Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect

Hardcover (Print)
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $18.00
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 60%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (6) from $18.00   
  • New (2) from $37.80   
  • Used (4) from $18.00   

Overview

At a time when the Manhattan Project was synonymous with large-scale science, physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904–67) represented the new sociocultural power of the American intellectual. Catapulted to fame as director of the Los Alamos atomic weapons laboratory, Oppenheimer occupied a key position in the compact between science and the state that developed out of World War II. By tracing the making—and unmaking—of Oppenheimer’s wartime and postwar scientific identity, Charles Thorpe illustrates the struggles over the role of the scientist in relation to nuclear weapons, the state, and culture.

 
A stylish intellectual biography, Oppenheimer maps out changes in the roles of scientists and intellectuals in twentieth-century America, ultimately revealing transformations in Oppenheimer’s persona that coincided with changing attitudes toward science in society.

 
“This is an outstandingly well-researched book, a pleasure to read and distinguished by the high quality of its observations and judgments. It will be of special interest to scholars of modern history, but non-specialist readers will enjoy the clarity that Thorpe brings to common misunderstandings about his subject.”—Graham Farmelo, Times Higher Education Supplement
 

“A fascinating new perspective. . . . Thorpe’s book provides the best perspective yet for understanding Oppenheimer’s Los Alamos years, which were critical, after all, not only to his life but, for better or worse, the history of mankind.”—Catherine Westfall, Nature

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

David Hollinger

“This engaging and impressively documented study enables us to see how Oppenheimer’s distinctive public personality emerged from a specific set of institutions, social communities, and cultural inventories. No other book attends as carefully to the dynamics of Oppenheimer’s performance as a public figure.”
Priscilla J. McMillan

“Charles Thorpe’s book gives us a fresh view of an icon. It shows how the Oppenheimer aura shaped the Los Alamos lab during World War II and was in turn shaped by it. No one surpasses the author in explaining the mysterious authority whereby Oppenheimer continued to play a major role as intellectual leader and prophet long after the government banished him from its councils.”
Martin J. Sherwin

“Charles Thorpe’s analytically brilliant addition to the expanding Oppenheimer library of biographies, histories, and literature is remarkable for its important new ideas and analyses. Even if you have read every book written about ‘the father of the atomic bomb,’ Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect will introduce you to a clearer and deeper understanding of the man and his time.”
David C. Cassidy

“A masterful contribution to Oppenheimer studies. Charles Thorpe skillfully weaves together sociology, history, and biography to create a rich tapestry of Oppenheimer’s complex life and times. Thorpe provides new perspectives on Oppenheimer’s evolution as a scientific intellectual and cultural icon, as well as new insights into the changing constellation of science, state power, and the moral responsibility of the scientist, of which Oppenheimer was both a driving force and a tragic victim.”
Stephen Turner

“Thorpe’s excellent book rescues Oppenheimer from the myth-makers, showing the context of his early leftism, the match between his special talents and the organizational setting of Los Alamos that made for his staggering success, and, most importantly, the act that proved to be his undoing: his opposition, on technical grounds, to the H-bomb, which raised questions about his loyalty and ability to separate politics from science that his previous deceptions prevented him from dispelling. Thorpe then describes the surprising dénouement: the Oppenheimer who emerged from these dramatic events was neither a martyr nor an anguished moralist, but an homme sérieux, with a mature acceptance of the continued necessity of nuclear military force.”
New Scientist - Sam Kean

"He is known as the father of the atomic bomb, but J. Robert Oppenheimer was much more than that. As scientific director of the Los Alamos atomic weapons laboratory during the second world war, Oppenheimer was a social symbol, a 'nodal point' where scientific, political and military interests clashed. It is this sociological aspect of his life that Thorpe focuses on here."

