One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Principles and Applications [NOOK Book]

Overview

Reviews the latest research breakthroughs and applications

Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, one-dimensional nanostructures have been at the forefront of nanotechnology research, promising to provide the building blocks for a new generation of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. With contributions from 68 leading international experts, this book reviews both the underlying principles as well as the latest discoveries and applications in the field, ...

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One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Principles and Applications

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Overview

Reviews the latest research breakthroughs and applications

Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, one-dimensional nanostructures have been at the forefront of nanotechnology research, promising to provide the building blocks for a new generation of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. With contributions from 68 leading international experts, this book reviews both the underlying principles as well as the latest discoveries and applications in the field, presenting the state of the technology. Readers will find expert coverage of all major classes of one-dimensional nanostructures, including carbon nanotubes, semiconductor nanowires, organic molecule nanostructures, polymer nanofibers, peptide nanostructures, and supramolecular nanostructures. Moreover, the book offers unique insights into the future of one-dimensional nanostructures, with expert forecasts of new research breakthroughs and applications.

One-Dimensional Nanostructures collects and analyzes a wealth of key research findings and applications, with detailed coverage of:

  • Synthesis
  • Properties
  • Energy applications
  • Photonics and optoelectronics applications
  • Sensing, plasmonics, electronics, and biosciences applications

Practical case studies demonstrate how the latest applications work. Tables throughout the book summarize key information, and diagrams enable readers to grasp complex concepts and designs. References at the end of each chapter serve as a gateway to the literature in the field.

With its clear explanations of the underlying principles of one-dimensional nanostructures, this book is ideal for students, researchers, and academics in chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering. Moreover, One-Dimensional Nanostructures will help readers advance their own investigations in order to develop the next generation of applications.

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Editorial Reviews

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“The book will be valuable to researchers, academicians, and students of chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering, and will help chemical engineers advance their own investigations into the next generation of applications.” (Chemical Engineering Progress, 1 September 2013)

“It should also help readers to pursue their own investigations to develop the next generation of applications in this exciting and relatively new field.” (Chemistry & Industry, 1 June 2013)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118310366
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/19/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 576
  • File size: 87 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

TIANYOU ZHAI, PhD, is a Faculty at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, P. R. China. His research interests include the controlled fabrication, novel properties and optoelectronic applications of semiconductor nanostructures.

JIANNIAN YAO, PhD, is a Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also the chairman of the Chinese Chemical Society and the Vice President of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. His research focuses on opto-functional materials.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Contributors xix

1 One-Dimensional Semiconductor Nanostructure Growth with Templates 1
Zhang Zhang and Stephan Senz

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.2 Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) as Templates, 4

