Oceans: An Illustrated Reference

Overview

Four billion years old, the oceans formed as the Earth's scorching surface cooled, the primordial atmosphere condensed, and torrential rains fell. Their color is the unique signature of our blue planet, their composition a chemical cocktail of remarkable variety, their waters a theater of constant change. 

Oceans: An Illustrated Reference tells the story of this last great frontier. With hundreds of beautiful full-color photographs and explanatory diagrams, charts, and ...

See more details below
Hardcover (New Edition)
$49.85
BN.com price
(Save 9%)$55.00 List Price

Pick Up In Store

Reserve and pick up in 60 minutes at your local store

Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (11) from $5.05   
  • New (4) from $21.59   
  • Used (7) from $5.05   
Sending request ...

Overview

Four billion years old, the oceans formed as the Earth's scorching surface cooled, the primordial atmosphere condensed, and torrential rains fell. Their color is the unique signature of our blue planet, their composition a chemical cocktail of remarkable variety, their waters a theater of constant change. 

Oceans: An Illustrated Reference tells the story of this last great frontier. With hundreds of beautiful full-color photographs and explanatory diagrams, charts, and maps, Oceans combines the visual splendor of ocean life with up-to-date scientific information to provide an invaluable and fascinating resource on this vital realm. Covering all major areas of oceanographic knowledge and research, Oceans is divided into two parts. The first, "Ocean Systems," examines the physical nature of the oceans, including plate tectonics, temperature and climate, waves and tides, natural resources and much more. The second, "Ocean Life,"explores biodiversity, evolution and adaptation, marine ecosystems and complex communities, and the preservation of fragile marine environments.

Oceans also offers readers a host of tools to better understand the magnificent world of the sea. A special section of bathymetric maps-made possible by satellite observation, deep-towed surveying craft, and remotely operated submarine vessels-provides a view of the depth and texture of ocean floors around the globe, giving us a glimpse of worlds rarely seen. And throughout the book, engagingly written special features delve into specific marine environments and phenomena such as the lost Tethys Ocean, from which the Himalayas were born. Cross-references and a detailed index help readers navigate this multifaceted volume, and a glossary provides clear definitions of scientific vocabulary.

Although the oceans are vast, their resources are finite. Oceans clearly presents the future challenge to us all-that of ensuring that our common ocean heritage is duly respected, wisely managed, and carefully harnessed for the benefit of the whole planet. Lavishly illustrated and filled with current research, Oceans is a step in that direction: a rich, magnificent, and illuminating volume for anyone who has ever heard the siren song of the sea.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Oceanography - Tom Garrison
“Beautiful. . . .  A skillfully written, current, and unusually attractive presentation of ocean science that does not talk down to the audience, that unapologetically uses genus names and the SI system of measurements, and that maintains a balance between the living and non-living aspects of the ocean world. . . . . Stow has integrated contributions from experts in interlocking fields to produce a book that accomplishes the near-impossible: It could be used as a text (it has a useful glossary and index); it could grace anyone’s coffee table (the cover photo demands one pick up the book); it could sit happily on a reference shelf (where its charts and tables would be in considerable demand).”
Books in Canada - Jeff Bursey
"Stow's book deserves an embarrassing amount of praise. Magnificently designed, Oceans is a reference book that offers clearly written text that is never upstaged by the book's many illustrations, photographs, high-definition imagery, diagrams, drawings, and charts. . . . An essential book that captures the latest in ocean science and turns it into interesting and comprehensible prose."
Quarterly Review of Biology - Carl Safina
"The writing is clear, nontechnical, and intended for broad audiences, but is also intelligent and loaded with useful and interesting information. The volume is very nicely illustrated with maps, photographs, paintings, charts. . . . Clear and beautiful images visually explain generalizable themes. . . . The book would be ideal as a gift for sailors, fishers, and anyone interested in the sea. . . . This is a book I would have loved as a student in high school or as an undergraduate. But I can still learn a lot from its pages."
Journal of Australian Naval History - Alan Pearce
"With the full-colour illustrtions and explanatory diagrams, the text is at a very readable level for the layperson, and most marine researchers could benefit from its inbtroduction to disciplines other than their own. I also feel that many of the diagrams and tables would be useful as introductory teaching tools at high school or early university level."
Oceanography
Beautiful. . . .  A skillfully written, current, and unusually attractive presentation of ocean science that does not talk down to the audience, that unapologetically uses genus names and the SI system of measurements, and that maintains a balance between the living and non-living aspects of the ocean world. . . . . Stow has integrated contributions from experts in interlocking fields to produce a book that accomplishes the near-impossible: It could be used as a text (it has a useful glossary and index); it could grace anyone’s coffee table (the cover photo demands one pick up the book); it could sit happily on a reference shelf (where its charts and tables would be in considerable demand).”