Times Higher Education Supplement - Graham Farmelo

"Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect is not a conventional, cradle-to-grave biography like Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin's American Prometheus, winner of a Pulitzer Prize in 2006. Rather, Thorpe concentrates mainly on Oppenheimer's transition from academia to his post as scientific director of the Manhattan Project, and subsequently his security hearing and the period in Oppenheimer's life—as Thorpe puts it—after he was "excommunicated from the inner circle of the nuclear state.' This is an outstandingly well-researched book, a pleasure to read and distinguished by the high quality of its observations and judgments. It will be of special interest to scholars of modern history, but non-specialist readers will enjoy the clarity that Thorpe brings to common misunderstandings about his subject."

Nature - Catherine Westfall

"A fascinating new perspective....Thorpe's book provides the best perspective yet for understanding Oppenheimer's Los Alamos years, which were critical, after all, not only to his life but, for better or worse, the history of mankind."

Journal of American History - Richard Polenberg

"[Thorpe's] book is magnificently well researched, elegantly written, and analytically profound. It is packed with new and original insights. Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect is one of the finest books I have ever read."
eHistory - Robyn Rodriguez

"Readers with an interest in sociology, identity formation, and history of science and the atomic age . . . will find this an intriguing read. It is just as much about the culture of science in World War II and early Cold War America as it is about the life of J. Robert Oppenheimer."
American Historical Review - Lynn Eden

"In his daring, concise, and sharply etched portrait of Oppenheimer, Charles Thorpe moves beyond the current literature to explore both Oppenheimer's character and his public persona. . . . An original, highly intelligent, well-researched, well-written, and deeply satisfying book."
Chemical Heritage - Mary Jo Nye

“An original and compelling analysis of Oppenheimer’s life and role as a scientific leader.”—Mary Jo Nye, Chemical Heritage

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Journal for the History of Science - Jeff Hughes

"Charles Thorpe’s superbly engaging book is less a biography of Oppenheimer than a study of social identity and self-fashioning – the kind of analysis now familiar in the history of early modern science but rarer in twentieth-century work....While many biographers have grappled with the complexities of Oppenheimer’s character, Thorpe is the first to provide a thorough sociologically and culturally grounded analysis of this protean figure. The book’s powerful, sophisticated and persuasive analysis adds new critical depth to our understanding of Oppenheimer. But he remains a symbol still : through him the book significantly changes the way we should think about post-war American science and twentieth century science more generally."

Register of the Kentucky Historical Society - Jon Hunner

"A deeply insightful and rigrously researched and reasoned account. . . . Thorpe utilizes new rounds of oral histories, extensive surveys of archives and existing literature, and a sharp analysis of the brotherhood who produced the first atomic bomb and of the subsequent debates on nuclear power to produce innovative insights and understandings about this enigmatic person."
New Scientist
He is known as the father of the atomic bomb, but J. Robert Oppenheimer was much more than that. As scientific director of the Los Alamos atomic weapons laboratory during the second world war, Oppenheimer was a social symbol, a 'nodal point' where scientific, political and military interests clashed. It is this sociological aspect of his life that Thorpe focuses on here.

— Sam Kean

Times Higher Education Supplement
Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect is not a conventional, cradle-to-grave biography like Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin's American Prometheus, winner of a Pulitzer Prize in 2006. Rather, Thorpe concentrates mainly on Oppenheimer's transition from academia to his post as scientific director of the Manhattan Project, and subsequently his security hearing and the period in Oppenheimer's life—as Thorpe puts it—after he was "excommunicated from the inner circle of the nuclear state.' This is an outstandingly well-researched book, a pleasure to read and distinguished by the high quality of its observations and judgments. It will be of special interest to scholars of modern history, but non-specialist readers will enjoy the clarity that Thorpe brings to common misunderstandings about his subject.— Graham Farmelo
Science News

"Because he directed the U.S. effort to develop the atomic bomb, physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer at the height of World War II became a new kind of icon among select scientists. Perhaps never before in history had a scientist held so much power. Oppenheimer's development and oversight of the Los Alamos National Laboratory changed the dynamics of physics research and scientific ethics. Thorpe paints an illuminating picture of this charismatic teacher and researcher and documents his downfall in the aftermath of his work at Los Alamos. Thorpe notes that Oppenheimer's and his fellow scientists' concerns about the morality of developing the bomb were eclipsed by their focus on technical issues. Later, Oppenheimer became a staunch critic of the continuing development of nuclear weapons and thus made himself a target of government scrutiny. The FBI eventually accused him of being an enemy agent."