1.2.1 Synthesis of Self-Organized AAO Membrane, 4

1.2.2 Synthesis of Polycrystalline Si Nanotubes, 5

1.2.3 AAO as Template for Si Nanowire Epitaxy, 8

1.3 Conclusion and Outlook, 16

Acknowledgments, 16

References, 16

2 Metal–Ligand Systems for Construction of One-Dimensional Nanostructures 19
Rub´en Mas-Ballest´e and F´elix Zamora

2.1 Introduction, 19

2.2 Microstructures Based on 1D Coordination Polymers, 20

2.2.1 Preparation Methods, 20

2.2.2 Structures, 21

2.2.3 Shape and Size Control, 23

2.2.4 Methods for Study of Microstructures, 24

2.2.5 Formation Mechanisms, 25

2.2.6 Properties and Applications, 26

2.3 Bundles and Single Molecules on Surfaces Based on 1D Coordination Polymers, 28

2.3.1 Isolation Methods and Morphological Characterization, 28

2.3.2 Tools for the Studies at the Molecular Level, 34

2.3.3 Properties Studied at Single-Molecule Level, 36

2.4 Conclusion and Outlook, 37

Acknowledgments, 38

References, 38

3 Supercritical Fluid–Liquid–Solid (SFLS) Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires 41
Brian A. Korgel

3.1 Introduction, 41

3.2 The SFLS Growth Mechanism, 42

3.2.1 Supercritical Fluids as a Reaction Medium for VLS-Like Nanowire Growth, 43

3.2.2 SFLS-Grown Nanowires, 44

3.3 Properties and Applications of SFLS-Grown Nanowires, 51

3.3.1 Mechanical Properties, 52

3.3.2 Printed Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors, 57

3.3.3 Silicon-Nanowire-Based Lithium Ion Battery Anodes, 59

3.3.4 Semiconductor Nanowire Fabric, 60

3.3.5 Other Applications, 61

3.4 Conclusion and Outlook, 61

Acknowledgments, 62

References, 62

4 Colloidal Semiconductor Nanowires 65
Zhen Li, Gaoqing (Max) Lu, Qiao Sun, Sean C. Smith, and Zhonghua Zhu

4.1 Introduction, 65

4.2 Theoretical Calculations, 66

4.2.1 Effective Mass Multiband Method (EMMM), 66

4.2.2 Empirical Pseudopotential Method (EPM), 68

4.2.3 Charge Patching Method (CPM), 69

4.3 Synthesis of Colloidal Semiconductor Nanowires, 70

4.3.1 Oriented Attachment, 71

4.3.2 Template Strategy, 76

4.3.3 Solution–Liquid–Solid Growth, 79

4.4 Properties of Colloidal Semiconductor Nanowires, 85

4.4.1 Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanowires, 85

4.4.2 Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Nanowires, 87

4.4.3 Magnetic Properties of Semiconductor Nanowires, 89

4.5 Applications of Colloidal Semiconductor Nanowires, 90

4.5.1 Semiconductor Nanowires for Energy Conversion, 90

4.5.2 Semiconductor Nanowires in Life Sciences, 92

4.6 Conclusion and Outlook, 94

Acknowledgments, 95

References, 95

5 Core–Shell Effect on Nucleation and Growth of Epitaxial Silicide in Nanowire of Silicon 105
Yi-Chia Chou and King-Ning Tu

5.1 Introduction, 105

5.2 Core–Shell Effects on Materials, 105

5.3 Nucleation and Growth of Silicides in Silicon Nanowires, 106

5.3.1 Nanoscale Silicide Formation by Point Contact Reaction, 107

5.3.2 Supply Limit Reaction in Point Contact Reactions, 107

5.3.3 Repeating Event of Nucleation, 107

5.4 Core–Shell Effect on Nucleation of Nanoscale Silicides, 109

5.4.1 Introduction to Solid-State Nucleation, 109

5.4.2 Stepflow of Si Nanowire Growth at Silicide/Si Interface, 109

5.4.3 Observation of Homogeneous Nucleation in Silicide Epitaxial Growth, 110

5.4.4 Theory of Homogeneous Nucleation and Correlation with Experiments, 111

5.4.5 Homogeneous Nucleation–Supersaturation, 113

5.4.6 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Nucleation of Nanoscale Silicides, 113

Acknowledgments, 115

References, 115

6 Selected Properties of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 119
H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao

6.1 Introduction, 119

6.2 Structure and Properties of Graphene, 119

6.2.1 Electronic Structure, 119

6.2.2 Raman Spectroscopy, 120

6.2.3 Chemical Doping, 121

6.2.4 Electronic and Magnetic Properties, 122

6.2.5 Molecular Charge Transfer, 127

6.2.6 Decoration with Metal Nanoparticles, 128

6.3 Structure and Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, 130

6.3.1 Structure, 130

6.3.2 Raman Spectroscopy, 132

6.3.3 Electrical Properties, 133

6.3.4 Doping, 134

6.3.5 Molecular Charge Transfer, 136

6.3.6 Decoration with Metal Nanoparticles, 137

6.4 Conclusion and Outlook, 138

References, 138

7 One-Dimensional Semiconductor Nanowires: Synthesis and Raman Scattering 145
Jun Zhang, Jian Wu, and Qihua Xiong

7.1 Introduction, 145

7.2 Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of 1D Semiconductor Nanowires, 146

7.2.1 Nanowire Synthesis, 146

7.2.2 Synthesis of 1D Semiconductor Nanowires, 147

7.2.3 1D Semiconductor Heterostructures, 151

7.3 Raman Scattering in 1D Nanowires, 153

7.3.1 Phonon Confinement Effect, 153

7.3.2 Radial Breathing Modes, 155

7.3.3 Surface Phonon Modes, 156

7.3.4 Antenna Effect, 158

7.3.5 Stimulated Raman Scattering, 160

7.4 Conclusions and Outlook, 161

Acknowledgment, 161

References, 161

8 Optical Properties and Applications of Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Nanostructures 167
Yichuan Ling, Damon A. Wheeler, Jin Zhong Zhang, and Yat Li