— Tom Garrison

Biology Digest
"The pictures are glorious, lush, and thought-provoking. . . . A truly wondrous book that is engagingly written and filled with current research."
Books in Canada
Stow's book deserves an embarrassing amount of praise. Magnificently designed, Oceans is a reference book that offers clearly written text that is never upstaged by the book's many illustrations, photographs, high-definition imagery, diagrams, drawings, and charts. . . . An essential book that captures the latest in ocean science and turns it into interesting and comprehensible prose.

— Jeff Bursey

Quarterly Review of Biology
The writing is clear, nontechnical, and intended for broad audiences, but is also intelligent and loaded with useful and interesting information. The volume is very nicely illustrated with maps, photographs, paintings, charts. . . . Clear and beautiful images visually explain generalizable themes. . . . The book would be ideal as a gift for sailors, fishers, and anyone interested in the sea. . . . This is a book I would have loved as a student in high school or as an undergraduate. But I can still learn a lot from its pages.

— Carl Safina

USA Today
“In Oceans, Dorrik Stow mixes full-color photographs with encyclopedic entries covering ever aspect of the world’s seas from their origins during the Earth’s formation, to their tides and currents, to the sea life now under threat from overfishing in so many locales. A solid reference for the mariner, real or imagined, in your life.”
Journal of Australian Naval History
With the full-colour illustrtions and explanatory diagrams, the text is at a very readable level for the layperson, and most marine researchers could benefit from its inbtroduction to disciplines other than their own. I also feel that many of the diagrams and tables would be useful as introductory teaching tools at high school or early university level.

— Alan Pearce

Library Journal
This authoritative reference work presents a thorough overview of the physical, geological, chemical, and biological properties of the world's oceans. Assisted by 16 research scientists at universities worldwide, oceanographer and geoscientist Stow (ocean & earth sciences, Southampton Oceanography Ctr., U.K.) begins with a historical introduction that ranges in subject matter from the role of the sea in early cultures to the important oceanographic expeditions of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He then divides the work into two parts- "Ocean Systems" and "Ocean Life." Within these parts are a total of 11 thematically arranged topics between two and four pages long. The topics include patterns and cycles; salt, sun, and sea level; the web of life; marine lifestyles; and complex communities. Adding to the text are hundreds of color photographs; explanatory maps, charts, and diagrams; cross references; a glossary of scientific terms; and a useful list of web sites. Bottom Line The Times Atlas and Encyclopaedia of the Sea (1989) is comparable in scope but has a more detailed index and more extensive appendixes as well as a section on naval history and submarines not included in this work. However, Stow's up-to-date and well-organized volume would make a valuable introduction to a huge field of knowledge and is therefore recommended for high school, public, and academic libraries.-Judith B. Barnett, Pell Marine Science Lib., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston Copyright 2006 Reed Business Information.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780226776644
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • Publication date: 1/1/2006
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 1,399,031
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 12.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Dorrik Stow is professor of ocean and earth science at the Southampton Oceanography Centre, Europe's leading center for ocean research. A world-renowned oceanographer and marine geoscientist who specializes in the deep sea, Stow has published numerous books, papers, and edited volumes. He has also sailed all the world's major oceans.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

OCEANS
AN ILLUSTRATED REFERENCE
By DORRIK STOW
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
Copyright © 2005 The Brown Reference Group
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-226-77664-4



Chapter One
PLATES ON THE MOVE

Drifting continents and spreading seas

Out of the cloud of dust and gas that condensed to create the Solar System, on the edge of the spiral galaxy we call the Milky Way, the Earth was formed around 4.5 billion years ago. As the third planet out from the Sun, it was neither so close and hot that the surface was covered in a cocktail of poisonous vapors, nor so distant that only frozen wastes prevailed. In fact, it is the only planet we know with an appreciable supply of liquid water on its surface. From hot and tumultuous beginnings, the Earth gradually cooled; as the molten materials separated out, a thin surface crust developed, and slowly the continents and ocean basins were formed. Rain fell and fell, filling up the basins to form the seas and oceans of eons past.

For as long as we can trace back into that distant past, both continents and oceans have been moving, changing, and evolving, at a rate perceptible only in geological time. New crust is continually being formed beneath the oceans; ocean basins grow, only to contract and be again destroyed, leaving ancient ocean water covering a crust many times its junior. Islands rise from the sea, continents grow and divide. The crust and deep interior of the Earth act as a unified system, driven by forces of convection that result from the continued cooling of the planet's core. These processes, known as plate tectonics, form mountain chains and deep-sea trenches, and explain the nature and distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes. This is the great unifying paradigm of the earth and ocean sciences, developed over the past half-century.