Nature
A fascinating new perspective....Thorpe's book provides the best perspective yet for understanding Oppenheimer's Los Alamos years, which were critical, after all, not only to his life but, for better or worse, the history of mankind.

— Catherine Westfall

Journal of American History
[Thorpe's] book is magnificently well researched, elegantly written, and analytically profound. It is packed with new and original insights. Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect is one of the finest books I have ever read.

— Richard Polenberg

eHistory
Readers with an interest in sociology, identity formation, and history of science and the atomic age . . . will find this an intriguing read. It is just as much about the culture of science in World War II and early Cold War America as it is about the life of J. Robert Oppenheimer.

— Robyn Rodriguez

American Historical Review
In his daring, concise, and sharply etched portrait of Oppenheimer, Charles Thorpe moves beyond the current literature to explore both Oppenheimer's character and his public persona. . . . An original, highly intelligent, well-researched, well-written, and deeply satisfying book.

— Lynn Eden

British Journal for the History of Science
Charles Thorpe’s superbly engaging book is less a biography of Oppenheimer than a study of social identity and self-fashioning – the kind of analysis now familiar in the history of early modern science but rarer in twentieth-century work....While many biographers have grappled with the complexities of Oppenheimer’s character, Thorpe is the first to provide a thorough sociologically and culturally grounded analysis of this protean figure. The book’s powerful, sophisticated and persuasive analysis adds new critical depth to our understanding of Oppenheimer. But he remains a symbol still : through him the book significantly changes the way we should think about post-war American science and twentieth century science more generally.

— Jeff Hughes

Register of the Kentucky Historical Society
A deeply insightful and rigrously researched and reasoned account. . . . Thorpe utilizes new rounds of oral histories, extensive surveys of archives and existing literature, and a sharp analysis of the brotherhood who produced the first atomic bomb and of the subsequent debates on nuclear power to produce innovative insights and understandings about this enigmatic person.

— Jon Hunner

Chemical Heritage
An original and compelling analysis of Oppenheimer’s life and role as a scientific leader.—Mary Jo Nye, Chemical Heritage

 

 

 

 

 

 

— Mary Jo Nye

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780226798455
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • Publication date: 1/1/2007
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles Thorpe is an associate professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, San Diego.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Oppenheimer THE TRAGIC INTELLECT
By Charles Thorpe
The University of Chicago Press Copyright © 2006 The University of Chicago
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-226-79845-5



Chapter One Introduction: Charisma, Self, and Sociological Biography

Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) occupied a nodal position in the emergence of late modern technoscientific culture and in the compact between science and the state that developed from World War II. To trace the constitution of Oppenheimer's wartime and postwar scientific identity is to trace the key struggles over the role of the scientist in relation to nuclear weapons, the state, and culture. This is a study in biography, but it is one that reveals the individual-Oppenheimer-as a point of intersection of social forces and interests and that describes the collaborative, social, and interactional fashioning of his identity, his scientific role, and his intellectual, political, and cultural authority. It examines how he negotiated the opportunities created and the constraints imposed by the institutional positions he occupied and by the relationships and networks in which he was embedded. It traces the social and interactional constitution of a unique individual scientific identity and role. In so doing, it provides a history of the making of broader forms of power and authority entwining science and the late modern state.

