Ontogeny, Cell Differentiation, and Structure of Vascular Plants

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642736377
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 581
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 1.21 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Growth and Tissues.- 2 General Characteristics of Vascular Plants.- 3 Succinct Classification of Vascular Plants.- 4 The Two Phases of Sporophyte Development.- I Embryogeny and Post-embryonic Ontogeny.- 1 Segmentation and First Edification of the Sporophyte.- 1.1 Embryogeny in Atmospheric Medium.- 1.1.1 The Environment of the Zygote.- 1.1.1.1 The Prothallus is Free.- 1.1.1.2 The Prothallus is Enclosed.- The Prothallus is Acrescent.- The Prothallus is Resorbed.- 1.1.2 The Regularity of the Segmentation.- 1.1.3 Seed Plants and Plants Without Seeds.- 1.2 Embryogeny of Pteridophytes.- 1.2.1 Early Segmentations of the Zygote.- 1.2.2 Embryogeny of Psilotales.- 1.2.3 Embryogeny of Lycopodineae.- 1.2.3.1 Aliguleae (Lycopodium-Phylloglossum).- Type Lycopodium selago.- Type Lycopodium clavatum.- Type Lycopodium cernuum.- 1.2.3.2 Liguleae.- Genus Selaginella.- Genus Isoetes.- 1.2.4 Embryogeny of Equisetales.- 1.2.5 Embryogeny of Ferns.- 1.2.5.1 Eusporangiate Ferns.- 1.2.5.2 Leptosporangiate Ferns.- 1.2.6 Conclusions.- 1.3 Embryogeny of Prephanerogams.- 1.3.1 Embryogeny of Cycadales.- 1.3.2 Embryogeny of Ginkgoales.- 1.3.3 Conclusions.- 1.4 Embryogeny of Gymnosperms.- 1.4.1 The Formation of the Proembryo.- 1.4.2 The Formation of the Suspensor and the Embryo.- 1.4.3 Conclusions.- 1.5 Embryogeny of Preangiosperms.- 1.5.1 Fertilization in Gnetales.- 1.5.2 Embryogeny of Ephedra.- 1.5.3 Embryogeny of Welwitschia.- 1.5.4 Embryogeny of Gnetum.- 1.5.5 Conclusions.- 1.6 Embryogeny of Angiosperms.- 1.6.1 The Proembryo.- 1.6.1.1 Edification of the Proembryo of Myosurus minimus (Soueges, 1911).- 1.6.1.2 Variants and Their Signification.- 1.6.2 The Embryo.- 1.6.2.1 Dicotyledons:.- Edification of the Embryo of Myosurus minimus.- 1.6.2.2 Monocotyledons:.- Edification of the Embryo of Sagittaria sagittaefolia.- 1.6.2.3 Significance of the “Cotyledon” of the Monocotyledons.- 1.6.3 Some Cytological Data on the Embryogeny of Angiosperms.- 1.6.3.1 The Zygote.- 1.6.3.2 The Suspensor.- 1.6.3.3 The Embryo.- 1.6.3.4 The Plantlet in the Mature Seed.- 1.7 General Considerations on the Embryogeny of Vascular Plants.- 1.7.1 The Geometry of Segmentation and its Results.- 1.7.2 Predestination or Epigenesis.- 1.7.3 Segmentation and Organogenesis.- 1.7.4 Formation of Organogenic Cells, Cytological Results of Embryogenesis.- 1.7.5 Dedifferentiation at the Origin of Ontogenesis.- 1.7.6 The Embryonic Differentiation.- References.- 2 Meristems and the Indefinite Ontogeny of Plants.- 2.1 Apical Meristems.- 2.1.1 Ontogenetic Function of Apical Meristems.- 2.1.2 Histological Structure of Shoot Apical Meristems.- 2.1.2.1 Successive Concepts.- The “Apical Cell”, Single Initial.- The Histogens.- Schmidt’s Interpretation.