8.1 Introduction, 167

8.2 Synthesis of 1D Hematite Nanostructures, 167

8.2.1 Nanowires, 168

8.2.2 Nanotubes, 169

8.2.3 Element-Doped 1D Hematite Structures, 170

8.3 Optical Properties, 171

8.3.1 Electronic Transitions in Hematite, 171

8.3.2 Steady-State Absorption, 172

8.3.3 Photoluminescence, 174

8.4 Charge Carrier Dynamics in Hematite, 175

8.4.1 Background on Time-Resolved Studies of Nanostructures, 175

8.4.2 Carrier Dynamics of Hematite Nanostructures, 175

8.5 Applications, 178

8.5.1 Photocatalysis, 178

8.5.2 Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting, 179

8.5.3 Photovoltaics, 180

8.5.4 Gas Sensors, 181

8.5.5 Conclusion And Outlook, 181

Acknowledgments, 181

References, 181

9 Doping Effect on Novel Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanowires 185
Bingsuo Zou, Guozhang Dai, and Ruibin Liu

9.1 Introduction, 185

9.2 Results and Discussion, 185

9.2.1 Bound Exciton Condensation in Mn(II)-Doped ZnO Nanowire, 185

9.2.2 Fe(III)-Doped ZnO Nanowire and Visible Emission Cavity Modes, 192

9.2.3 Sn(IV) Periodically Doped CdS Nanowire and Coupled Optical Cavity Modes, 199

9.3 Conclusion and Outlook, 203

Acknowledgment, 203

References, 203

10 Quantum Confinement Phenomena in Bioinspired and Biological Peptide Nanostructures 207
Gil Rosenman and Nadav Amdursky

10.1 Introduction, 207

10.2 Bioinspired Peptide Nanostructures, 208

10.3 Peptide Nanostructured Materials (PNM): Intrinsic Basic Physics, 209

10.4 Experimental Techniques With Peptide Nanotubes (PNTs), 209

10.4.1 PNT Vapor Deposition Method, 209

10.4.2 PNT Patterning, 211

10.5 Quantum Confinement in PNM Structures, 212

10.5.1 Quantum Dot Structure in Peptide Nanotubes and Spheres, 212

10.5.2 Structurally Induced Quantum Dot–to–Quantum Well Transition in Peptide Hydrogels, 219

10.5.3 Quantum Well Structure in Vapor-Deposited Peptide Nanofibers, 221

10.5.4 Thermally Induced Phase Transition in Peptide Quantum Structures, 225

10.5.5 Quantum Confinement in Amyloid Proteins, 229

10.6 Conclusions, 231

Acknowledgment, 233

References, 233

11 One-Dimensional Nanostructures for Energy Harvesting 237
Zhiyong Fan, Johnny C. Ho, and Baoling Huang

11.1 Introduction, 237

11.2 Growth and Fabrication of 1D Nanomaterials, 237

11.2.1 Generic Vapor-Phase Growth, 237

11.2.2 Direct Assembly of 1D Nanomaterials with Template-Based Growth, 238

11.3 1D Nanomaterials for Solar Energy Harvesting, 240

11.3.1 Fundamentals of Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices, 240

11.3.2 Performance Limiting Factors of Nanowire Solar Cells, 241

11.3.3 Investigation of Nanowire Array Properties, 242

11.3.4 Photovoltaic Devices Based on 1D Nanomaterial Arrays, 244

11.4 1D Nanomaterials for Piezoelectric Energy Conversion, 247

11.4.1 Piezoelectric Properties of ZnO Nanowires, 248

11.4.2 ZnO Nanowire Array Nanogenerators, 249

11.5 1D Nanomaterials for Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, 253

11.5.1 Thermoelectric Transport Properties, 254

11.5.2 Enhancement of ZT : From Bulk to Nanoscale, 256

11.5.3 Thermoelectric Nanowires, 257

11.5.4 Characterization of Thermoelectric Behavior of Nanowires, 261

11.6 Summary and Outlook, 263

Acknowledgment, 264

References, 264

12 p –n Junction Silicon Nanowire Arrays For Photovoltaic Applications 271
Jun Luo and Jing Zhu