Between 1943 and 1945, Oppenheimer was director of the Los Alamos Laboratory-the remote site in northern New Mexico where the atomic bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki were designed and built. It was the key installation of the Manhattan Project, a vast military-industrial-scientific endeavor organized under the Army Corps of Engineers. Employing at its peak nearly 129,000 workers and costing $2 billion, the Manhattan Project was the largest technoscientific project to that time. It was a hybrid organizational network incorporating not only scientists and engineers, but also a long list of America's major industrial corporations, including DuPont, Monsanto, Tennessee Eastman, Westinghouse, Chrysler, Union Carbide, Bell Labs, and other large chemical, electrical, and construction firms. At Hanford, Washington, and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, sprawling factories and industrial towns were erected to produce plutonium and to separate out the fissionable uranium-235 isotope. The project linked these industrial sites with university laboratories at Chicago, Columbia, Berkeley, and elsewhere. Los Alamos was the culminating point of the work of these disparate sites. It brought together mathematicians, theoretical and experimental physicists, chemists, metallurgists, high-explosives experts, and engineers, combining this expertise to produce a novel form of technoscientific power and a new method of total war.

The bomb project catapulted scientists into a position within America's political and administrative elites, and Oppenheimer emerged from the war as the chief representative of this new power of the scientist. In 1947, he was appointed to the country's top science advisory position: chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission's General Advisory Committee (GAC). However, Oppenheimer's power was beset by tensions and contradictions. Since his earliest involvement in the bomb project, he had been under investigation by military intelligence and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for his Communist associations and political involvements of the late 1930s and early 1940s. In 1949, when the GAC advised against the development of the hydrogen bomb, Oppenheimer was widely suspected of spearheading opposition to the new weapon. During the early 1950s, H-bomb proponents (including physicist Edward Teller, AEC chairman Admiral Lewis L. Strauss, and powerful figures in the military) began a behind-the-scenes campaign to remove Oppenheimer from any governmental role. This struggle culminated in the security hearings of 1954, when an AEC Personnel Security Board declared Oppenheimer a security risk. The withdrawal of Oppenheimer's security clearance suddenly severed his connection with government, consigning him to the political wilderness. He was only partially rehabilitated when, in 1963, he received the AEC's prestigious Fermi Award, given the previous year to Teller. Though his past work for the government was now officially recognized and rewarded, his security clearance was not renewed.

This, in outline, is a well-known story. Even during his lifetime, Oppenheimer was a focal point for reflection on the place of science and scientists in the modern world. That remains the case today: in academia and in popular culture, the narrative of Oppenheimer as tragic hero has become a parable neatly encapsulating the moral and political dilemmas of the nuclear age. It is a tale that has been the subject of many biographies, historical studies, novels, plays, and movies. Commonly, the Oppenheimer story relies on tropes of purity and danger: Oppenheimer represents the corruption of the pure scientist overwhelmed both by encroaching militarism and by his own desire for power. Oppenheimer's role in building the atomic bomb represents a fall from grace, the scientist's original sin. The security hearings are often portrayed as a kind of martyrdom or crucifixion, and Oppenheimer's subsequent exile from power as a retreat from a corrupt world, a chance for purity and salvation. Oppenheimer appears sometimes as a saint, sometimes as Faust, with the atomic bomb as a diabolic device.

This narrative has found a central place in our understanding of the scientifically modern. Sociologists, philosophers, historians, and other social commentators examining the role of the scientific intellectual have all attempted to come to terms with the figure of Oppenheimer. In Brighter Than a Thousand Suns, the journalist Robert Jungk's celebrated study of the atomic scientists, Oppenheimer appears in a field of struggle between pure science and the will to power. He is presented as embodying a unity between science and humanistic culture, a unity that is shattered by the one-sided technical-instrumental orientation that led to the atomic bomb. For Jungk, Oppenheimer was the tragic representative of the scientists' Faustian bargain with military technology. Jungk wrote in 1958, nine years before Oppenheimer's death: "Oppenheimer ... reveals ... why the twentieth century Faust allows himself, in his obsession with success and despite occasional twinges of conscience, to be persuaded into signing the pact with the Devil that confronts him: What is 'technically sweet' he finds nothing less than irresistible." Oppenheimer's former friend, Haakon Chevalier (their connection was to be the key subject of interrogation in the 1954 hearings), concluded that Oppenheimer was "a Faust of the twentieth century, he had sold his soul to the bomb."

