OpenGL ES 3.0 Programming Guide

Overview

OpenGL® ES is the industry’s leading software interface and graphics library for rendering sophisticated 3D graphics on handheld and embedded devices. The newest version, OpenGL ES 3.0, makes it possible to create stunning visuals for new games and apps, without compromising device performance or battery life.

In the OpenGL ® ES 3.0 Programming Guide, Second Edition, the authors cover the entire API and Shading Language. They carefully introduce OpenGL ES 3.0 features such as...

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OpenGL ES 3.0 Programming Guide

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Overview

OpenGL® ES is the industry’s leading software interface and graphics library for rendering sophisticated 3D graphics on handheld and embedded devices. The newest version, OpenGL ES 3.0, makes it possible to create stunning visuals for new games and apps, without compromising device performance or battery life.

In the OpenGL ® ES 3.0 Programming Guide, Second Edition, the authors cover the entire API and Shading Language. They carefully introduce OpenGL ES 3.0 features such as shadow mapping, instancing, multiple render targets, uniform buffer objects, texture compression, program binaries, and transform feedback.

Through detailed, downloadable C-based code examples, you’ll learn how to set up and program every aspect of the graphics pipeline. Step by step, you’ll move from introductory techniques all the way to advanced per-pixel lighting and particle systems. Throughout, you’ll find cutting-edge tips for optimizing performance, maximizing efficiency with both the API and hardware, and fully leveraging OpenGL ES 3.0 in a wide spectrum of applications.

All code has been built and tested on iOS 7, Android 4.3, Windows (OpenGL ES 3.0 Emulation), and Ubuntu Linux, and the authors demonstrate how to build OpenGL ES code for each platform.

Coverage includes

  • EGL API: communicating with the native windowing system, choosing configurations, and creating rendering contexts and surfaces
  • Shaders: creating and attaching shader objects; compiling shaders; checking for compile errors; creating, linking, and querying program objects; and using source shaders and program binaries
  • OpenGL ES Shading Language: variables, types, constructors, structures, arrays, attributes, uniform blocks, I/O variables, precision qualifiers, and invariance
  • Geometry, vertices, and primitives: inputting geometry into the pipeline, and assembling it into primitives
  • 2D/3D, Cubemap, Array texturing: creation, loading, and rendering; texture wrap modes, filtering, and formats; compressed textures, sampler objects, immutable textures, pixel unpack buffer objects, and mipmapping
  • Fragment shaders: multitexturing, fog, alpha test, and user clip planes
  • Fragment operations: scissor, stencil, and depth tests; multisampling, blending, and dithering
  • Framebuffer objects: rendering to offscreen surfaces for advanced effects
  • Advanced rendering: per-pixel lighting, environment mapping, particle systems, image post-processing, procedural textures, shadow mapping, terrain, and projective texturing
  • Sync objects and fences: synchronizing within host application and GPU execution

This edition of the book includes a color insert of the OpenGL ES 3.0 API and OpenGL ES Shading Language 3.0 Reference Cards created by Khronos. The reference cards contain a complete list of all of the functions in OpenGL ES 3.0 along with all of the types, operators, qualifiers, built-ins, and functions in the OpenGL ES Shading Language.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“As a graphics technologist and intense OpenGL ES developer, I can honestly say that if you buy only one book on OpenGL ES 3.0 programming, then this should be the book. Dan and Budirijanto have written a book clearly by programmers for programmers. It is simply required reading for anyone interested in OpenGL ES 3.0. It is informative, well organized, and comprehensive, but best of all practical. You will find yourself reaching for this book over and over again instead of the actual OpenGL ES specification during your programming sessions. I give it my highest recommendation.”

–Rick Tewell, Graphics Technology Architect, Freescale

“This book provides outstanding coverage of the latest version of OpenGL ES, with clear, comprehensive explanations and extensive examples. It belongs on the desk of anyone developing mobile applications.”

–Dave Astle, Graphics Tools Lead, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and Founder, GameDev.net

“The second edition of OpenGL® ES™ 3.0 Programming Guide provides a solid introduction to OpenGL ES 3.0 specifications, along with a wealth of practical information and examples to help any level of developer begin programming immediately. We’d recommend this guide as a primer on OpenGL ES 3.0 to any of the thousands of developers creating apps for the many mobile and embedded products using our PowerVR Rogue graphics.”