12.1 Introduction, 271

12.2 Fabrication Of p − n Junction Silicon Nanowire Arrays, 271

12.2.1 Top–Down Approach, 271

12.2.2 Bottom–UP Approach, 273

12.3 Characterization of p − n Junctions in Silicon Nanowire Arrays, 274

12.4 Photovoltaic Application of p − n Junction Silicon Nanowire Arrays, 277

12.4.1 Photovoltaic Devices Based on Axial Junction Nanowire Arrays, 277

12.4.2 Photovoltaic Devices Based on Radial Junction Nanowire Arrays, 282

12.4.3 Photovoltaic Devices Based on Individual Junction Nanowires, 285

12.5 Conclusion and Outlook, 288

Acknowledgment, 291

References, 292

13 One-Dimensional Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Lithium Ion Batteries 295
Huiqiao Li, De Li, and Haoshen Zhou

13.1 Introduction, 295

13.2 Operating Principles of Lithium Ion Batteries, 295

13.3 Advantages of Nanomaterials for Lithium Batteries, 296

13.4 Cathode Materials of 1D Nanostructure, 297

13.4.1 Background, 297

13.4.2 Vanadium-Based Oxides, 298

13.4.3 Manganese-Based Oxides, 303

13.5 Anode Materials of 1D Nanostructure, 307

13.5.1 Background, 307

13.5.2 Titanium Oxides Based on Intercalation Reaction, 307

13.5.3 Metal Oxides Based on Conventional Reaction, 311

13.5.4 Tin- or Silicon-Based Materials, 313

13.6 Challenges and Perspectives of Nanomaterials, 315

13.7 Conclusion, 316

References, 317

14 Carbon Nanotube (CNT)-Based High-Performance Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices 321
Lian-Mao Peng, Zhiyong Zhang, Sheng Wang, and Yan Li

14.1 Introduction, 321

14.2 Controlled Growth Of Single-Walled CNT (SWCNT) Arrays on Substrates, 322

14.2.1 Catalysts for Growth of SWCNT Arrays, 322

14.2.2 Orientation Control of SWCNTs, 323

14.2.3 Position, Density, and Diameter Control of SWCNTs, 323

14.2.4 Bandgap and Property Control of SWCNTs, 323

14.3 Doping-Free Fabrication and Performance of CNT FETs, 324

14.3.1 High-Performance n- and p-Type CNT FETs, 325

14.3.2 Integration of High-κ Materials with CNT FETs, 326

14.3.3 Comparisons between Si- and CNT-Based FETs, 327

14.3.4 Temperature Performance of CNT FETs, 329

14.4 CNT-Based Optoelectronic Devices, 331

14.4.1 CNT-Based p–n Junction and Diode Characteristics, 331

14.4.2 CNT Photodetectors, 331

14.4.3 CNT Light Emitting Diodes, 333

14.5 Outlook, 335

Acknowledgment, 336

References, 336

15 Properties and Devices of Single One-Dimensional Nanostructure: Application of Scanning Probe Microscopy 339
Wei-Guang Xie, Jian-Bin Xu, and Jin An

15.1 Introduction, 339

15.2 Atomic Structures and Density of States, 340

15.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes, 340

15.2.2 Defects, 342

15.2.3 One-Dimensional Nanostructure of Silicon, 343

15.2.4 Other One-Dimensional Nanostructures, 344

15.2.5 Atomic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes by Atomic Force Microscopy, 344

15.3 In situ Device Characterization, 345

15.4 Substrate Effects, 350

15.5 Surface Effects, 351

15.6 Doping, 353

15.7 Summary, 356

Acknowledgments, 356

References, 356

16 More Recent Advances in One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanostructures: Optical and Optoelectronic Applications 359
Lei Liao and Xiangfeng Duan

16.1 Introduction, 359

16.2 Synthesis and Physical Properties of 1D Metal Oxide, 359

16.2.1 Top–Down Method, 360

16.2.2 Bottom–Up Approach, 360

16.2.3 Physical Properties of 1D Metal Oxide Nanostructures, 360

16.3 More Recent Advances in Device Application Based on 1D Metal Oxide Nanostructures, 360

16.3.1 Waveguides, 361

16.3.2 LEDs, 363

16.3.3 Lasing, 367

16.3.4 Solar Cells, 371

16.3.5 Photodetectors, 373

16.4 Challenges and Perspectives, 374

Acknowledgments, 375

References, 375

17 Organic One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Construction and Optoelectronic Properties 381
Yong Sheng Zhao and Jiannian Yao