- The Initiating Ring (Anneau Initial) and the Critic of the Apical Initiation.- 2.1.2.2 Shoot Apical Meristems of Pteridophytes.- Advanced Pteridophytes.- Primitive Pteridophytes.- 2.1.2.3 Apical Meristems of Prephanerogams (Prespermaphytes).- 2.1.2.4 Apical Meristems of Gymnosperms.- 2.1.2.5 Apical Meristems of Angiosperms.- 2.1.3 Histological Structure of Root Meristems.- 2.1.3.1 Pteridophytes.- 2.1.3.2 Phanerogams.- 2.1.4 Cytological Structure of Apical Meristems.- 2.1.4.1 Primary Meristematic Cells.- 2.1.4.2 Rib (Medullary) Meristem Cells.- 2.1.5 Functioning of Shoot Apical Meristems.- 2.1.6 Organization of the Primary Structure of the Leafy Stem.- 2.1.6.1 Initiation of Leaves.- 2.1.6.2 Formation of Leaf Buttresses.- 2.1.6.3 Evolution of the Leaf Base.- 2.1.6.4 The Two Ontogenic Composing Parts of the Stem.- 2.1.6.5 The Organization of Leaf Segments.- 2.1.6.6 Components of the “Primary Structure”.- 2.1.7 Establishment of the Primary Structure of the Root.- 2.2 Secondary Meristems.- 2.2.1 Origin and Function of Secondary Meristems.- 2.2.2 The “Prodesmogen” and the Vascular Cambium.- 2.2.3 The Phellogen (Cork Cambium).- 2.2.3.1 The First Phellogen Layer.- 2.2.3.2 Renewal of the Phellogen.- 2.2.4 The Cambium of Monocotyledons.- 2.2.5 Cytological Features of Secondary Meristems.- 2.2.6 Cytology and Meristematic Potentialities.- 2.2.7 Distribution of Secondary Meristems in Vascular Plants.- References.- 3 Cytology of the Processes of Differentiation and Dedifferentiation During the Ontogeny of Vascular Plants.- 3.1 The Plasticity of Plant Cells.- 3.2 General Cytological Scheme of Differentiation.- 3.2.1 Development of the Nucleus, the Cytoplasm and Vacuoles.- 3.2.2 Development of the Chondriome.- 3.2.3 Development of the Cell Wall.- 3.2.3.1 Relations Between Cytoplasm and Cell Wall.- 3.2.3.2 Heterogeneity of the Cell Wall Structure: Cell Wall Layers.- 3.2.3.3 Origin of the Cell Wall and the Middle Lamella.- 3.2.3.4 The Primary Cell Wall.- 3.2.3.5 The Secondary Cell Wall.- 3.2.3.6 Changes in the Secondary Cell Wall.- 3.3 The Course of the Differentiation.- 3.3.1 The First Phase.- 3.3.2 The Second Phase.- 3.4 The Main Types of Tissues.- 3.5 Processes of Dedifferentiation in the Course of Ontogeny.- 3.5.1 Circumstances of Dedifferentiation.- 3.5.2 The Phases of Dedifferentiation.- 3.5.3 Dedifferentiation and Mode of Growth.- References.- II Histological Differentiation of Vascular Plants.- 4 Parenchyma.- 4.1 General Characteristics.- 4.2 Main Types of Parenchyma.- 4.2.1 Assimilatory Parenchyma.- 4.2.2 Storage Parenchyma.- 4.3 Intercellular Relations and Morphology of Cells.- 4.4 Secondary Parenchyma.- 4.5 Parenchyma in the Series of Vascular Plants.- References.- 5 Protective Tissues.- A. Epidermis.- 5.1 Histological, Ontogenic and Chemical Characteristics.- 5.2 Epidermal Cells.- 5.2.1 Common Epidermal Cells.- 5.2.2 Stomatal Cells (Guard Cells).- 5.2.2.1 Cell Wall Differentiation of Stomatal Cells.- 5.2.2.2 Ontogenesis and Classification of Stomata.- 5.2.2.3 Ultrastructure of Stomatal Cells.