On the Shoulders of Giants: My Personal Journey Through the Harlem Renaissance

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Overview

From 1920 to 1940, the Harlem Renaissance produced a bright beacon of light that paved the way for African-Americans all over the country. The unapologetic writings of W. E. B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey, the fervent fiction and poetry of Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes, the groundbreaking art of Aaron Douglas and William H. Johnson, and the triumphant music of Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong gave voice and expression to the thoughts and emotions that Jim Crow segregation laws had long sought to stifle. ...
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New York, New York, U.S.A., 2007. Hard Cover. First Edition, First Printing. 8vo - over 7?" - 9?" tall. Signed "Abdul Jabbar" on title page by author. Kareem Abdul Jabbar is the ... all-time leading NBA scorer. Book and dustjacket is in fine as new condition. Dustjacket is protected in removable Mylar plastic cover. Read more Show Less

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Overview

From 1920 to 1940, the Harlem Renaissance produced a bright beacon of light that paved the way for African-Americans all over the country. The unapologetic writings of W. E. B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey, the fervent fiction and poetry of Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes, the groundbreaking art of Aaron Douglas and William H. Johnson, and the triumphant music of Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong gave voice and expression to the thoughts and emotions that Jim Crow segregation laws had long sought to stifle. In On the Shoulders of Giants, indomitable basketball star and bestselling author and historian Kareem Abdul-Jabbar invites the reader on an extraordinarily personal journey back to his birthplace, through one of the greatest political, cultural, literary, and artistic movements in our history, revealing the tremendous impact the Harlem Renaissance had on both American culture and his own life. Beginning with the rise of the Harlem Rens as pioneers of professional basketball, Kareem traces the many streams of historical influence that converged to create the man he is today—the NBA's all-time leading scorer and a veritable African-American icon.

Travel deep into the soul of the Renaissance—to the night clubs, restaurants, basketball games, and fabulous parties that have made footprints in Harlem's history. Meet the athletes, jazz musicians, comedians, actors, politicians, entrepreneurs, and writers who not only inspired Kareem's rise to greatness but an entire nation's.

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was born in the midst of a cultural reawakening, carried on the shoulders of athletes trying to prove there was a lot more at stake than a ball game, men and women who made music that could break your heart, and writers and intellectuals who gave voice to not just the ideals of a movement but the raw emotions. Kareem tells what it took to get these revolutionaries to Harlem and how they changed the world. A world that is still riding on the shoulders of giants.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
Brace yourself for one of the most unconventional sports memoirs of all time. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is, of course, one of the greatest basketball players in history; in fact, the highest scorer in NBA annals. But this book is less about the on court career of the 19-time All-Star than about the influences that shaped him as a person. In particular, he cites the seminal ideas and practices of the Harlem Renaissance. For Kareem, the Renaissance was not simply a literary movement; it was a wellspring of political, cultural, musical, and, yes, sports activism and affirmation. On the Shoulders of Giants includes interview excerpts from Magic Johnson, Quincy Jones, James Earl Jones, Sidney Poitier, Denzel Washington, Jay-Z, and others.
Michiko Kakutani
In On the Shoulders of Giants, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar continues his intriguing evolution from iconic professional athlete to astute cultural historian. By mixing personal anecdotes with traditional research and reporting, he acts as a knowledgeable, passionate tour guide through the artistic and social history of one America's most dynamic creative eras.
— The New York Times
Library Journal
Not about basketball: how the Harlem Renaissance changed America and -Abdul-Jabbar himself. Look for the accompanying documentary by Spike Lee. Copyright 2006 Reed Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781416534884
  • Publisher: Simon & Schuster
  • Publication date: 1/30/2007
  • Pages: 288
  • Lexile: 1250L (what's this?)
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is recognized by Sports Illustrated and Time magazine as history's greatest basketball player (he is the NBA's all-time leading scorer). The author of several New York Times bestsellers, Kareem's previous books include Giant Steps, Kareem, Black Profiles in Courage, A Season on the Reservation, and Brothers in Arms. Since his retirement as a player in the NBA, Kareem has worked as a special assistant coach for the Los Angeles Lakers and acted as a volunteer coach for children on the White Mountain Apache reservation in Whiteriver, Arizona. On the Shoulders of Giants is currently in production as a documentary film.

Raymond Obstfeld is an associate professor of English at Orange Coast College, and is the author of more than forty books of fiction, poetry, and nonfiction, including studies of the Italian Renaissance, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Moby-Dick.

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Read an Excerpt

On the Shoulders of Giants

My Journey Through the Harlem Renaissance
By Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Raymond Obstfeld

Simon & Schuster

Copyright © 2007 Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
All right reserved.




Chapter One

"Some Technicolor Bazaar" How Harlem Became the Center of the Universe

Harlem! ... Its brutality, gang rowdyism, promiscuous thickness. Its hot desires. But, oh, the rich blood-red color of it! The warm accent of its composite voice, the fruitiness of its laughter, the trailing rhythm of its "blues" and the improvised surprises of its jazz. poet and novelist Claude McKay It's Harlem - and anything goes. Harlem, the new playground of New York! Harlem - the colored city in the greatest metropolis of the white man! Harlem - the capital of miscegenation! Harlem - the gay musical, the Parisian home of vice! author Edward Doherty I'd rather be a lamppost in Harlem than governor of Georgia. folk saying

When Black Was in Vogue

Once upon a time there was an enchanted land called ... Harlem.

Considering all the transcendent things that have been said about the Harlem of the twenties and thirties, it would be easy to romanticize the place as an elaborate set of a movie musical-comedy extravaganza, filled with bubbly jazz melodies and populated by a happy cast of all-singing, all-dancing cockeyed optimists. But to do so would simplify the complexities of the history-making, life-and-death struggle that was really going on in Harlem. Andit would reduce the residents to convenient one-dimensional stereotypes - the same indignities that the Harlem Renaissance fought so hard to erase.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, Harlem has been considered the unofficial capital of an unofficial country: Black America. Because of that, in the minds of most white Americans, Harlem has symbolized all African-Americans - educated or illiterate, urban or rural, cop or criminal. One size fits all.

And that is the problem that Harlem, as a symbol of Black America, has faced from the beginning: there have always been two Harlems.

