Up!

The Alliance of Elites

The War Against the Apache

The Fate of the “Friendly Indian”

The Land-Grab Grant

The Transformation of Arizona

From Adobe to Copper

Border Conflicts

The Pull Factor

The Industrialization of Arizona

The Importance of Mining

The Expansion of Capital

Industrial Mining

The 1890s: The De-Skilling of Mine Work

The Impact of Industrialization on Mexicans

Mutual Aid Societies

The Mexican Middle Class

Small Favors to Women

Miners Organize: The Emergence of Trade Unions

It’s the Water


Chapter 7 California Lost: Image and Reality

The Myth That Has Become Legend

The Mexican Period

The Class Gap

Women in the Transformation of California

The Bear Flag

John C. Fremont and the Bear Flag

U.S. Invasion of California

Gold Transforms California

The Gold Rush Creates a Template

Complicity of the Californios

Legalized Theft: The Foreign Miners’ Tax

Decline of the Californios

The Locusts

Taxation Without Representation

Marrying White

Legalizing Racism

Legitimization of Violence

The Mexican Prostitute

The American Dream, The Lugos Trial

The Disillusionment

El Clamor Público

Class Divisions

Social Banditry

I am Joaquin!

Mexicans in a Changing Society

Becoming a Minority

The Church’s Role


The Exclusion of the Other




Chapter 8 Immigration, Labor, and Generational Change


Ideas Cross Borders

Justice Knows No Borders

Industrial Bonanzas

The Nurturing of Ideas

The Mexican Diaspora

It Is all about Making a Buck

Forging a Community

The Mexican Revolution

Bullets Across The Border

Hysteria Across the Border

In Defense of the Community

A Changing Society

Mexican Workers Under Siege

The Hysteria: The Plan of San Diego

World War I: The Shift

Shifts in Political Consciousness

Mexican Responses to Industrial Transformation

The Failure of American Brotherhood

The Westward Movement of King Cotton


Chapter 9 The 1920s: The Effects of World War I

Americanization: A Study of Extremes

Protestant Churches and Americanization of the Mexican

Catholic Churches React to Americanization

Nationalism Versus Americanization

Mexicans and Mexican Americans

The Influence of World War I on Becoming Mexican American

The League of United Latin American Citizens

The Move to the Cities

San Antonio’s West Side

Los Angeles: “Where Only the Weeds Grow”

Mexicans in the Midwest and Points East

Mexican Labor in the 1920s

Importance of the Sugar-Beet Industry

Mexicans in the Northwest

Mexicans in Texas

Mexicans in the Midwest

The Growth of California Agribusiness

Mexican Unions

Greasers Go Home

Keeping America Blond and White


Chapter 10 Mexican American Communities in the Making: The Depression Years

The Great Depression: La Crisis

Stresses and Strains During La Crisis

Life During the Great Depression

The Importance of Being San Antonio

Nativist Deportations of the 1930s

Repatriation Texas-Style

The Fate of the Deportee in Mexico

Factories in the Fields

Texas Farms

Renting Mexicans

The Farm Workers’ Revolt

The El Monte Strike

The Tagus Ranch

The San Joaquín Valley Cotton Strike

The Imperial Valley, 1934

CUCOM and Mexican Strikes

The Congress of Industrial Organizations

Rural Workers in the Lone Star State

Colorado and the Manitos

The City

Los Angeles Mexican Women Garment Workers

San Antonio Mexicana Workers

La Pasionaria, the Pecan Shellers’ Strike, and San Antonio

Unionization in Los Angeles

Labor in the Midwest: Chicago

The Mexican American Miners’ Revolt

The Mexican-Origin Community

The Los Angeles Community

The Mexican American Movement

El Congreso de los Pueblos de Habla Español

Fighting Segregation

The Manitos

Move to the Windy City: Chicago


Chapter 11 World War II: The Betrayal of Promises

Mexican Americans

World War II and the Mexican

The Case of Guy Gabaldón

The Story of Company E: The All-Mexican Unit

Racism at Home and Abroad

Chicanas in the Military

A Profile of Courage

Finding Scapegoats

The Sleepy Lagoon Trial

Mutiny in the Streets of Los Angeles

Mexicanas Break Barriers

Rosita the Riveter

The Federal Employment Practices Commission

Cold War Politics of Control

The Communists Are Coming

Postwar Opportunities

Toward a Civil Rights Agenda

The American G.I. Forum

Controlling Mexicans

The Return of Farm Labor Militancy

Renting Mexicans


Chapter 12 “Happy Days”: Chicano Communities Under Siege

The Cold War

The Korean War: Historical Amnesia

Keeping America American

Militarization of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

The Diaspora: An American Odyssey

The Cities

El Paso: In Search of a Home

Seduced by the Game

New Mexico: The Illusion of It All

Los Angeles

San Antonio

El Paso

Civil Rights

The “Salt of the Earth”