- 5.2.2.4 Cytophysiology of Stomata.- 5.2.3 Trichomes.- 5.2.3.1 Protective Trichomes.- 5.2.3.2 Secretory or Glandular Trichomes.- 5.2.3.3 Development of Trichomes.- 5.2.4 Secretory Epidermis.- 5.2.5 Lithocysts.- 5.2.6 Other Types of Epidermal Cells.- 5.3 Multiseriate Epidermis.- 5.4 Cytophysiological Problems Related to the Differentiation of Epidermis.- 5.5 Epidermal Productions in Vascular Plants.- B. Cork (Phellem).- 5.6 Origin of Cork: Primary and Secondary Cork.- 5.7 Differentiation of Cork Cells.- 5.8 Primary Cork.- 5.9 Secondary Cork (Peridermal Cork).- 5.10 Storied Cork of Arborescent Monocotyledons.- 5.11 Lenticels.- References.- 6 Phloem.- 6.1 Characteristic Cell Element: The “Sieve Cell”.- 6.1.1 Cell Wall Differentiations.- 6.1.2 The Contents of Sieve Cells.- 6.1.2.1 The Nucleus.- 6.1.2.2 Plastids and Mihondria.- 6.1.2.3 The “Slime Bodies” or P-Proteins.- 6.1.2.4 Cytoplasm and Vacuoles.- 6.2 Relations Between Sieve Cells, and Between Sieve Cells and Adjacent Cells.- 6.2.1 Differentiation of Sieve Plates.- 6.2.2 Differentiation in Lateral Walls.- 6.3 Companion Cells.- 6.4 The Phloem Parenchyma.- 6.4.1 “Vertical” Phloem Parenchyma (Axial Parenchyma).- 6.4.2 “Horizontal” Phloem Parenchyma (Ray Parenchyma).- 6.4.3 Phloem Parenchyma Pits.- 6.4.4 Some Cyhemical Data.- 6.5 Phloem Fibres.- 6.6 Primary Phloem.- 6.6.1 Protophloem.- 6.6.2 Metaphloem.- 6.7 Secondary Phloem.- 6.7.1 Secondary Phloem of Gymnosperms.- 6.7.2 Secondary Phloem of Dicotyledons.- 6.7.2.1 Various Cell Types and Their Arrangement.- 6.7.2.2 The Sieve Cell in the Series of Dicotyledons.- 6.8 The Phloem in the Series of Vascular Plants.- 6.9 Histology and Cytology of the Phloem and Mechanisms of Translocation.- References.- 7 Xylem (Vascular Tissues).- 7.1 Characteristic Elements: Tracheids and Vessel Members.- 7.1.1 General Structures of the Cell Walls of Differentiated Tracheids and Vessel Members.- 7.1.2 Xylem Pits.- 7.1.3 Cell Wall Differentiation of Tracheids and Vessel Elements.- 7.1.3.1 Infrastructural Cytology of Secondary Cell Wall Elaborations: Transversal Growth, Dictyosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Microtubules, Intercellular Connections.- 7.1.3.2 Cytology of Perforation Processes Between Vessel Elements.- 7.1.3.3 Partial Hydrolysis in Bordered Pits Between Vessels or Between Tracheids.- 7.1.3.4 Infrastructural Cyhemistry of the Lignification.- 7.1.4 Nucleus and Cytoplasm Degeneration.- 7.1.5 Tertiary Thickenings and “Warty Layer”.- 7.2 Xylem Fibres.- 7.2.1 General Features and Various Categories.- 7.2.2 Cytological Data, Seasonal Variations and Life Duration.- 7.3 Xylem Parenchyma.- 7.3.1 Vertical Xylem Parenchyma.- 7.3.2 Horizontal Xylem Parenchyma (Xylem Rays).- 7.3.3 Cytology and Seasonal Behaviour of Xylem Parenchyma.- 7.3.3.1 Seasonal Parenchymatous Productions of the Cambium.- 7.3.3.2 Ultrastructural Cytology of the Differentiation of Xylem Parenchyma.- 7.3.4 Tyloses.- 7.4 Primary Xylem.- 7.4.1 Protoxylem.- 7.4.2 Metaxylem.- 7.5 Secondary Xylem.- 7.5.1 Distinctive Characters.