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Opening the Ozarks: A Historical Geography of Missouri's Ste. Genevieve District, 1760-1830
     

Opening the Ozarks: A Historical Geography of Missouri's Ste. Genevieve District, 1760-1830

by Walter A. Schroeder
 

ISBN-10: 0826213987

ISBN-13: 9780826213983

Pub. Date: 07/28/2002

Publisher: University of Missouri Press

As the oldest European settlement in Missouri, Ste. Genevieve was the funnel through which the eastern Ozarks (the 5,000 square miles beyond Ste. Genevieve's location on the Mississippi) was established. A magisterial account of the settlement of this area from 1760 through 1830, Opening the Ozarks focuses on the acquisition and occupation of land, the transformation

Overview

As the oldest European settlement in Missouri, Ste. Genevieve was the funnel through which the eastern Ozarks (the 5,000 square miles beyond Ste. Genevieve's location on the Mississippi) was established. A magisterial account of the settlement of this area from 1760 through 1830, Opening the Ozarks focuses on the acquisition and occupation of land, the transformation of the environment, the creation of cohesive settlements, and the building of neighborhoods and eventually organized counties. The study begins with the French Creole settlement at Old Ste. Genevieve in the middle of the eighteenth century. It describes the movement of the French into the Ozark hills during the rest of that century and continues with that of the American immigrants into Upper Louisiana after 1796, ending with the Americanization of the district after the Louisiana Purchase. Walter Schroeder examines the cultural transition from a French society, operating under a Spanish administration, to an American society in which French, Indians, and Africans formed minorities.

Schroeder used thousands of French- and Spanish-language documents, including the Archives of the Indies in Seville, Spain, as well as documents from Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis to gather his information. He also utilized thousands of land records from the American period, including deeds of land sales and sales from the public domain, and plats from both the Spanish and American periods. In addition, Schroeder performed years of fieldwork and perused aerial photography of the area, interviewing residents and searching for vestiges of the past in the landscape. As the only study to deal with the cradle of Missouri and the first trans-Mississippi expansion of the Anglo-American frontier, Opening the Ozarks will be invaluable to anyone interested in America's geographical history, particularly that of Missouri.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780826213983
Publisher:
University of Missouri Press
Publication date:
07/28/2002
Pages:
576
Product dimensions:
6.13(w) x 9.25(h) x 1.80(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xi

List of Tables xiii

Foreword Terry G. Jordan xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Introduction

1 The Ste. Genevieve District 3

The Place 4

The Time 11

Interpretation 18

Part I The Environment of Settlement

2 "A Country Thus Rich by Nature" 27

Resources 28

Natural Regions 63

Mississippi Alluvial Plain 63

Bluff Lands and Karst Plain 66

Rough Hills 68

Mining Country 70

Part II Regulating Settlement

3 French and Spanish Periods to 1795 75

French Period before 1770 77

Spanish Period, 1770-1795 80

4 Spanish Period, 1796-1804 97

5 American Period, 1804-1818 114

Confirming Land Claims 117

Results of the Land-Confirmation Process 146

Surveying Private Lands 152

The Landless 159

Attempts to Limit Settlement 164

6 American Period, 1818-1830 174

U.S. Rectangular Survey and Land Sales 174

Lead Lands 183

Indian Lands 193

Recapitulation 194

Part III Building Communities

7 Settlement Forms 201

Planned French Village 202

Unplanned French Village 212

Planned American Town 214

Linear Valley Settlement 216

Discontinuous Valley Settlement 219

Compact Settlement 220

Large Tracts 221

8 The French Villages 225

Old Ste. Genevieve 225

Colluvial Slopes 234

New Ste. Genevieve 235

New Bourbon 244

La Saline 255

Dispersed Settlements 264

9 A Traditional French Village in the Hills 267

St. Michel 267

10 The Mining Country 284

Mine a Breton 284

Potosi 295

Old Mines 303

Herculaneum 320

Big River Bend 327

Farmington Plain 336

11 Valley Settlements in the Hills 340

Plattin Valley 340

Lower St. Francis River Valley 345

12 Private Settlement Colony 351

13 An Exclusive American Community 359

The Bellevue Valley and Caledonia 359

14 Perry County: A Settlement Mosaic 368

Shawnee-Delaware Indian Grant 371

Bois Brule 382

Fenwick Settlement 383

The Barrens and Perryville 388

Brazeau and Abernathy Settlements 396

Part IV Organizing Space

15 "Connecting Tissues" 401

The Administrative Perspective 402

A Restless Population 412

Pathways of Integration 415

The Economic Perspective 429

Conclusion

16 The Ste. Genevieve District as a Settlement Frontier 447

Cultural Diversity on the Frontier 447

The Environmental Encounter 454

Administrative Settlement Policy and Traditional Practices 457

Settlement Pattern 459

Settlement Systems 461

Appendices

A Spanish Governors-General of Louisiana 467

B Lieutenant Governors of Upper Louisiana during the Spanish Period (in St. Louis) 469

C U.S. Government Officials Involved in the Land-Confirmation Process in Missouri 471

Bibliography 473

Index 521

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