First, there was the idealized Harlem that white people imagined because of its portrayal in white films and in white literature. In the beginning of the Jazz Age, whites concocted "Oz" Harlem, the Technicolor home of sassy black women and musically inclined black men, eager to burst into song or dance at any opportunity. Sure, times were tough and they had plenty of nothin', but, hey, by their own admission (or at least by the admission of black characters created by white writers), nothin' was plenty for them. Whites admired how Harlemites had learned to accept their miserable lot in life with a Christian smile and without pointing any angry fingers of blame. "We could all learn a lesson in humility from them," whites said approvingly. In Oz Harlem, white folk were welcome, particularly in high-class nightclubs such as the Cotton Club, which featured black jazz performers, black dancing girls, and a deferential black staff - but allowed only white patrons. In Oz Harlem, blacks entertained and served, but didn't mingle with whites. Oz Harlem was a white fantasy of perfect race relations, a racist's Disneyland ("the honkiest place on earth"). And thousands of whites visited this Harlem weekly, seeing only what they wanted to see. Like people visiting a zoo who marvel at the animals but ignore the cages.

But behind the velvet curtain of Oz Harlem was the other Harlem - "Daily" Harlem - the one that black people wrote about, sang about, painted and sculpted. The one where black people actually lived, worked, cooked, went to church, gossiped about neighbors, and buried loved ones. This was the Harlem where they raised families, raised rent, and, on occasion, raised the roof. During the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s, those two Harlems - Oz Harlem and Daily Harlem - came to represent the two different ways all African-Americans throughout the country were viewed, not just by whites, but by other blacks as well.

In the end, these two radically different visions couldn't peacefully coexist. For those who were part of the Harlem Renaissance, white America's romanticized ideal of happy black folk singing away their worries and cares only encouraged the poverty and injustice to flourish. It allowed the real problems to be ignored. Especially by white politicians who had the power to change things. Ignoring Harlem, and African-Americans throughout the country, was business as usual for most politicians. As police detective Coffin Ed Johnson says in the film Cotton Comes to Harlem (1970), "What the hell do the attorney general, the State Department, or even the president of the United States know about one goddamn thing that's going on up here in Harlem?"

But Harlem would not be ignored.

Jazz legend Miles Davis said, "Jazz is the big brother of revolution. Revolution follows it around." What was going on in Harlem in the 1920s and 1930s was nothing short of a cultural and political revolution. Certainly jazz provided the backbeat, but the revolution itself was orchestrated by a group of confident, educated, and talented young men and women undeterred by the perceptions and injustices of the past, their eyes firmly fixed on the prize: a future filled with limitless opportunities for blacks. And most of these cultural warriors would live and work and create, even if only for a short while, in Harlem.

How Harlem Got Its Black

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Harlem seemed an unlikely location for a capital of Black America - or the Mecca of anybody but moneyed whites. Located just north of Central Park, Harlem was where upper-middle-class whites resided in fancy apartments and magnificent brownstone houses. If you wanted to find the majority of New York City's black population, you'd have to travel south of Central Park to the West Side, particularly to an area called the Tenderloin. This was where most of the city's sixty thousand African-Americans were crammed. And living around them, like an army laying siege to a castle, were various groups of whites, mostly Irish immigrants, dedicated to driving the blacks away.

Central Park was a physical border beyond which blacks were not welcome; but money was the practical barrier keeping blacks from living in upscale Harlem. Without equal education or job opportunities, movin' on up to Harlem didn't seem possible. Yet, we know it happened, or this book would be about the Tenderloin Renaissance. But how? Ironically, it was Harlem's desirability among the well-off whites that eventually resulted in Harlem's evolving from ritzy white enclave to the destination for blacks from all over the country, and even from outside the country.

The section of the Tenderloin between Twenty-seventh Street and Fifty-third Street was called Black Bohemia. Black Bohemia sounds almost cheerful, like a lively jazz club or a tropical Jamaican resort. But, in fact, it was a squalid ghetto where black families strove to raise their children amidst brothels, gambling dens, nightclubs, pool halls, and unbearable poverty. In 1911, the average black laborer earned $28 a month; the average rent for a small four-room apartment in Black Bohemia was $20 a month ($2 to $5 more per month than in white neighborhoods). That left only $8 a month to survive. In 1900, Harper's Weekly condemned the housing situation:

Property is not rented to negroes in New York until white people will no longer have it. Then the rents are put up from thirty to fifty per cent, and negroes are permitted to take a street or sometimes a neighborhood. There are really not many negro sections, and all that exist are fearfully crowded.... Moreover, [the landlords] make no repairs, and the property usually goes to rack and ruin.... As a rule ... negroes in New York are not beholden to property owners for anything except discomfort and extortion.

The rents weren't the most serious problem. Hostility toward blacks reached explosive proportions in August of 1900 during the Tenderloin riots. The spark that lit the fuse occurred on August 12, on Forty-first Street and Eighth Avenue when a white undercover police officer dressed as a civilian attempted to arrest a black woman whom he thought was a prostitute soliciting. When the husband, not knowing the man was a police officer, attempted to defend his wife, the officer clubbed him. The husband then stabbed the officer with a penknife, killing him. Though the husband, because of the circumstances, was exonerated a couple days after the stabbing, police and white gangs roamed black neighborhoods in the Tenderloin looking for vengeance. Innocent pedestrians who ran to the police for protection were shoved into the crowd of rioters by angry officers. Frank Moss, who compiled the affidavits of black victims, said in his account, The Story of a Riot:

The unanimous testimony of the newspaper reports was that the mob could have been broken and destroyed immediately and with little difficulty ... [but that] policemen stood by and made no effort to protect the Negroes who were assailed. They ran with the crowds in pursuit of their prey; they took defenseless men who ran to them for protection and threw them to the rioters, and in many cases they beat and clubbed men and women more brutally than the mob did.

An official investigation not only cleared the police of wrongdoing, but praised them for keeping the situation under control. Yet, "the situation" was anything but under control for black residents, who lived under the constant threat of violence. Realizing that geography was destiny, the residents of Black Bohemia began looking around for someplace else to live - someplace where their children would have a better life than they did. As one Tenderloin resident observed, "Every day was moving day."