- 7.5.2 General Features.- 7.5.3 Gymnosperm Wood.- 7.5.3.1 Tracheids.- 7.5.3.2 Vertical Parenchyma and Resin Ducts.- 7.5.3.3 Horizontal Parenchyma.- 7.5.4 Ligneous Dicotyledon Wood.- 7.5.4.1 Distribution and Size of Vessels.- 7.5.4.2 Distribution of the Vertical Parenchyma.- 7.5.4.3 Structure of the Xylem Rays.- 7.5.4.4 Disposition of Terminal Walls of Vertical Parenchyma Cells.- 7.5.5 Histology and Mechanical Properties of Woods.- 7.6 The Xylem and the Systematics of Vascular Plants.- 7.7 The Xylem and the Phylogenic Trends of Vascular Plants.- References.- 8 Supporting Tissues.- A. Collenchyma.- 8.1 Cytological Structures of the Differentiated Collenchyma Cells.- 8.1.1 Structure of the Cell Wall.- 8.1.2 The Protoplasma of Collocytes.- 8.2 Origin and Setting in Place of the Collenchyma.- 8.3 Differentiation of the Collocytes.- 8.4 Anatomical Localization.- 8.5 Mechanical Properties.- 8.6 Collenchyma in the Series of Vascular Plants.- B. Sclerenchyma.- 8.7 General Characteristics and Various Types.- 8.8 Sclerenchyma of “First Formation”.- 8.8.1 Compact Sclerenchymatous Tissues.- 8.8.2 Sclereids.- 8.9 Origin and Differentiation of the Cells of First Formation Sclerenchyma.- 8.9.1 Differentiation of Compact Sclerenchyma.- 8.9.1.1 Differentiation of the Protoplasma.- 8.9.1.2 Differentiation of Cell Walls.- 8.9.2 Differentiation of Sclereids.- 8.10 Late Sclerenchyma or Sclerenchyma of “Second Formation”.- 8.11 Mechanical Properties.- References.- 9 Secretory Cells and Secretory Tissues.- 9.1 Concept and Various Types.- 9.2 Secretory Epidermis.- 9.3 Secretory Trichomes.- 9.4 Nectaries.- 9.5 Hydathodes.- 9.6 Secretory Cavities.- 9.6.1 Schizogenous Cavities.- 9.6.2 Schizolysigenous Cavities.- 9.7 Secretory Canals.- 9.8 Sites of Synthesis, Transport and Cytological Mechanisms of Excretion.- 9.9 Isolated Secretory Cells.- 9.10 Tanniniferous Cells.- 9.11 Pseudolaticifers.- 9.11.1 Concept.- 9.11.2 Anatomical Distribution and Arrangements.- 9.11.3 Origin and Mode of Growth.- 9.11.4 Systematic Repartition.- 9.11.5 Infrastructures of Pseudolaticifers.- 9.11.5.1 Vacuolar Apparatus.- 9.11.5.2 Other Organelles.- 9.11.5.3 Secretion Grains and Latex.- 9.11.5.4 Mechanisms of Cell Wall Perforation.- 9.12 True Laticifers.- 9.12.1 Origin and Development.- 9.12.2 Differentiation and Cytological Structures.- 9.12.2.1 Ancient Works in Light Microscopy.- 9.12.2.2 Cell Wall Differentiation.- 9.12.2.3 Origin of the Vacuolar Apparatus.- 9.12.2.4 Cytology of the Latex Secretions.- 9.12.2.5 Autophagic Phenomena in Differentiated Laticifers.- 9.12.2.6 Behaviour of Other Organelles.- 9.12.3 Anatomical Localizations.- 9.12.4 Composition and Physical State of the Latex.- 9.12.5 Possible Functions of Laticifers.- References.- III Conclusions.- 1 The Differentiation of Plant Cells.- 2 Dedifferentiation: Common Process of Vascular Plant Ontogeny.- 3 Fundamental Tissues and Accessory Specializations.- 4 The Pecellulosic Walls, a Specific Feature of the Plant World.- Author Index.
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