The Earth is unique within the Solar System, its liquid oceans and protective atmosphere having survived the tumultuous early years of planetary history. Without water, life as we know it could not exist.

PLATES ON THE MOVE The Ocean Planet

Our search for the origin of life, the universe, and everything goes back to the earliest recorded mythologies. In today's world, science seems to offer the most promising avenue of inquiry into such mysteries, even though the farther back in time we attempt a scientific explanation for the natural evolution of the universe, the less reliable our cognizance becomes. Nevertheless, it is important to establish as accurate a scenario as possible, in order to better understand the development and current nature of the Earth.

Currently, the most widely accepted explanation of the origin of the universe is the Big Bang theory. This derives from astronomical observations that the universe appears to be everywhere expanding, with every galaxy racing away from every other at incredible velocities. Rewinding the clock backward to time zero, it would appear that at what astronomers take as the beginning of time, between 12 and 15 billion years ago, all energy and matter were compressed into an inconceivably dense point, and the universe began in a cosmic explosion, before which moment there was no time, nor space, nor matter, in the sense in which we understand these terms.

Birth of the Solar System

The next few billion years witnessed the expansion and thinning of the universe, coupled with the formation of pockets of concentrated matter from which galaxies were created, each with their own billions of separate stars. Somewhere in the far corner of the universe, a spiral galaxy came into existence, not unlike many others that we can now observe with powerful telescopes. Just over 4.5 billion years ago, a medium-sized star-our own Sun-and a series of planets revolving around it formed along the outer edge of one of the spiral arms.

The Solar System formed from the action of gravity on a rotating cloud of gas and fine dust, known as a nebula. Similar nebulae in outer space far beyond the Solar System are mostly composed of the gases hydrogen and helium, the two elements that make up over 99 percent of our Sun, and a range of dust-sized particles chemically similar to materials found on Earth and the other planets. The diffuse, slowly rotating cloud, originally sub-spherical in shape, contracted under the influence of gravity to become a rapidly spinning, flattened disk, with material concentrated at the center to form a proto-sun.

Under the unceasing pull of gravity, this proto-sun became dense and hot. Temperatures rose to millions of degrees, at which point nuclear fusion-the fusing together of hydrogen atoms under intense heat and pressure to form helium- began. Nuclear fusion releases enormous amounts of energy, and it has continued ever since. This solar energy is the principal, though not the only, source of energy on Earth, fueling the atmosphere and the oceans and giving rise to and sustaining life. Interestingly, the same type of energy, used to destructive effect, powers nuclear bombs.

Grains of dust in the enveloping space around the Sun collided and fused together to form solid bodies, or "planetesimals," ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers in diameter. The larger planetesimals finally swept up the smaller ones to form the planets of the Solar System in their present orbits. The four inner planets-Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars-are relatively small and made up of dense materials: rocks and metals. Most of the volatile materials were swept to the cold outer reaches of the Solar System, forming the giant planets-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, made up of ice and gases. Beyond them lies tiny Pluto, a strange, frozen mixture of methane, water, and rock, while more than three times farther away is the newly discovered planetoid "Sedna" -possibly the most distant object in the Solar System.

Evolving Earth

Somehow, the Earth evolved from a ball of cosmic dust into a habitable planet with clearly differentiated continents and oceans, and an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The first 500 million years of that evolution resemble a lost manuscript telling a tale about which we can only speculate. But there is little doubt that it was a violent story of constant bombardment and intense heat. Astronomers now believe that the Moon originated during this early, tumultuous phase from a cataclysmic impact between Earth and a Mars-sized proto-planet. The impact showered debris into orbit, some of which aggregated to form the Moon. The oldest lunar rocks brought back to Earth are dated at 4.46 billion years, which we can assume was close to the time of impact.

Two other very important events occurred at this stage, with long-lasting significance for the Earth. The first was that the impact is believed to have knocked the Earth askew from a vertical spin axis to its present inclination of about 23°, and may also have had further influence on the nature of the planet's orbit. This change has had a pronounced effect on the Earth's climate ever since. The second was that the heat generated by the impact almost certainly resulted in large-scale melting. Perhaps as much as 50-65 percent of the Earth's total mass melted, and the interior was softened sufficiently to allow differentiation of its components. Heavy metals, principally iron and nickel, sank toward the center, while lighter materials-oxygen, silicon, aluminum-floated to the surface. As the Earth cooled and solidified, it became a layered planet, with a central core, an intermediate mantle, and a thin outer crust, each with very different chemical compositions.