Toward Equality


National Spanish-Speaking Council

The Struggle to Preserve the Barrios

The FHA Mortgage-Loan and the G.I. Bill

Urban Renewal: The Day of the Bulldozer

The Dodgers and Chávez Ravine

Gentrification in the Midwest

Conclusion: The Importance of 1959 241

Chapter 13 Goodbye America: The Chicano in the 1960s

The Early 1960s


Harvest of Shame

High Hopes: Illusions of the Sleeping Giant

San Antonio

Los Angeles

Organizing in Chicago

The Building of a Civil Rights Coalition

Viva Johnson

Building the Great Society

The Walkout

Bilingual Ed

The Black—White Syndrome

The Illusion Fades

Impact of the War on Poverty

Magnetization of the Border

The Immigration Act of 1965

Mexican American Reaction to the Memories of Nativism

The Road to Delano

Echoes of Delano

The Road to Brown Power

The Making of a Movement

The Formation of Core Groups

The East L.A. Walkouts

Chicana/o Student Militancy Spreads

The Brown Berets

Tlatelolco, Mexico

“Wild Tribes of … the Inner Mountains of Mexico”

Gringos and Tejanos

The Land Struggle

The Crusade for Justice

El Grito del Norte

Other Voices

The Chicano Youth Movement Gains Steam

Where Is God?

Violence at Home

Chicanas/os Under Siege

The Provocateurs


Chapter 14 The 1970s and 1980s: Redefining the 1960s

Redefining Racism

Government Legitimizes Racism

The Politics of Cynicism: Nixon’s Hispanic Strategy

Dismantling the War on Poverty

Chicano Power

La Raza Unida Party

Failure to Build a National Third Party

The Last Days of La Raza Unida

Inequality from Within

Chicana Voices

Inevitable Factions

The Birth of Chicano Studies


The Road to Delano

The Farah Strike: The Breaking of Labor

Sin Fronteras

Nativism Is Racism

Centro de Acción Social Autonóma-Hermandad de General de Trabajadores

Get the Mexican Bandits

The Media Perpetuates Racist Nativism

Getting Away with Terrorism

In Defense of the Foreign Born

The Growth of the Chicano Middle Class

Chicanos as Commodities

Redefinition of the Political Middle

Political Gains

Education: The Stairway to the American Dream

Education Equality

Importance of the EOPs

Competing Ideologies

The “Pochoization” of the Vocabulary

The Myth of a Color-Blind Society

Legacy Admits

Why Progressive Organizations Fail

Violence as an Instrument of Control

The Final Year of the Decade


Chapter 15 Becoming a National Minority: 1980—2001

The Decade of the Hispanic

The Central American Wave: Immigration 1980s

The Mexican Wave: Immigration 1980s

Reaction to the Little Brown Brothers

The Militarization of the Border

Mexican American Labor

The Movement for Inclusion: The Politicos

The Glass Ceiling

Immigrant Women Workers

?Gobernar es Poblar?

The North American Free Trade Agreement

“Don’t Mourn, Organize!”

The Political Refugees from Central America

Forging Communities

Believers: Chicana/o Studies

The Renaissance in Chicana/Chicano Thought and Arts

Hate Is Tax Deductible

The National Scene: Census 2000

Political Roundup: 2000

Some Things Never Change: Police Brutality


Chapter 16 Losing Fear: Decade of Struggle and Hope

The Question

Who Are Latinos? Where Do They Live?

Mexican Americans and 9/11

The Stairway to Heaven: Electoral Politics

Protection of the Foreign Born

How Else Can You Teach Them a Lesson?

Losing Their Fear

EPILOGUE Is Antonio Banderas a Chicano?

The Map Room

Creating a Timeline

Book Notes

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