For sociologist Lewis Feuer, Oppenheimer represented the rise of managerialism, technocratic power, and militarism in science. "During our generation," he wrote, "science has become the bearer of a death wish," and he quoted Oppenheimer's famous reaction to the first atomic bomb test: "I am become death-the shatterer of worlds." Lewis Coser was also interested in Oppenheimer as a leading representative of the scientists' new public role in confronting the problems of atomic weapons. Like Feuer, Coser was worried that scientists were becoming "the domesticated retainers of their bureaucratic masters." But in contrast to Feuer, he saw Oppenheimer as exemplary of scientists who "have cultivated uncommon sensitivity to the values of our culture and the fate of our society." In Coser's view, Oppenheimer was a "true scientific intellectual."

Philip Rieff similarly dwelled on Oppenheimer's "charismatic" and symbolic role: "His thin handsome face and figure replaced Einstein's as the public image of genius ... He had actually become the priest-scientist of Comtean vision, transforming history as well as nature." But Rieff argued that the scope for such a charismatic role for scientists in modern America was limited. Without a vibrant humanistic public culture to support them, the scientists' engagement with politics was doomed to failure. For Rieff, Oppenheimer's denunciation by the AEC signified the reduction of the scientific elite to the merely technical function of a "service class."

The security hearings have frequently been taken to instantiate a deep-rooted, or even inevitable, conflict between the intellectual and the powers. Historian Giorgio de Santillana was directly inspired by the Oppenheimer case in writing The Crime of Galileo, published in 1958. In both cases, he argued, the free "scientific mind" was at odds with "Reasons of State." Political scientist Sanford Lakoff compared the Oppenheimer hearings with the Athenians' persecution of Socrates and argued that "the trial of Dr. Oppenheimer was also the trial of liberal democracy in America." But above all, Lakoff argued, the "tragedy in Dr. Oppenheimer's predicament ... stemmed ... from his internal struggle with the scientific vocation." For Oppenheimer, unlike Socrates, "the center of his life is not the city but his vocation." Oppenheimer symbolized for Lakoff the "alienation" of the modern intellectual and the severance of specialized knowledge from a moral and political engagement with the world.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS, RESPONSIBILITY, AND VOCATION

Oppenheimer has been a focus for reflection on the relationship between truth and worldly power: between the intellectual and the polis, "pure science" and technology, charisma and bureaucracy. Oppenheimer's personal trajectory represents a key moment in a larger story of social changes impacting the organization of science and intellectual life: bureaucratization, professionalization, the rise of science as a career, the routinization of career patterns, and, above all, the ever closer integration of science into the affairs of state.

Max Weber linked the rise of modern rational bureaucracy to a particular character structure, that of the "personally detached and strictly 'objective' expert." This figure of the expert stood in conflict with, and in Western societies has gradually replaced, the older type of humanistic cultivated man. The education of the cultivated man aimed at producing a particular kind of "bearing in life" rather than expert knowledge per se. Weber wrote, "Behind all the present discussions of the foundations of the educational system, the struggle of the 'specialist type of man' against the older type of 'cultivated man' is hidden at some decisive point ... This fight intrudes into all intimate cultural questions." The decline of the cultivated man and the rise of the specialist reflected the increasing cultural dominance of science, expertise, and rationality and their separation from other frameworks of value. In the disenchanted world of modernity, science has had to stand independently from religion, art, or humanistic moral values. All "former illusions" such as science as the "way to true God" or the "way to true happiness" have been dispelled. Weber agreed with Tolstoy that science could give "no answer to ... the only question important for us: 'What shall we do and how shall we live?'" Instead, the value of the scientific enterprise in a rationalized and disenchanted world was limited to the service of factual knowledge: "Science today is a 'vocation' organized in special disciplines in the service of self-clarification and knowledge of interrelated facts. It is not the gift of grace of seers and prophets dispensing sacred values and revelations." Weber's conception of the ethos of science was set in tension between the twin connotations of both the German Beruf and the English vocation: on the one hand, the more archaic and spiritual value of the calling; on the other, the modern secular occupation. Weber's concern was whether it was possible to sustain a sense of the meaning and value of science while it was becoming a secular, routinized profession.