–Kristof Beets, Business Development, Imagination Technologies

“This is a solid OpenGL ES 3.0 reference book. It covers all aspects of the API and will help any developer get familiar with and understand the API, including specifically the new ES 3.0 functionality.”

–Jed Fisher, Managing Partner, 4D Pipeline

“This is a clear and thorough reference for OpenGL ES 3.0, and an excellent presentation of the concepts present in all modern OpenGL programming. This is the guide I’d want by my side when diving into embedded OpenGL.”

–Todd Furlong, President & Principal Engineer, Inv3rsion LLC

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321933881
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 3/14/2014
  • Series: OpenGL Series
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 560
  • Sales rank: 685,150
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Dan Ginsburg is founder of Upsample Software, LLC, a software consultancy specializing in 3D graphics and GPU computing. In previous roles he has worked on developing OpenGL drivers, desktop and handheld 3D demos, GPU developer tools, 3D medical visualization and games. He coauthored the OpenCL Programming Guide (Addison-Wesley, 2012).

Budi Purnomo is a senior software architect at Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. where he collaborates with many AMD architects to develop software infrastructure across multiple software stacks and to define future hardware architectures for debugging and profiling GPU applications.

Dave Shreiner is one of the World’s foremost authorities on OpenGL. He is the series editor for the Addison-Wesley OpenGL Series.

Aatab Munshi is the spec editor for the OpenGL ES 1.1 and 2.0 specifications.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xvii