Harlem, by contrast, has heaven. White heaven. Thick, healthy trees lined the wide streets and avenues, which were newly paved and bracketed by luxurious apartments and houses. In a way, this was the paradise that public transportation had built. Named Nieuw Haarlem (New Harlem) in 1658 by the Dutch settlers after a Dutch city, and renamed Harlem when the English took control in 1664, the area quickly became a haven for wealthy farmers, who built expansive estates overlooking the Hudson River. Passage to New York City proper required a ninety-minute steamboat ride. That kept Harlem isolated and virtually undeveloped until 1880, when the city constructed an elevated railroad along Eighth Avenue. This access to the west side of Harlem encouraged developers to turn the agricultural fields of Harlem into what they envisioned as a refuge for upper-middle-class whites from the turmoil of downtown Manhattan. Then came even more good news: a subway would be built under Lenox Avenue, making the east side of Harlem a mere eight-minute ride to downtown rather than the hours it used to take by streetcar. In anticipation of the subway, which was scheduled to be completed in 1904, developers began constructing many new apartment buildings. However, so many speculators had the same idea that too many buildings were constructed. By 1902, with two more years until the subway would reach Harlem, and brand-new buildings standing around unoccupied, many of those speculators faced bankruptcy.

In Harlem, necessity was the mother of integration.

Enter twenty-four-year-old real estate agent Philip A. Payton, later known as the Father of Colored Harlem. If anyone was the quintessential example of a Harlem Renaissance man, it was Payton. Despite being a college graduate, the only jobs he could get were as a barber, a slot-machine attendant, and a porter in an apartment building. Payton later recounted the early struggle:

The hardships that my wife and I went through before things broke for us would fill a book. If I have gained any success, to my wife belongs the major portion of the credit.... My customary amount of cash to leave the house with was fifteen cents; five cents to ride downtown, five cents for luncheon and five cents to ride back up town at night.... I just simply was not making any money. My wife was doing sewing, a day's work or anything else she could get to do to help me along.... All of my friends discouraged me. All of them told me how I couldn't make it, but none of them, how I could. They tried to convince me that there was no show for a colored man in such a business in New York.

Opportunities just weren't there, so he made his own and became one of the first black real estate agents in New York. "I was a real estate agent, making a specialty in management of colored tenement property for nearly a year before I actually succeeded in getting a colored tenement to manage," Payton said in an interview. "My first opportunity came as a result of a dispute between two landlords in West 134th Street. To 'get even' one of them turned his house over to me to fill with colored tenants." Though blacks got their first opportunity to move to Harlem to spite another landlord, Payton took full advantage of the chink in the wall. His success was such that he convinced several other desperate white landlords to allow him to fill their vacant apartment houses, not with the white residents they'd hoped for, but with blacks anxious for decent housing and a safe neighborhood. And come they did. It was as if the great sea that was Central Park had parted, and African-Americans fled toward what many considered the New Jerusalem.

Despite the growing African-American population, white landlords refused to give up without a fight. They saw the incoming blacks as invaders and were determined to drive them right back to the Tenderloin. The Harlem Home News articulated white fears in 1911: "We must warn owners of property ... that the invaders are clamoring for admission right at their doors and that they must wake up and get busy before it is too late to repel the black hordes that stand ready to destroy the homes and scatter the fortunes of the whites." Whites responded to the call to arms and counterattacked by forming realty companies for the express purpose of buying any houses in which blacks lived and evicting them. The real estate publication the New York Indicator chided that blacks should live "in some colony in the outskirts of the city, where their transportation and other problems will not inflict injustices and disgust on worthy citizens." John G. Taylor, the president of the Property Owners Protective Association, suggested that a "dead line" be built to mark the border between whites and blacks; this demarcation would be in the form of a twenty-four-foot fence (not unlike the one proposed in 2006 between the United States and Mexico).

In 1904, Payton responded by founding the Afro-American Realty Company to buy and lease residences in Harlem that would then be rented to blacks. But aggressive pressure from white real estate agents, including the Property Owners Protective Association, made it difficult for Payton to procure mortgages, or even keep the ones he had. His Afro-American Realty Company was soon forced out of business. But Payton wasn't. Fueled by his failure, he quickly partnered with a wealthy undertaker, bought two five-story apartment houses, evicted the white tenants, and rented to blacks. Two of his salesmen from the defunct Afro-American Realty Company also started buying buildings, evicting whites, and renting to blacks. They convinced other African-Americans to invest in Harlem real estate, including the wealthy St. Philips Protestant Episcopal Church, which bought thirteen apartment houses and replaced the white tenants with black ones. Eventually, white landlords abandoned Harlem. In 1905, only about 4,000 blacks lived north of 125th Street; by 1920, 84,000 blacks lived there; by 1930, 200,000 blacks lived there, which was 60 percent of the population of Harlem. Payton, and the blacks of the Tenderloin, had their revenge: Payton became the most successful black real estate agent in New York City, and the black families of the Tenderloin had a new home - and new hope.

But the black residents of the Tenderloin weren't the only ones in search of hope.

Movin' on Up: Jim Crow and the Great Black Migration

In 1910, while Harlem was developing into a popular black neighborhood among New York City's African-Americans, 90 percent of the black population of the United States still lived in the South, most of them in rural areas. In fact, three out of four black Americans lived on farms. If blacks in the Tenderloin thought they had it bad trying to migrate to Harlem, the Southern blacks had it even worse, contending with severe poverty, discriminatory Jim Crow laws, and frequent lynchings. These harsh living conditions, combined with the onset of World War I, and severe blows to the cotton crop, convinced many to leave the South. Between 1915 and 1930, 2 million Southern blacks migrated to the North, mostly to New York City, Detroit, Cleveland, and Chicago. In 1910, New York City's black population was 91,709; by 1930, the population had more than tripled to 328,000. Because of this Great Black Migration, the Harlem Renaissance would not only be possible, but necessary.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from On the Shoulders of Giants by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Raymond Obstfeld Copyright © 2007 by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
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Table of Contents

Contents

Foreword by Quincy Jones

Introduction: Our Future or Our Fate

"Some Technicolor Bazaar": How Harlem Became the Center of the Universe

"Mad Medley": How Harlem Influenced My Life

"Master Intellects and Creative Giants": The "Talented Tenth" Paint the World Black

