One Man's Castle: Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream

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In this buried chapter of American history, a nearly forgotten case of famed attorney Clarence Darrow comes hauntingly to the surface. In 1925 the NAACP approached Darrow to defend Ossian Sweet — a highly respected black doctor who, after integrating an all-white neighborhood in Detroit, found himself the victim of a community attack. When Sweet and his family fought back, they were caught in a melee in which a white man was fatally shot.

The trial that ensued, one of the most ...

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Overview

In this buried chapter of American history, a nearly forgotten case of famed attorney Clarence Darrow comes hauntingly to the surface. In 1925 the NAACP approached Darrow to defend Ossian Sweet — a highly respected black doctor who, after integrating an all-white neighborhood in Detroit, found himself the victim of a community attack. When Sweet and his family fought back, they were caught in a melee in which a white man was fatally shot.

The trial that ensued, one of the most urgent and compelling in the nation's history, would test the basic tenets of the American Dream — the right of a man to defend his own home.

Tautly researched and harrowingly reported, One Man's Castle is an "important slice of American legal history and the history of the civil rights" (Kirkus Reviews).

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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
In this engaging narrative, Vine (Families in Pain) uses the harrowing prosecution of Dr. Ossian Sweet for murder to chronicle the deplorable state of race relations throughout the country in the early decades of the last century. Born in 1894 in the segregated town of Bartow, Fla., Sweet managed to obtain a medical degree, study in Europe and establish himself as a promising member of Detroit's emerging "black bourgeoisie" while still in his late 20s. Having witnessed a lynching as a seven-year-old child, Sweet was anything but naïve about the dangers faced by blacks who tried to cross the racial divide that permeated every aspect of American society during the Jim Crow era. Vine sets the stage for the central courtroom drama by summarizing critical events that shaped the racial climate, which included the release of D.W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation, a reinvigorated Ku Klux Klan, rigid segregation and the exodus of Southern blacks to the factories of the North. Aware of these factors, Sweet kept a low profile when buying a house on a mainly white street in Detroit. Nevertheless, a mob assembled within a day and began hurling rocks and racial epithets. Not to be intimidated, Sweet and others in the house fired back at the crowd, killing one man and injuring another. Murder charges followed. Fortunately, the NAACP was able to persuade the renowned Clarence Darrow to take up the defense in 1925. In the end, Vine offers a stark reminder of our history of racial intolerance. (Apr.) Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Library Journal
Most people associate Clarence Darrow with his defense of evolution in the famous Scopes Monkey trial, popularized in the play and film Inherit the Wind. Not as commonly known is that in 1925, shortly after that trial, Darrow was persuaded by James Weldon Johnson of the NAACP to lead the defense in another high-profile case. The day after moving into a house he had bought in a white Detroit neighborhood, Ossian Sweet, a black doctor, faced a KKK-led mob. In the aftermath, he was arrested for the murder of one of his assailants. While this story has the makings of a powerful legal thriller, it becomes much more in the hands of historian Vine. It is the biography of "an exceptional man" (Sweet), the saga of the black bourgeoisie and the black exodus from the South, the emergence of the NAACP as a force for social justice, and a sociological portrait of Detroit in a racially charged time. More than 30 pages of notes and a lengthy bibliography attest to Vine's diligent research. This is a rare hybrid-an important book that will appeal to both a popular and a scholarly audience. Highly recommended for all libraries.-Thomas A. Karel, Franklin & Marshall Coll. Lib., Lancaster, PA Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
The exhumation of a long-buried incident in the civil-rights struggle-and a cobwebby corner of the great lawyer Clarence Darrow's career. In the 1920s, writes historian and journalist Vine (Families in Pain, not reviewed), a resurgent Ku Klux Klan made significant inroads into many cities outside the South, its organizers having "carved the country into nine regional markets, franchises of hate" and recruited more than a thousand "kleagles," or salesmen, to spread word of the racist ideology. The Klan made a surprisingly strong showing in Detroit, where, on a hot late-summer day in 1925, a mob besieged the home of an African-American obstetrician named Ossian Sweet, located "in a so-called white neighborhood" whose residents had hitherto merely gawked at the newcomers. In the ensuing fracas, a white man was shot to death, and Sweet was charged with the crime. Enter Clarence Darrow, recruited to defend Sweet through the offices of NAACP leader James Weldon Johnson. The NAACP, writes Vine, "was looking for someone with a reputation that could engender the support of the larger constituency of liberal whites and middle-class blacks," and Darrow was perfect for the job and conducted the defense with his customary high-toned but careful argumentation. Vine places well the Sweet affair in the context of the vicious racial climate of the period, when lynchings were commonplace and racially motivated rioting destroyed several cities, including Tulsa and East St. Louis, and killed hundreds. She is also a thoughtful commentator on the origins of the organized civil-rights movement and the contributions of great leaders such as Johnson and W.E.B. Du Bois. Her account of the trial itself is sometimesa little vague; Darrow may well have "displayed his gifts for romancing jurors," but the reader is left to guess just how at turns. Still, her re-creation of key moments in the trial ably demonstrates just why Darrow merits his ongoing reputation as one of the country's most capable attorneys. An important slice of American legal history and the history of civil rights. Agent: Anne Edelstein/Anne Edelstein Literary Agency
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780060938277
  • Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
  • Publication date: 2/1/2005
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 384