List of Examples xxi

List of Tables xxv

Foreword xxix

Preface xxxi

Intended Audience xxxi

Organization of This Book xxxii

Example Code and Shaders xxxvi

Errata xxxvi

Acknowledgments xxxvii

About the Authors xxxix

Chapter 1: Introduction to OpenGL ES 3.0 1

OpenGL ES 3.0 3

What’s New in OpenGL ES 3.0 11

OpenGL ES 3.0 and Backward Compatibility 17

EGL 19

EGL Command Syntax 20

OpenGL ES Command Syntax 21

Error Handling 22

Basic State Management 23

Further Reading 25

Chapter 2: Hello Triangle: An OpenGL ES 3.0 Example 27

Code Framework 28

Where to Download the Examples 28

Hello Triangle Example 29

Using the OpenGL ES 3.0 Framework 34

Creating a Simple Vertex and Fragment Shader 35

Compiling and Loading the Shaders 36

Creating a Program Object and Linking the Shaders 38

Setting the Viewport and Clearing the Color Buffer 39

Loading the Geometry and Drawing a Primitive 40

Displaying the Back Buffer 41

Summary 42

Chapter 3: An Introduction to EGL 43

Communicating with the Windowing System 44

Checking for Errors 45

Initializing EGL 46

Determining the Available Surface Configurations 46

Querying EGLConfig Attributes 48

Letting EGL Choose the Configuration 51

Creating an On-Screen Rendering Area: The EGL Window 53

Creating an Off-Screen Rendering Area: EGL Pbuffers 56

Creating a Rendering Context 60

Making an EGLContext Current 62

Putting All Our EGL Knowledge Together 63

Synchronizing Rendering 66

Summary 67

Chapter 4: Shaders and Programs 69

Shaders and Programs 69

Uniforms and Attributes 80

Shader Compiler 93

Program Binaries 94

Summary 95

Chapter 5: OpenGL ES Shading Language 97

OpenGL ES Shading Language Basics 98

Shader Version Specification 98

Variables and Variable Types 99

Variable Constructors 100

Vector and Matrix Components 101

Constants 102

Structures 103

Arrays 104

Operators 104

Functions 106

Built-In Functions 107

Control Flow Statements 107

Uniforms 108

Uniform Blocks 109

Vertex and Fragment Shader Inputs/Outputs 111

Interpolation Qualifiers 114

Preprocessor and Directives 115

Uniform and Interpolator Packing 117

Precision Qualifiers 119

Invariance 121

Summary 123

Chapter 6: Vertex Attributes, Vertex Arrays, and Buffer Objects 125

Specifying Vertex Attribute Data 126

Declaring Vertex Attribute Variables in a Vertex Shader 135

Vertex Buffer Objects 140

Vertex Array Objects 150

Mapping Buffer Objects 154

Copying Buffer Objects 159

Summary 160

Chapter 7: Primitive Assembly and Rasterization 161

Primitives 161

Drawing Primitives 165

Primitive Assembly 174

Rasterization 179

Occlusion Queries 183

Summary 185

Chapter 8: Vertex Shaders 187

Vertex Shader Overview 188

Vertex Shader Examples 196

Generating Texture Coordinates 205

Vertex Skinning 207

Transform Feedback 211

Vertex Textures 214

OpenGL ES 1.1 Vertex Pipeline as an ES 3.0 Vertex Shader 215

Summary 223

Chapter 9: Texturing 225

Texturing Basics 226

Compressed Textures 262

Texture Subimage Specification 266

Copying Texture Data from the Color Buffer 269

Sampler Objects 273

Immutable Textures 276

Pixel Unpack Buffer Objects 277

Summary 278

Chapter 10: Fragment Shaders 279

Fixed-Function Fragment Shaders 280

Fragment Shader Overview 282

Implementing Fixed-Function Techniques Using Shaders 286

Summary 295

Chapter 11: Fragment Operations 297

Buffers 298

Fragment Tests and Operations 303

Blending 311

Dithering 314

Multisampled Anti-Aliasing 314

Reading and Writing Pixels to the Framebuffer 316

Multiple Render Targets 320

Summary 324

Chapter12: Framebuffer Objects 325

Why Framebuffer Objects? 325

Framebuffer and Renderbuffer Objects 327

Creating Framebuffer and Renderbuffer Objects 329

Using Renderbuffer Objects 330

Using Framebuffer Objects 335

Framebuffer Blits 342

Framebuffer Invalidation 344

Deleting Framebuffer and Renderbuffer Objects 346

Examples 348

Performance Tips and Tricks 354

Summary 355

Chapter 13: Sync Objects and Fences 357

Flush and Finish 357

Why Use a Sync Object? 358

Creating and Deleting a Sync Object 358

Waiting for and Signaling a Sync Object 359

Example 360

Summary 361

Chapter 14: Advanced Programming with OpenGL ES 3.0 363

Per-Fragment Lighting 363

Environment Mapping 370

Particle System Using Transform Feedback 380

Image Postprocessing 387

Projective Texturing 390

Noise Using a 3D Texture 397

Procedural Texturing 404

Rendering Terrain with Vertex Texture Fetch 410

Shadows Using a Depth Texture 414

Summary 420

Chapter 15: State Queries 421

OpenGL ES 3.0 Implementation String Queries 421

Querying Implementation-Dependent Limits 423

Querying OpenGL ES State 429

Hints 435

Entity Name Queries 436

Nonprogrammable Operations Control and Queries 436

Shader and Program State Queries 438

Vertex Attribute Queries 440

Texture State Queries 441

Sampler Queries 442

Asynchronous Object Queries 442

Sync Object Queries 443

Vertex Buffer Queries 444

Renderbuffer and Framebuffer State Queries 445

Summary 446

Chapter 16: OpenGL ES Platforms 447

Building for Microsoft Windows with Visual Studio 447

Building for Ubuntu Linux 449

Building for Android 4.3+ NDK (C++) 450

Building for Android 4.3+ SDK (Java) 452

Building for iOS 7 453

Summary 455

Appendix A: GL_HALF_FLOAT 457

16-Bit Floating-Point Number 458

Converting a Float to a Half-Float 459

Appendix B: Built-In Functions 463

Angle and Trigonometry Functions 465

Exponential Functions 466

Common Functions 467

Floating-Point Pack and Unpack Functions 471

Geometric Functions 472

Matrix Functions 474

Vector Relational Functions 475

Texture Lookup Functions 476

Fragment Processing Functions 483

Appendix C: ES Framework API 485

Framework Core Functions 485

Transformation Functions 490

Index 495

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