The next crucial phase in the Earth's development was the differentiation of its outer rind into oceanic and continental crust. The composition of these two is very different, as was their formation. Oceanic crust, the more primeval, is made up of dark volcanic rocks, now mainly basalts, which floated to the surface from the molten interior as the Earth was riven and shaken by repeated, violent eruptions. Continental crust, made up of still lighter materials-granites, metamorphic rocks, and sediments-took much longer to develop. Repeated melting and cooling allowed these progressively lighter materials to separate, gradually massing into small "islands"-the cores of primitive continents. Aggressive weathering by torrential rains led to the break-up of these rocks and their redistribution as sediments along the margins of those first, fragmentary landmasses. Countless cycles were repeated, and slowly larger continents formed, their lower density raising them above the surrounding basins. About 7 percent of the present-day continental crust consists of remnants of these early continents, all of them over 2.5 billion, and some up to 3.8 billion, years old. The oldest oceanic crust, by contrast, is little more than 180 million years old, as it is constantly recycled through the mantle.

Oceans and atmosphere

Most important of all to our story, and to the origin of life itself, was the genesis of the oceans that make our blue planet so unique. Like much of the Earth's early history, the details of this momentous occurrence are shrouded in the mists of time. Change has been such a constant factor in Earth's evolution that most of the clues have long since vanished.

The most likely origin of both oceans and atmosphere is from the gases that escaped to the surface during differentiation. Gases emanating from volcanoes today include, among others, water vapor, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur dioxide. These are released by the melting of the rocks and minerals in which they are bound. This process, known as degassing, must also have occurred 4 billion years ago, when the first volcanoes began to erupt over a still scorched Earth. Initially these hot gases contributed to the primordial atmosphere-a noxious concoction without the free oxygen that supports most life today. Small amounts of oxygen were released by the action of sunlight on water vapor, but it was not until the appearance of photosynthetic organisms that significant quantities were produced-with great impact on the evolution of life.

Because the Earth is relatively large, the force of its gravity was sufficient to retain an atmosphere. As the planet slowly cooled, the water vapor condensed, and violent storms and endless rainfall lashed its surface, trickling and racing to fill the first ocean basins-with fresh water. Some water was also brought in as a component of extraterrestrial bodies, such as comets, during that early period of intense bombardment.

Carbon dioxide dissolved out of the atmosphere would have made the first oceans rather acidic. These acid waters then reacted with the rocks, releasing neutralizing compounds of calcium and magnesium. The composition of the oceans also changed from largely fresh water to the saline water of today, through further complex interaction between the Earth's rocks, waters, atmosphere, and lifeforms. What challenges scientists is to understand the system of delicate balances that now maintains the oceans and atmosphere in their relatively steady state.

Plate tectonics is an elegant concept that has revolutionized our understanding of the earth-ocean system. Though the movement of the plates is imperceptible to human eyes, the effects are often violent and immediate.

PLATES ON THE MOVE Plate Tectonics and Time

The normal process of science is punctuated by momentous upheavals in thought and the overturning of long-held paradigms. A major scientific revolution occurs only rarely in any one discipline, heralding a great leap forward in understanding and ushering in a new period of intense research that serves to refine and advance the new consensus. Einstein's theory of relativity, Darwin's theory of evolution, and the more recent discovery of the structure of DNA by Francis Crick and James D. Watson are all examples of this process in action. They are some of the seminal ideas and discoveries that have gone on to shape science and the world.

Earth scientists were fortunate to witness the process of just such a revolution in the course of the 20th century, culminating in the paradigm of plate tectonics that gained general acceptance in the early 1960s. This view provides a single unifying theory that can account at the same time for the nature and for many diverse attributes of both oceans and continents, for mountain-building and sedimentary basins, for the morphology of oceans and the mechanism of continental drift, for the location and types of volcanoes and earthquakes across the world, and for much else besides.

Earlier in the century, a quieter revolution had transformed our understanding of geological time, pushing back the limits from the earlier, religious contention that the world began in 4004 BCE. Without the expanded timeframe the new thinking provided, earth scientists' current views on the origin and evolution of the Earth, and on the processes of plate tectonics that have been played out ever since, would have been untenable.

Jigsaw puzzle

The plate tectonic concept is elegant and simple, like many of the great theories that stand the test of time. It holds that the outer layer of the Earth, between 100 and 160km (60-100mi) thick, is made up of a series of large, rigid plates that are in constant motion with respect to one another, jostling and colliding. Plate boundaries are irregular and interlocking, as if in a giant, spherical jigsaw puzzle. Rates of plate motion are imperceptibly slow, being measured in just centimeters per year-roughly the same as the rate of growth of human fingernails.