"The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave": How Harlem Writers Influenced My Life

"Fairness Creeps out of the Soul": Basketball Comes to Harlem

"Hoping Against Hope": How the Rens Basketball Team Influenced My Life

"Musical Fireworks": Jazz Lights Up the Heavens of Harlem

"Everything Was Mostly Fun": How Jazz Influenced My Life

Photo Credits

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

Index

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Introduction

LESSON PLANS: On The Shoulders of Giants

My Personal Journey Through the Harlem Renaissance

By Kareem Abdul-Jabbar

SHORT SUMMARY:

This book is about the Harlem Renaissance and the development, accomplishments, and history of a people. But it is also about a man and his development, accomplishments, and history. Using a classic "call and response" format, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar explores the history and the significance of his culture's "rebirth." He examines what it meant not just for his own life but for the lives of everyone, black and white, who inherited its rich legacy and benefited from the writing, art, and music that the men and women of the Harlem Renaissance created.

IMPORTANT INTRODUCTORY VISUALS:

1. A world map is an excellent way to help students understand the migration of people as well as of art, music, and literature throughout the text. A map of New York City dated between 1920 and 1940, with a detail of Harlem and a current map of the same would also be useful to students. For an extra level of detail, use Google's free satellite imagery at earth.google.com.

2. Photographs from the Harlem Renaissance would also be helpful in order for students to visualize those whom they are studying. Such images might include photographs of the writers, musicians, historians, and athletes Abdul-Jabbar refers to in the text. You might also include images of art from the period like Aaron Douglas's mural Aspects of Negro Life. Note: You can find numerous photographs on the sites listed below as well as on the links you will find on those sites.

3. See the film, Go ManGo.

NOTE:

1) If you are teaching works by any of the following authors — James Weldon Johnson, Jesse Redmon Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, Wallace Thurman, Countee Cullen, Richard Moore, and Langston Hughes — you may want to incorporate this book into your teaching by incorporating the text itself as well as the activities and questions that follow.

BEFORE READING:

When approaching a text so rich with information, active reading techniques can be very helpful for students in their understanding of the text. You might want to prompt them to write in the text, using pens, pencils, and highlighters while they read (or in their notebook or on "sticky notes" if they are shared texts). Other useful methods you might want to suggest include:

Keeping vocabulary lists of words they do not know, and of people, places, and events that they'd like to find out more about.

Assigning a journal so that students can write their thoughts about each chapter as they read.

LESSON PLANS:

There is a lesson plan for each of the eight chapters in the text. Each plan includes several questions to initiate classroom discussion as well as a writing assignment to supplement it. Following the plans you will find suggested projects, additional readings, and web sites provided to give students an opportunity to enhance their understanding of the text specifically and of the Harlem Renaissance more broadly. For all of the questions, students should reference specific passages in the text for support.

Chapter One: "Some Technicolor Bazaar": How Harlem Became the Center of the Universe

1) Abdul-Jabbar says that there are two Harlems. What are they? What does saying that mean? Why is that important?

2) What were the Jim Crow laws? What influence did they have on Black culture in the twenties and thirties?

3) Abdul-Jabbar talks a lot in this chapter about real estate, property ownership, rent, living conditions, and the like. In what way did those things shape, influence, and affect the Harlem Renaissance?

4) Who were some of the "major players" in the Harlem Renaissance? What roles did they play?

5) Compare and contrast the following streets as they were during the Harlem Renaissance - Seventh Avenue, Lennox Avenue, Strivers' Row, 135th Street, and 125th Street.

Writing Assignment:

Write a response to Langston Hughes' poem "A Dream Deferred." Explain the meaning of a deferred dream. Then, provide your interpretation of the poem as a whole. Finally, share your reaction to the poem and answer the question: in your opinion, what does happen to a "dream deferred"?

Chapter Two: "Mad Medley": How Harlem Influenced My Life

1) Abdul-Jabbar was, obviously, not alive during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. In fact, he spent little time in Harlem as a kid. Yet, he says it influenced his life in a catastrophic way. How is that possible? What did it mean for him? Is there any historical event that you feel has influenced your life in a similarly dramatic fashion?

2) The relationship Abdul-Jabbar had with Coach Donahue affected him deeply. How would you characterize that relationship when it first began? What was the turning point in that relationship? How do you think Abdul-Jabbar's life might have been different had it not happened?

3) How would you characterize Abdul-Jabbar's relationship with Dr. John Henrik Clarke?

4) Malcolm X and Dr. Martin Luther King had very different approaches to achieving racial equality. Which one do you most ally yourself with, and why? Despite agreeing with one, do you see any benefit in the other?

Writing Assignment:

Respond to John Clarke's statement that, "History is not everything." What did he mean by that? Do you believe it's true? Why or why not? Give examples from both within and outside the text.

Chapter Three: "Master Intellects and Creative Giants": The 'Talented Tenth' Paints the World Black

1) Who are Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois? Compare and contrast the two. Why are they themselves as well as their differences so important to the Harlem Renaissance?

2) Marcus Garvey believed that African Americans should return to Africa. What was your reaction to reading about the "Back to Africa" movement? Why do you feel that way? Think for a moment about the view opposite your own. Can you imagine why others might see things that way as opposed to the way you see them?

3) Abdul-Jabbar details eight specific writers who were major contributors to the Harlem Renaissance. Who were they? What did they write? What did their writing do for the Harlem Renaissance? What lasting effect has their writing had over the years? How many of these writers have you read? If none, or very few, why do you think that is?

Writing Assignment:

Discuss what you believe the purpose of writing is. Based on your reading, how might the writers of the Harlem Renaissance have answered this, and how and why are your answers similar or different?

Chapter Four: "The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave": How Harlem Writers Influenced My Life

1) What importance does Abdul-Jabbar see race as playing in today's society? Do you see America as still being a racist society? If so, then in what ways?

2) Abdul-Jabbar talks about the importance of words and of naming. What examples of this can you point out both in your personal life and in contemporary U.S. culture?

3) How was Abdul-Jabbar most affected by the writers of the Harlem Renaissance? Which of those writers and which of their works affected him the most deeply, and why? Who did you most like and why?