17.1 Introduction, 381

17.2 Construction Strategies, 382

17.2.1 Self-Assembly in Liquid Phase, 382

17.2.2 Template-Induced Growth, 382

17.2.3 Synthesis of Organic 1D Nanocomposites in Liquid Phase, 383

17.2.4 Morphology Control with Molecular Design, 384

17.2.5 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), 386

17.3 Optoelectronic Properties, 387

17.3.1 Multicolor Emission, 387

17.3.2 Electroluminescence and Field Emission, 387

17.3.3 Optical Waveguides, 388

17.3.4 Lasing, 389

17.3.5 Tunable Emission from Binary Organic Nanowires, 390

17.3.6 Waveguide Modulation, 391

17.3.7 Chemical Vapor Sensors, 392

17.4 Conclusion and Perspectives, 393

Acknowledgment, 393

References, 394

18 Controllable Growth and Assembly of One-Dimensional Structures of Organic Functional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications 397
Lang Jiang, Huanli Dong, and Wenping Hu

18.1 Introduction, 397

18.2 Synthetic Methods for Producing 1D Organic Nanostructures, 398

18.2.1 Vapor Methods, 398

18.2.2 Solution Methods, 399

18.3 Controllable Growth and Assembly of 1D Ordered Nanostructures, 400

18.3.1 Template/Mold-Assisted Methods, 400

18.3.2 Substrate-Induced Methods, 400

18.3.3 External-Force-Assisted Growth, 400

18.4 Optoelectronic Applications of 1D Nanostructures, 405

18.4.1 Organic Photovoltaic Cells, 405

18.4.2 Organic Field-Effect Transistors, 406

18.4.3 Photoswitches and Phototransistors, 408

18.5 Conclusion and Outlook, 408

Acknowledgments, 410

References, 410

19 Type II Antimonide-Based Superlattices: A One-Dimensional Bulk Semiconductor 415
Manijeh Razeghi and Binh-Minh Nguyen

19.1 Introduction, 415

19.2 Material System and Variants of Type II Superlattices, 415

19.2.1 The 6.1 Angstrom Family, 415

19.2.2 Type II InAs/GaSb Superlattices, 416

19.2.3 Variants of Sb-Based Superlattices, 416

19.3 One-Dimensional Physics of Type II Superlattices, 418

19.3.1 Qualitative Description of Type II Superlattices, 418

19.3.2 Numerical Calculation of Type II Superlattice Band Structure, 421

19.3.3 Band Structure Result, 424

19.3.4 M Structure Superlattices, 427

19.4 Type II Superlattices for Infrared Detection and Imaging, 428

19.4.1 Theoretical Modeling and Device Architecture Optimization, 428

19.4.2 Material Growth and Structural Characterization, 428

19.4.3 Device Fabrication, 429

19.4.4 Integrated Measurement System, 429

19.4.5 Focal Plane Arrays and Infrared Imaging, 430

19.5 Summary, 432

Acknowledgments, 432

References, 433

20 Quasi One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Gas Sensors 435
Andrea Ponzoni, Guido Faglia, and Giorgio Sberveglieri

20.1 Introduction, 435

20.2 Working Principle, 435

20.2.1 Electrical Conduction in Metal Oxides, 435

20.2.2 Adsorption/Desorption Phenomena, 436

20.2.3 Transduction Mechanism, 436

20.2.4 Sensor Response Parameters, 438

20.3 Bundled Nanowire Devices, 438

20.3.1 Integration of Nanowires into Functional Devices, 438

20.3.2 Conductometric Gas Sensors, 439

20.4 Single-Nanowire Devices, 442

20.4.1 Integration of Nanowires into Functional Devices, 442

20.4.2 Role of Electrical Contacts, 442

20.4.3 Conductometric Gas Sensors, 443

20.4.4 Field-Effect Transistor (FET) Devices Based on Single Nanowires, 445

20.5 Electronic Nose, 445

20.5.1 Chemical Sensitization, 446

20.5.2 Gradient Array (KAMINA Platform), 446

20.5.3 Mixed Arrays, 447

20.6 Optical Gas Sensors, 447

20.6.1 Experimental Observations, 448

20.6.2 Working Mechanism, 448

20.7 Conclusions, 450

Acknowledgments, 450

References, 450

21 One-Dimensional Nanostructures in Plasmonics 455
Xuefeng Gu, Teng Qiu, and Paul K. Chu

21.1 Introduction, 455

21.2 1D plasmonic Waveguides, 456

21.2.1 Tradeoff between Light Confinement and Propagation Length, 456

21.2.2 Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) Propagation along Nanoparticle Chains, 456