Not only do the plates move, but their size and shape change constantly as new material is continually added and old material is consumed. This remarkable metamorphosis takes place at plate boundaries, the giant cracks and healed sutures that scar Earth's outer crust, and along which the majority of tectonic activity occurs-earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, hot springs, and heat loss from the Earth's interior. At divergent plate boundaries (spreading centers) new crust is being added, while at convergent margins older crust is consumed or deformed. At transform boundaries, the gigantic, rigid plates simply slide past one another, relatively smoothly but with indescribable force.

An important realization that emerged from the development of plate tectonic theory was that the plates themselves are, in fact, considerably thicker than either the oceanic or continental crust. This crustal material is more like a wrinkled outer rind, tightly bound to the upper mantle. Together, crust and mantle form a relatively cool, and therefore rigid, lithosphere (from the Greek lithos, meaning "stone"). It is this part of the Earth's system that is fractured into a series of distinct lithospheric plates, which ride on a weaker, hotter, partially molten layer known as the asthenosphere (from the Greek asthenes, meaning "weak"). The asthenosphere, like the lithosphere, is around 100-200km (60-125mi) thick.

Why plates move

A second important breakthrough was the understanding of how and why the plates move. Although the details of the mechanism are still being debated and refined by geophysicists, a broad consensus accepts that it is in the main part due to large convection currents within the mantle. Convection is the process, most familiar to us in liquids and gases, whereby hot, less dense material rises and cooler, denser material sinks. It is, essentially, the process that drives the great conveyor belt of ocean circulation and the rapid turmoil of winds in the atmosphere, as much as it does the cooling of coffee in a mug or the rising of smoke up a chimney. At conditions of extremely high temperatures and pressures, however, even the "solid" rocks of the outer Earth can behave as an extremely viscous "fluid" that creeps or flows, and thereby allows convection to occur.

Even after 4.5 billion years, the natural heat contained within the core of the Earth, following the planet's accretion and solidification, is still the principal heat engine driving convection in the mantle. Some heat is also derived from the decay of naturally occurring radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium. Rising plumes of hot mantle occur beneath divergent plate boundaries, building new crust and lithosphere at the mid-ocean ridges. The new matter cools and slowly subsides as it spreads away, eventually sinking back into the mantle at convergent boundaries. It is this slow process of mantle convection, played out over millions of years, that moves the lithospheric plates. Oceans and continents are like passive rafts on the lithosphere, forever moving and changing as the surface manifestation of deeper-seated convection.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from OCEANS by DORRIK STOW Copyright © 2005 by The Brown Reference Group. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface
 
Introduction
The Ocean Frontier
The Lure of the Sea
Great Voyages of Discovery
Pioneers of Ocean Science
Modern Oceanographic Research

Ocean Systems
1. Plates on the Move
The Ocean Planet
Plate Tectonics and Time
Backbone of the Oceans
Collision and Slippage
Oceans of the Past
 
2. Patterns & Cycles
From Peak to Trough
Where Land Meets Sea
Patterns on the Seafloor
Canyons, Slopes, and Fans
Islands in Time

3. Salt, Sun, & Sea Level
Why the Sea Is Salt
Heat, Light, and Sound
Ocean Layers
Sea Level Rise and Fall

4. Silent, Swift, & Strong
Riding the Waves
Rhythm of the Tides
Great Surface Currents
Silent Cycles of the Deep
Oceans and Climate
 
5. Hidden Riches of the Ocean
Oil and Gas
Renewable Marine Energy
Minerals from the Sea
 
Ocean Maps
The Ocean Floor
The Atlantic Ocean
The Indian Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
The Polar Oceans

Ocean Life
6. Evolution & Extinction
Life Unfolds
March through Time
Mass Extinction
 
7. The Web of Life
The Diversity of Life
Cycles, Webs, and Flows
The World of Phytoplankton
The Zooplankton
Algal Forests
 
8. Marine Lifestyles
The Marine Environment
Movement Underwater
Heightened Senses
Making a Living
Sexual Encounters
 
9. Complex Communities
Marine Habitats
Shoreline Communities
Wetlands
Coral Reefs
The Open Ocean
The Deep-Sea Floor
 
10. Fragile Environments
The Living Resource
Marine Pollution
Habitat Destruction
 
Conclusion
Future Challenge
Climate Change
A New Global Awareness
Our Common Heritage
 
Glossary
Further Reading
Picture Credits
Index

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)