Writing Assignment:

Explore what Sir Issac Newton's quote, "If I have seen further [than other men], it is because I have stood upon the shoulders of giants" means to Abdul-Jabbar and to you.

Chapter Five: "Fairness Creeps Out of the Soul": Basketball Comes to Harlem

1) What is the history of the Rens? How would you describe them as a team at their height? Compare and contrast the same for the Harlem Globetrotters.

2) How did economics play a role in African Americans taking their place in the world of professional sports? In what way do economics still play a role in sports today?

3) In what ways did sports during the Harlem Renaissance have a positive effect on the African American community? In what ways were the Rens good for the African American Community? Does the world of professional sports today benefit the African American Community? Providing specific examples, argue why or why not.

Writing Assignment:

Explore the meaning of this chapter's title, "Fairness Creeps Out of the Soul." Discuss that phrase's significance both to this chapter and what significance you see it having in a larger context (i.e. your own life and the world around you).

Chapter Six: "Hoping Against Hope": How the Rens Basketball Team Influenced My Life

1) What effect did the Rens have on Abdul-Jabbar? Cite examples.

2) In what way did the film Go Man Go affect Abdul-Jabbar? Is there a film that has affected you as deeply? If so, how and why? Should that be the purpose of film? To make people think? To change people's lives? To take a hold of viewers?

3) Abdul-Jabbar says basketball did not define him but rather allowed him to define himself. What is it about the team sport of basketball for Abdul-Jabbar that allows for such personal expression? Cite passages in the text.

Writing Assignment:

When people think about the Harlem Renaissance, they generally think of the traditional intellectual and creative pursuits like art, music, and literature. How, then, can Abdul-Jabbar claim that sports plays such a large role in the Harlem Renaissance? Do you see an on-going connection between sports and art, music, and literature? What role do you see the connection playing in society today?

Chapter Seven: "Musical Fireworks": Jazz Lights Up the Heavens of Harlem

1) Who are the women who made musical contributions to the Harlem Renaissance? Was it more difficult for women than for men to "make it" as musicians during the Harlem Renaissance? Why or why not? Are women's contributions to music during this period as great as their contributions to writing? Do you believe it was harder for them to "make it" in music as opposed to in writing? Or vice versa perhaps?

2) What intersection do you see between the writing and the music of the Harlem Renaissance?

Writing Assignment:

Respond to Louis Armstrong's statement that he made when asked to define jazz, "Man, if you gotta ask, you'll never know." What does that mean? Why is that significant?

Chapter Eight: "Everything Was Mostly Fun": How Jazz Influenced My Life

1) What does Abdul-Jabbar say he learned from jazz? In what ways did it influence his life? What connections does Abdul-Jabbar see as existing between jazz and basketball?

2) Abdul-Jabbar specifically mentions three jazz greats. Who does he mention? Why do you think he chose them? What specifically does he say he learned from each?

3) What music has influenced your life? In what way? Had that music not been a part of your life, in what ways do you think your life might have been different?

Writing Assignment:

Abdul-Jabbar talks about his personal connections to the Harlem Renaissance as a whole and then to literature, sports, and jazz in particular. He contends that all that he has done and all that he hopes to be has somehow come from the lives of those who contributed to the Harlem Renaissance. One might say that the literature, games, and songs are the stories, competitions, and soundtracks of his life. What are yours? Which giants' shoulders do you see yourself as standing on? Explain. What do they mean to you? What do they inspire in you? (If you can't answer this right off the top of your head, don't worry. This is a great time to consider just who those people might be for you.)

ADDITIONAL PROJECTS:

These projects can be done before, during, or after reading the text and can be done as group or individual assignments.

1) Create four timelines — the development of Harlem as a center of African American culture, the development of African American literature, the progression of African Americans in professional sports, and the development of jazz.

2) View any of the films mentioned in the text, including, Cotton Comes to Harlem, Birth of a Nation, Brother to Brother, or Go Man Go. Write a summary of and a reaction to the film. If you view more than one, be sure to compare and contrast the films you viewed as well.

3) Read work by any of the following writers: James Weldon Johnson, Jesse Redmon Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, Wallace Thurman, Countee Cullen, Richard Moore, and Langston Hughes. Or choose work by other writers Abdul-Jabbar refers to in the text. Write a summary of and a reaction to the work you read. If you read more than one, be sure to compare and contrast the works you read as well.

4) Choose two people from the list below to research. (Or choose any others Abdul-Jabbar mentions in his writing.) Write a biographical sketch for each and then discuss their connections and/or contributions to the Harlem Renaissance.

Zora Neale Hurston

Louis Armstrong

Augusta Savage

Claude McKay

Bob Douglass

Max Ewingg

Marcus Garvey

Father Divine

James Weldon Johnson

Malcolm X

Wallace Thurman

Walter White

Roy Wilkins

Rev. Adam Clayton Powell Sr.

Ralph Ellison

Paul Robeson

Aaron Douglas

Hale Woodruff

Cab Calloway

Luckey Roberts

Jimmie Lunceford

A'Lelia Walker

Thurgood Marshall

Miles Davis

John Coltrane

Sarah Vaughn

Duke Ellington

Count Basie

5) Research any of the following and then prepare either a paper or a class presentation in which you share your findings.

a. The "Call and Response" method Abdul-Jabbar employed in writing this text, exploring both the history and examples of such

b. Jack L. Cooper and his show Search for Missing Persons

c. The Boll Weevil

d. The Dance Theatre of Harlem and its connections to the Harlem Renaissance

e. The history of the Apollo Theater

f. The Schomburg Center

6) Compare and contrast the following streets as they are now in either a paper or class presentation - Seventh Avenue, Lennox Avenue, Strivers' Row, 135th Street, and 125th Street.

7) Listen to several different pieces of jazz online, at a music store, or elsewhere, including pieces from various artists and from various periods from before, during, and after the Harlem Renaissance. Then answer the following questions in a short essay. What do you think of the music? What do you like or dislike? Which do you prefer? Why? What influences do you see in today's music that obviously came from jazz roots?

SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem. Black Profiles in Courage: A Legacy of African American Achievement

Cullen, Countee. One Way to Heaven

De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex

DuBois, W.E.B. The Philadelphia Negro, The Souls of Black Folk, John Brown

Fauset, Jessie Redmon. There is Confusion, Plum Bun, The Chinaberry Tree: A Novel of American Life, Comedy: American Style

French, Marilyn. The Women's Room

Hughes, Langston. The Weary Blues, Fine Clothes to the Jew, Not Without Laughter, Mulatto, I Wonder As I Wander, The Big Sea

Hurston, Zora Neal. Their Eyes Were Watching God, Moses, Man of the Mountain, Dust Tracks on a Road Johnson, James Weldon. The Auto-Biography of An Ex-Colored Man

Jong, Erica. Fear of Flying

McKay, Claude. Songs of Jamaica, Constab Ballads, Harlem Shadows

Moore, Richard. The Name is Negro: Its Origin and Evil Use

Niles, Blair. Strange Brother

Thurman, Wallace. The Interne, The Blacker the Berry, Harlem: A Melodrama of Negro Life in Harlem

Toomer, Jean. Cane

Van Vechten, Carl. Nigger Heaven

White, Walter. A Man Called White

For an extended bibliography, go to:

http://www.georgetown.edu/tamlit/collab_bib/harlem_bib.html

RELATED WEB SITES:

Harlem Renaissance

Here you will find a short summary of the period as well as links to information about many different aspects of the Harlem Renaissance.

http://www.levity.com/corduroy/harlem.htm

The Harlem Renaissance

This site includes an impressive list of sites which provide a great deal of backgrounds on the Harlem Renaissance and those involved in it. The sites listed include "biographies of writers, poets, artists, musicians, entertainers, activists, thinkers, and leaders."

http://www.42explore2.com/harlem.htm

A Hypermedia Edition of the March 1925 Survey Graphic Harlem Number

This hypermedia edition takes you through an informative Survey Graphic of the Harlem Renaissance.

http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/index.html

The Mississippi River of Song

Here you will find information about this PBS program on music from the Harlem Renaissance. You will also find related articles and additional links.

http://www.pb.org/riverofsong/music/e2-mo-jazz.html

Art of the Harlem Renaissance

This website offers information about artists active during this period. You will find both images of relevant work as well as information about the artists themselves.

http://www.iniva.org/harlem/index2.html

Circle Association's Weblinks to Harlem Renaissance

An extensive timeline as well as a long list of Harlem Renaissance related weblinks are included here.

http://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/circle/harlem-ren-sites.html

Selected Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance: A Resource Guide

Information about some of the women writers of the Harlem Renaissance is provided here.

http://www.nku.edu/~diesmanj/guides/

Harlem Renaissance

This site offers information about jazz, and other, musicians who contributed to the Harlem Renaissance.

http://www.uta.edu/english/V/students/collab13/joyce.html

Harlem: 1900-1940: An African-American Community

This site offers an exhibition portfolio from The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture exhibit titled Harlem: 1900-1940: An African-American Community

http://www.si.umich.edu/chico/Harlem/

Drop Me Off in Harlem: Explore the Intersections

Here you'll find photos, articles, additional links, and a map of Harlem as well as additional resources.

http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/exploring/harlem/

Check out any place in the world on this site. You can explore Harlem as well as the writers, musicians, leaders, and others who contributed to the movement.

http://earth.google

Read More Show Less

Reading Group Guide

LESSON PLANS: On The Shoulders of Giants

My Personal Journey Through the Harlem Renaissance By Kareem Abdul-Jabbar

SHORT SUMMARY:

This book is about the Harlem Renaissance and the development, accomplishments, and history of a people. But it is also about a man and his development, accomplishments, and history. Using a classic "call and response" format, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar explores the history and the significance of his culture's "rebirth." He examines what it meant not just for his own life but for the lives of everyone, black and white, who inherited its rich legacy and benefited from the writing, art, and music that the men and women of the Harlem Renaissance created.

IMPORTANT INTRODUCTORY VISUALS:

1. A world map is an excellent way to help students understand the migration of people as well as of art, music, and literature throughout the text. A map of New York City dated between 1920 and 1940, with a detail of Harlem and a current map of the same would also be useful to students. For an extra level of detail, use Google's free satellite imagery at earth.google.com.

2. Photographs from the Harlem Renaissance would also be helpful in order for students to visualize those whom they are studying. Such images might include photographs of the writers, musicians, historians, and athletes Abdul-Jabbar refers to in the text. You might also include images of art from the period like Aaron Douglas's mural Aspects of Negro Life. Note: You can find numerous photographs on the sites listed below as well as on the links you will find on those sites.

3. See the film, Go ManGo.

NOTE:

1) If you are teaching works by any of the following authors -- James Weldon Johnson, Jesse Redmon Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, Wallace Thurman, Countee Cullen, Richard Moore, and Langston Hughes -- you may want to incorporate this book into your teaching by incorporating the text itself as well as the activities and questions that follow.

BEFORE READING:

When approaching a text so rich with information, active reading techniques can be very helpful for students in their understanding of the text. You might want to prompt them to write in the text, using pens, pencils, and highlighters while they read (or in their notebook or on "sticky notes" if they are shared texts). Other useful methods you might want to suggest include:

Keeping vocabulary lists of words they do not know, and of people, places, and events that they'd like to find out more about.

Assigning a journal so that students can write their thoughts about each chapter as they read.

LESSON PLANS:

There is a lesson plan for each of the eight chapters in the text. Each plan includes several questions to initiate classroom discussion as well as a writing assignment to supplement it. Following the plans you will find suggested projects, additional readings, and web sites provided to give students an opportunity to enhance their understanding of the text specifically and of the Harlem Renaissance more broadly. For all of the questions, students should reference specific passages in the text for support.

Chapter One: "Some Technicolor Bazaar": How Harlem Became the Center of the Universe

1) Abdul-Jabbar says that there are two Harlems. What are they? What does saying that mean? Why is that important?

2) What were the Jim Crow laws? What influence did they have on Black culture in the twenties and thirties?

3) Abdul-Jabbar talks a lot in this chapter about real estate, property ownership, rent, living conditions, and the like. In what way did those things shape, influence, and affect the Harlem Renaissance?

4) Who were some of the "major players" in the Harlem Renaissance? What roles did they play?