21.2.3 SPP Propagation along Nanowires, 457

21.2.4 Hybrid Waveguiding Nanostructures, 457

21.2.5 Enhanced SPP Coupling between Nanowires and External Devices, 457

21.3 1D Nanostructures in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, 459

21.3.1 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, 459

21.3.2 Nanowires in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, 460

21.3.3 Nanorods in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, 461

21.3.4 Nanotubes in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, 462

21.4 Plasmonic 1D Nanostructures in Photovoltaics, 464

21.4.1 Solar Cells with 1D Nanostructures as Building Elements, 465

21.4.2 Plasmonic 1D Nanostructures for Improved Photovoltaics, 466

21.5 Conclusion And Outlook, 467

Acknowledgments, 469

References, 469

22 Lateral Metallic Nanostructures for Spintronics 473
Marius V. Costache, Bart J. van Wees, and Sergio O. Valenzuela

22.1 Introduction, 473

22.2 Introduction to Spin Transport in 1D Systems, 474

22.3 Fabrication Techniques For Lateral Spin Devices, 476

22.3.1 Electron Beam Lithography, 476

22.3.2 Multistep Process Using Ion Milling for Clean Interfaces, 476

22.3.3 Shadow Evaporation Technique for Tunnel Barriers, 476

22.4 Examples of Devices Fabricated Using The Shadow Evaporation Technique, 478

Acknowledgments, 481

References, 481

23 One-Dimensional Inorganic Nanostructures for Field Emitters 483
Tianyou Zhai, Xi Wang, Liang Li, Yoshio Bando, and Dmitri Golberg

23.1 Introduction, 483

23.2 Key Factors Affecting Field Emission (FE) Performance of 1D Nanostructures, 484

23.2.1 Morphology Effects, 484

23.2.2 Phase Structure Effects, 490

23.2.3 Temperature Effects, 490

23.2.4 Light Illumination Effects, 491

23.2.5 Gas Exposure Effects, 492

23.2.6 Substrate Effects, 492

23.2.7 Gap Effects, 493

23.2.8 Composition Effects, 493

23.2.9 Hetero/branched Structure Effects, 496

23.3 Conclusion and Outlook, 497

Acknowledgment, 499

References, 499

24 One-Dimensional Field-Effect Transistors 503
Joachim Knoch

24.1 Introduction, 503

24.2 An Introduction to Field-Effect Transistors, 503

24.2.1 Fundamental Properties of Field-Effect Transistors, 503

24.2.2 One-Dimensional Geometry of Nanowires and Nanotubes, 505

24.2.3 Density of States or Quantum Capacitance, 506

24.3 One-Dimensional FETs, 508

24.3.1 Impact of Dimensionality and Dependence on Effective Mass: 1D versus 2D, 508

24.3.2 Scaling to Quantum Capacitance Limit: Intrinsic Device Performance, 508

24.3.3 Extrinsic Device Performance, 510

24.4 Conclusion and Outlook, 512

References, 512

25 Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors for Electrical Interfacing with Cells and Tissue 515
Bozhi Tian

25.1 Introduction, 515

25.1.1 How Nanowire (NW) Sensors Work, 515

25.1.2 Nanoscale Morphology for Cellular Interfacing, 516

25.2 Discussion, 516

25.2.1 Device Fabrication and Basic Characteristics, 516

25.2.2 Advantages of NWFET Sensing and Recording Systems, 517

25.2.3 Extracellular Interfaces of NWFET and Tissue/Cells, 518

25.2.4 Intracellular Interfaces of NWFET and Cells, 524

25.3 Conclusion and Outlook, 526

Acknowledgment, 528

References, 528

Author Biographies 531

Index 551

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 25, 2012

    Halik

    Is this a cat clan or a dog pack?

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 25, 2012

    Cloud

    Wolf

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