Meet the Author

Phyllis Vine is an American historian who has taught at Sarah Lawrence College, the University of Michigan, Union College, and Barnard College. A graduate of the Columbia School of Journalism, she has written for The Nation, the Progressive, and Parents magazine. Her first book, Families in Pain, was groundbreaking in addressing the problems facing families of the mentally ill. Phyllis Vine lives in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York.

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Table of Contents

Prologue 1
Chapter 1 Florida: "Incomparable and Indescribable" 7
Chapter 2 The Education of Ossian Sweet 22
Chapter 3 Moving Up 45
Chapter 4 Getting Settled 57
Chapter 5 "Detroit the Dynamic" 71
Chapter 6 Two Cities: Vienna and Paris 91
Chapter 7 2905 Garland Avenue 102
Chapter 8 James Weldon Johnson and the NAACP 120
Chapter 9 Send Walter White 136
Chapter 10 Clarence Darrow Sets the Stage 150
Chapter 11 "Nobody Is Molesting You" 161
Chapter 12 Your Fight/My Fight 178
Chapter 13 The Night of September 9 189
Chapter 14 His Home Is His Castle 206
Chapter 15 A Reasonable Man? 224
Chapter 16 More Than a Partial Victory 237
Chapter 17 A Trial Fair 245
Chapter 18 The Darker Brother 261
Epilogue: After the Trials 269
Endnotes 273
Bibliography 307
Acknowledgments 315
Index 319
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First Chapter

One Man's Castle
Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream

Chapter One

Florida:
"Incomparable and Indescribable"

When he was seven years old, Ossian Sweet witnessed a lynching. It was spring in the Peace River Valley, a time for recitals, fishing, and garden parties. Sweet was meandering home along the banks of the Peace River in Bartow, Florida, when he saw a mob escorting a black hostage named Fred Rochelle. The very sight of Rochelle sent him under cover near the river's shore, where he hid, quiet as a rock, under the freckled canopy of a cypress tree while the white men went about the business of claiming their vengeance.

Rochelle's crime was murder. Late in the month of May he had brutally killed a white woman, Rene Taggart, a hometown favorite and bride of the local baker. One morning she had been fishing in the Peace River, and by noon she had had as much of the Florida sun as she could take. As her boat came closer, Rochelle, a drifter, stood alert, watching her from the bridge spanning the river. Perhaps he accidentally passed by, but locals believed he followed her to settle a vendetta against her husband.