5) Compare and contrast the following streets as they were during the Harlem Renaissance - Seventh Avenue, Lennox Avenue, Strivers' Row, 135th Street, and 125th Street.

Writing Assignment:

Write a response to Langston Hughes' poem "A Dream Deferred." Explain the meaning of a deferred dream. Then, provide your interpretation of the poem as a whole. Finally, share your reaction to the poem and answer the question: in your opinion, what does happen to a "dream deferred"?

Chapter Two: "Mad Medley": How Harlem Influenced My Life

1) Abdul-Jabbar was, obviously, not alive during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. In fact, he spent little time in Harlem as a kid. Yet, he says it influenced his life in a catastrophic way. How is that possible? What did it mean for him? Is there any historical event that you feel has influenced your life in a similarly dramatic fashion?

2) The relationship Abdul-Jabbar had with Coach Donahue affected him deeply. How would you characterize that relationship when it first began? What was the turning point in that relationship? How do you think Abdul-Jabbar's life might have been different had it not happened?

3) How would you characterize Abdul-Jabbar's relationship with Dr. John Henrik Clarke?

4) Malcolm X and Dr. Martin Luther King had very different approaches to achieving racial equality. Which one do you most ally yourself with, and why? Despite agreeing with one, do you see any benefit in the other?

Writing Assignment:

Respond to John Clarke's statement that, "History is not everything." What did he mean by that? Do you believe it's true? Why or why not? Give examples from both within and outside the text.

Chapter Three: "Master Intellects and Creative Giants": The 'Talented Tenth' Paints the World Black

1) Who are Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois? Compare and contrast the two. Why are they themselves as well as their differences so important to the Harlem Renaissance?

2) Marcus Garvey believed that African Americans should return to Africa. What was your reaction to reading about the "Back to Africa" movement? Why do you feel that way? Think for a moment about the view opposite your own. Can you imagine why others might see things that way as opposed to the way you see them?

3) Abdul-Jabbar details eight specific writers who were major contributors to the Harlem Renaissance. Who were they? What did they write? What did their writing do for the Harlem Renaissance? What lasting effect has their writing had over the years? How many of these writers have you read? If none, or very few, why do you think that is?

Writing Assignment:

Discuss what you believe the purpose of writing is. Based on your reading, how might the writers of the Harlem Renaissance have answered this, and how and why are your answers similar or different?

Chapter Four: "The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave": How Harlem Writers Influenced My Life

1) What importance does Abdul-Jabbar see race as playing in today's society? Do you see America as still being a racist society? If so, then in what ways?

2) Abdul-Jabbar talks about the importance of words and of naming. What examples of this can you point out both in your personal life and in contemporary U.S. culture?

3) How was Abdul-Jabbar most affected by the writers of the Harlem Renaissance? Which of those writers and which of their works affected him the most deeply, and why? Who did you most like and why?

Writing Assignment:

Explore what Sir Issac Newton's quote, "If I have seen further [than other men], it is because I have stood upon the shoulders of giants" means to Abdul-Jabbar and to you.

Chapter Five: "Fairness Creeps Out of the Soul": Basketball Comes to Harlem

1) What is the history of the Rens? How would you describe them as a team at their height? Compare and contrast the same for the Harlem Globetrotters.

2) How did economics play a role in African Americans taking their place in the world of professional sports? In what way do economics still play a role in sports today?

3) In what ways did sports during the Harlem Renaissance have a positive effect on the African American community? In what ways were the Rens good for the African American Community? Does the world of professional sports today benefit the African American Community? Providing specific examples, argue why or why not.

Writing Assignment:

Explore the meaning of this chapter's title, "Fairness Creeps Out of the Soul." Discuss that phrase's significance both to this chapter and what significance you see it having in a larger context (i.e. your own life and the world around you).

Chapter Six: "Hoping Against Hope": How the Rens Basketball Team Influenced My Life

1) What effect did the Rens have on Abdul-Jabbar? Cite examples.

2) In what way did the film Go Man Go affect Abdul-Jabbar? Is there a film that has affected you as deeply? If so, how and why? Should that be the purpose of film? To make people think? To change people's lives? To take a hold of viewers?

3) Abdul-Jabbar says basketball did not define him but rather allowed him to define himself. What is it about the team sport of basketball for Abdul-Jabbar that allows for such personal expression? Cite passages in the text.

Writing Assignment:

When people think about the Harlem Renaissance, they generally think of the traditional intellectual and creative pursuits like art, music, and literature. How, then, can Abdul-Jabbar claim that sports plays such a large role in the Harlem Renaissance? Do you see an on-going connection between sports and art, music, and literature? What role do you see the connection playing in society today?

Chapter Seven: "Musical Fireworks": Jazz Lights Up the Heavens of Harlem

1) Who are the women who made musical contributions to the Harlem Renaissance? Was it more difficult for women than for men to "make it" as musicians during the Harlem Renaissance? Why or why not? Are women's contributions to music during this period as great as their contributions to writing? Do you believe it was harder for them to "make it" in music as opposed to in writing? Or vice versa perhaps?

2) What intersection do you see between the writing and the music of the Harlem Renaissance?

Writing Assignment:

Respond to Louis Armstrong's statement that he made when asked to define jazz, "Man, if you gotta ask, you'll never know." What does that mean? Why is that significant?

Chapter Eight: "Everything Was Mostly Fun": How Jazz Influenced My Life

1) What does Abdul-Jabbar say he learned from jazz? In what ways did it influence his life? What connections does Abdul-Jabbar see as existing between jazz and basketball?

2) Abdul-Jabbar specifically mentions three jazz greats. Who does he mention? Why do you think he chose them? What specifically does he say he learned from each?

3) What music has influenced your life? In what way? Had that music not been a part of your life, in what ways do you think your life might have been different?

Writing Assignment:

Abdul-Jabbar talks about his personal connections to the Harlem Renaissance as a whole and then to literature, sports, and jazz in particular. He contends that all that he has done and all that he hopes to be has somehow come from the lives of those who contributed to the Harlem Renaissance. One might say that the literature, games, and songs are the stories, competitions, and soundtracks of his life. What are yours? Which giants' shoulders do you see yourself as standing on? Explain. What do they mean to you? What do they inspire in you? (If you can't answer this right off the top of your head, don't worry. This is a great time to consider just who those people might be for you.)