Michel Foucault has also centrally grappled with the implications of the specialization and disenchantment of the intellectual role during the twentieth century, and he has pointed to Oppenheimer as a pivotal figure in these transformations. Like Weber, he emphasized the modern divorce of knowledge from sacred religious and moral values: "Truth is a thing of this world." Instead of speaking for transcendent values or universal truths, the modern intellectual-as-expert provides techniques of power: the intellectual "is no longer the rhapsodist of the eternal, but the strategist of life and death." And Foucault wrote, "It seems tome that this figure of the 'specific' intellectual has emerged since the Second World War. Perhaps it was the atomic scientist (in a word, or rather a name: Oppenheimer) who acted as the point of transition between the universal and the specific intellectual." Foucault suggested that Oppenheimer and the atomic scientists were able to combine the narrowly focused expertise of the specific intellectual with the claim to speak for all people that had been the mark of the universal intellectual. The global scope of the atomic threat enabled the scientists to be understood as speaking for humanity when they addressed the problems of the nuclear age. This universality, however, was rooted not in claims to universal truth or transcendent moral law, but rather in a new kind of global technological power.

Foucault's account points to the way in which the Manhattan Project drew together and intensified those processes identified by Weber, which in more dispersed ways were already changing the nature of the scientific vocation. Foucault, however, did not adequately address the ethical tensions and ambiguities in the new scientific role that emerged. The claim to "universality" of specialized expertise remains contested, and the Tolstoyan problem of meaning, emphasized by Weber, has not disappeared. The threat of atomic warfare gave rise to moral problems that could not be addressed by specialized expertise alone. The atomic bomb was the culmination of the rise of technical expertise, but it also called into question the nature of expert authority and its adequacy to deal with the crises of the modern world. The bomb project put scientists in a new situation, in which they had to either claim some sort of moral authority or publicly divest themselves of it entirely. Weber's problem of vocation was at the heart of struggles over the nature and scope of scientific authority in the wake of World War II.

This book tells a particular story, about how these tensions played out in Oppenheimer's life and career. It aims to capture the particularity of his situation and of his interventions, while at the same time drawing attention to the broader institutional and cultural context that he was negotiating. It was a particular social and institutional trajectory that shaped Oppenheimer's personal identity and his historical significance. Of course, there are other individuals whose trajectories offer similarities and who responded in interestingly similar and different ways to the challenge of atomic weapons. But more than any other figure, Oppenheimer had the potential to combine the emerging technocratic power of the scientist within the state with a humanistic and critical perspective on the development of nuclear weapons. He therefore stood in notable contrast with such scientists as Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, and others who criticized the national-security state from positions outside it. He equally stood in contrast with institutional insiders, such as Edward Teller, who defined their role as scientists strictly in instrumental terms, exclusive of any obligation to consider questions of ultimate ends.

Einstein was the most important representative of the view that scientists have a moral obligation to address the ends to which research is applied. His only direct involvement with the atomic bomb project was in signing a letter to Roosevelt urging that the U.S. government take seriously the possibility of developing an atomic weapon. This step was motivated by his fear of the Nazis. But after World War II, Einstein became a vigorous advocate of arms control and world government. For example, the (Bertrand) Russell-Einstein manifesto of 1955 highlighted the threat of nuclear holocaust and called on scientists to work toward the goal of ending war. It led to the institution of the Pugwash conferences, aiming to promote scientific internationalism as a vehicle for peaceful international cooperation. Einstein was never included in, nor did he seek inclusion in, formal government advisory bodies. His political engagement was always as an outsider, drawing on moral authority rather than political power.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Oppenheimer by Charles Thorpe Copyright © 2006 by The University of Chicago. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Read More Show Less

Table of Contents


Preface
Acknowledgments
1. Introduction: Charisma, Self, and Sociological Biography
2. Struggling for Self
3. Confronting the World
4. King of the Hill
5. Against Time
6. Power and Vocation
7. "I Was an Idiot"
8. The Last Intellectual?
Appendix: Interviews by the Author
Notes
Bibliography
Index
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)