When Taggart stepped onto land, Rochelle lunged at her. He came from behind but she fought back. He pulled her down but she struggled to get up, to run away toward the swamp. She lost her footing. Stronger and faster, he overpowered her and slit her throat. Then he fled, running into the woods, leaving her on shore to bleed to death. It happened so fast that the only thing the single eyewitness could do was run for help.

It took little time to form a posse, while white and black men gathered a team of bloodhounds to follow his trail. For the next day and a half, rumor and anticipation sputtered through town. The Courier-Informant announced lynching almost certain long before the bloodhounds picked up his scent. The local paper proved prescient. Lynchings were ubiquitous in the land of Dixie, especially when a white woman was the victim and a black man was said to be at fault. Florida had its share. Because racial hostility was not as apparent in Bartow as in other Florida towns, locals fostered the conceit that somehow their town remained above the violence.

Townsmen focused on finding Rochelle. Two black men in the posse took him captive. They brought him back to town and turned him over to the sheriff. Ten minutes later, vigilantes whisked him away.

Everybody knew Rochelle would be lynched. As was the custom, white children were escorted to a local waterfall, Kissingen Springs. It was a bucolic setting, three miles out of town, popular with locals and tourists. The adults expected youngsters to fish, picnic, and leap from the diving platform, while at home they took care of business.

Sweet stood by as the sun was setting, watching the mob bring in Rochelle, who was tied and bound on horseback. Sweet saw them methodically and purposefully prepare a pyre. First they placed a barrel on the bridge over the Peace River, at the same spot where Rochelle stood before he attacked Rene Taggart. Then they arranged a combustible heap, piling scraps of wood and kindling around the barrel, which they doused with coal oil so it would ignite and burst into flames quickly when brushed by fire.

When the entire posse had assembled, Rochelle was dragged to the spot and tied securely. The mob poured drinks for spectators while he cried for mercy. They ignored him and instead behaved as if they were guests at one of the popular outdoor parties. Eventually Mr. Taggart was ready, and they took their places so he could strike a match. For the next eight minutes, Rochelle shrieked. Flames climbed up his legs, formed a curtain around his torso, draped his face. After the flames died back, souvenir hunters pocketed pieces of his charred remains -- a digit, a part of his femur, a piece of his foot.

The orderliness of this ritual would have terrified anybody. It is hard to imagine what went through the mind of a young Ossian Sweet. He could not have understood how the event was based on the bizarre etiquette of frontier justice, governed by a set of informally sanctioned rules of racial retribution as binding as any codified by legal doctrine. But it was routine. Accounts of lynchings usually portrayed mobs with a mannered courtesy that belied their brutal violence, and convention implied that justice was at work, that the mob was the equivalent of a jury in deliberation. The ritual brought them pride.

Rochelle's lynching and the children's trip out of town were part of a scripted protocol, as was the convention that dictated the charade of justice when the posse handed Rochelle over to the sheriff who, in turn, handed him to the mob. As always, the Courier-Informant described the mob as "quiet but determined."

Not much was ever learned about Rochelle except that a sister lived in nearby Tiger Bay. Rumors spewed forth from the white community about why he did it, but the best they could figure was Rochelle was settling some kind of grudge against Mr. Taggart. Prominent members of the black community tried to portray Rochelle's crime as the inexplicable act of a deranged man, lest the stigma brush them with shame.

Newspapers from Sacramento, California, to New York City carried the story on their front pages. Indictments may have been reflected in the national spotlight, but on Bartow's front porches blacks and whites hoped to put the event behind them. Elected officials tried to pacify the black community with an invitation for the African Methodist Episcopal Church, suggesting it hold its annual convention in Bartow. Local black church officials were not so sure this idea was good, referring to Bartow as "a hot-bed of South Florida 'crackerdom' accentuated by a human barbecue."

Whatever leaders of the black and white communities did to blunt the aftermath, it did little to diminish the impact of the horrifying scene for Ossian Sweet. Twenty-five years later, he would recall the details of the sickly smell of cooked flesh for a jury in a packed courtroom ...

One Man's Castle
Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream
. Copyright © by Phyllis Vine. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.
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