ADDITIONAL PROJECTS:

These projects can be done before, during, or after reading the text and can be done as group or individual assignments.

1) Create four timelines -- the development of Harlem as a center of African American culture, the development of African American literature, the progression of African Americans in professional sports, and the development of jazz.

2) View any of the films mentioned in the text, including, Cotton Comes to Harlem, Birth of a Nation, Brother to Brother, or Go Man Go. Write a summary of and a reaction to the film. If you view more than one, be sure to compare and contrast the films you viewed as well.

3) Read work by any of the following writers: James Weldon Johnson, Jesse Redmon Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, Wallace Thurman, Countee Cullen, Richard Moore, and Langston Hughes. Or choose work by other writers Abdul-Jabbar refers to in the text. Write a summary of and a reaction to the work you read. If you read more than one, be sure to compare and contrast the works you read as well.

4) Choose two people from the list below to research. (Or choose any others Abdul-Jabbar mentions in his writing.) Write a biographical sketch for each and then discuss their connections and/or contributions to the Harlem Renaissance.

Zora Neale Hurston Louis Armstrong Augusta Savage Claude McKay Bob Douglass Max Ewingg Marcus Garvey Father Divine James Weldon Johnson Malcolm X Wallace Thurman Walter White Roy Wilkins Rev. Adam Clayton Powell Sr.

Ralph Ellison Paul Robeson Aaron Douglas Hale Woodruff Cab Calloway Luckey Roberts Jimmie Lunceford A'Lelia Walker

Thurgood Marshall

Miles Davis John Coltrane Sarah Vaughn Duke Ellington Count Basie

5) Research any of the following and then prepare either a paper or a class presentation in which you share your findings.

a. The "Call and Response" method Abdul-Jabbar employed in writing this text, exploring both the history and examples of such

b. Jack L. Cooper and his show Search for Missing Persons

c. The Boll Weevil

d. The Dance Theatre of Harlem and its connections to the Harlem Renaissance

e. The history of the Apollo Theater

f. The Schomburg Center

6) Compare and contrast the following streets as they are now in either a paper or class presentation - Seventh Avenue, Lennox Avenue, Strivers' Row, 135th Street, and 125th Street.

7) Listen to several different pieces of jazz online, at a music store, or elsewhere, including pieces from various artists and from various periods from before, during, and after the Harlem Renaissance. Then answer the following questions in a short essay. What do you think of the music? What do you like or dislike? Which do you prefer? Why? What influences do you see in today's music that obviously came from jazz roots?

SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem. Black Profiles in Courage: A Legacy of African American Achievement

Cullen, Countee. One Way to Heaven

De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex

DuBois, W.E.B. The Philadelphia Negro, The Souls of Black Folk, John Brown

Fauset, Jessie Redmon. There is Confusion, Plum Bun, The Chinaberry Tree: A Novel of American Life, Comedy: American Style

French, Marilyn. The Women's Room

Hughes, Langston. The Weary Blues, Fine Clothes to the Jew, Not Without Laughter, Mulatto, I Wonder As I Wander, The Big Sea

Hurston, Zora Neal. Their Eyes Were Watching God, Moses, Man of the Mountain, Dust Tracks on a Road Johnson, James Weldon. The Auto-Biography of An Ex-Colored Man

Jong, Erica. Fear of Flying

McKay, Claude. Songs of Jamaica, Constab Ballads, Harlem Shadows

Moore, Richard. The Name is Negro: Its Origin and Evil Use

Niles, Blair. Strange Brother

Thurman, Wallace. The Interne, The Blacker the Berry, Harlem: A Melodrama of Negro Life in Harlem

Toomer, Jean. Cane

Van Vechten, Carl. Nigger Heaven

White, Walter. A Man Called White

For an extended bibliography, go to:

georgetown.edu/tamlit/collab_bib/harlem_bib.html

RELATED WEB SITES:

Harlem Renaissance Here you will find a short summary of the period as well as links to information about many different aspects of the Harlem Renaissance.

levity.com/corduroy/harlem.htm

The Harlem Renaissance This site includes an impressive list of sites which provide a great deal of backgrounds on the Harlem Renaissance and those involved in it. The sites listed include "biographies of writers, poets, artists, musicians, entertainers, activists, thinkers, and leaders."

42explore2.com/harlem.htm

A Hypermedia Edition of the March 1925 Survey Graphic Harlem Number This hypermedia edition takes you through an informative Survey Graphic of the Harlem Renaissance.

etext.virginia.edu/harlem/index.html

The Mississippi River of Song Here you will find information about this PBS program on music from the Harlem Renaissance. You will also find related articles and additional links.

pb.org/riverofsong/music/e2-mo-jazz.html

Art of the Harlem Renaissance This website offers information about artists active during this period. You will find both images of relevant work as well as information about the artists themselves.

iniva.org/harlem/index2.html

Circle Association's Weblinks to Harlem Renaissance An extensive timeline as well as a long list of Harlem Renaissance related weblinks are included here.

math.buffalo.edu/~sww/circle/harlem-ren-sites.html

Selected Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance: A Resource Guide Information about some of the women writers of the Harlem Renaissance is provided here.

nku.edu/~diesmanj/guides/

Harlem Renaissance This site offers information about jazz, and other, musicians who contributed to the Harlem Renaissance.

uta.edu/english/V/students/collab13/joyce.html

Harlem: 1900-1940: An African-American Community This site offers an exhibition portfolio from The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture exhibit titled Harlem: 1900-1940: An African-American Community si.umich.edu/chico/Harlem/

Drop Me Off in Harlem: Explore the Intersections Here you'll find photos, articles, additional links, and a map of Harlem as well as additional resources.

artsedge.kennedy-center.org/exploring/harlem/

Check out any place in the world on this site. You can explore Harlem as well as the writers, musicians, leaders, and others who contributed to the movement.

earth.google

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 13, 2007

    JABAR GIVES HOPE!

    This mentoring classic is a must-read for young athletes and business people of color. It clearly depicts that a clear conscience and stardom can either crossfire or become friendly fire. Inspirational and visually entertaining.

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