Optical Illusions: Lucent and the Crash of Telecom [NOOK Book]


When Lucent Technologies was spun off from AT&T in 1996, the new company was full of promise. An old-line manufacturer, it quickly became a sizzling hot stock thanks to the emergence of the Internet and the build-up of telecommunications. The stock market was soaring, and Lucent flew with it. Within a few short years it became the sixth-largest corporation in America and the most widely held stock in the country. Yet only months later, Lucent was gasping for life, victim of ...
See more details below
Optical Illusions: Lucent and the Crash of Telecom

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 NOOK
  • NOOK HD/HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK for Web

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
BN.com price


When Lucent Technologies was spun off from AT&T in 1996, the new company was full of promise. An old-line manufacturer, it quickly became a sizzling hot stock thanks to the emergence of the Internet and the build-up of telecommunications. The stock market was soaring, and Lucent flew with it. Within a few short years it became the sixth-largest corporation in America and the most widely held stock in the country. Yet only months later, Lucent was gasping for life, victim of the greatest stock-market bubble in history.
Optical Illusions is the story of a financially sound company steeped in world-class talent, dominant in one of the fastest-growing industries, that in the space of two years found itself downgraded to a junk-bond credit rating, under investigation by the SEC for its accounting practices, the value of its stock reduced to the price of a cup of coffee. Lisa Endlich tells the fascinating tale of the company that epitomized the misfortunes of the telecom industry, leaving investors and employees shocked and confused.
In writing this book Endlich had access to more than a hundred people who played a role in the drama, as well as previously sealed courtroom documents. She explains how the conflicting styles of CEOs Henry Schacht and Rich McGinn contributed to Lucent's woes, and she shows how the loss of skilled executives such as Carly Fiorina hurt the company at a crucial moment. When it was all over, Schacht -- Lucent's first CEO, who was later brought back to right the listing ship -- acknowledged that Lucent had allowed itself to be swept up in the market mania, distorting its corporate values in the process.
Although the stock-market mania of the late 1990s is remembered as "the Internet craze" or "the dot-com madness," as Optical Illusions shows, the damage was more widespread and lasting. In fighting for its survival, Lucent laid off more than 70 percent of its employees, wrecking retirees' savings and investors' portfolios alike.
Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
By all accounts, Lucent should not have succeeded when it split off from AT&T in 1995. The "dreary equipment business" was saddled with several unprofitable operations, and most of the executive leadership would rather have been someplace else. They didn't even like the name or the new logo. Yet in a few years, the telecommunications company was not just the sixth-largest corporation in America but the world's most widely held stock and then just as quickly, it was reduced to barely one-hundreth of its peak value. What happened? Endlich (Goldman, Sachs: The Culture of Success) is careful to distinguish Lucent's collapse from the illegal activities that took place at Enron, Tyco and other companies in the late 1990s, explaining that the firm's accounting tactics were "legal and defensible but inadvisable." She also demonstrates that the warning signs were visible early, from an excessive growth in receivables to a series of risky loans to other telecom companies. She focuses almost exclusively on Lucent's internal drama, documenting the company's failure to live up to the reputation for innovation set by Bell Labs and the unresolved tensions among top brass that compounded early financial difficulties. Though lacking in juicy scandal, this straightforward account holds its own against other recent tales of corporate downfall. (Oct. 7) Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Library Journal
After Lucent was spun off from AT&T in 1996, its stock rose to a high of $84 a share in 2000 and then plunged to $.50 a share in 2002. In this well-researched book, Endlich (Goldman Sachs: The Culture of Success) considers how this telecommunications company could "lose 70% of its employees and 99% of its market value in two years." The author chronicles the birth of Lucent after splitting from AT&T, the dynamics of its top leadership, and the role played by Wall Street analysts in the company's fast rise to stardom. Along the way, Lucent management, caught up in the telecommunications boom of the late 1990s, pressured their sales force to deliver numbers that were impossible to meet in order to satisfy investors' high expectations. The author relies on extensive interviews (many anonymous) to tell the inside story of Lucent's fall. A fascinating read; recommended for all libraries. Stacey Marien, American Univ., Washington, DC Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780743275316
  • Publisher: Simon & Schuster
  • Publication date: 11/10/2004
  • Sold by: SIMON & SCHUSTER
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 320
  • Sales rank: 1,064,184
  • File size: 730 KB

Meet the Author

Lisa Endlich holds master's degrees from MIT in management and in urban planning, and was a vice president and foreign exchange trader for Goldman Sachs. She was raised in Los Angeles and lives in England with her husband and their three children.
Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Chapter One: Looking Back

The underpinnings of the emerging telecom bubble were a phenomenal miscalculation. At the time it seemed like a logical progression of history: cellular, the Internet, the new thing. It was bold, it was risky, it was expensive. And it was wrong.

David Barden

telecommunications analyst, Bank of America

The stock market bubble of the late 1990s will undoubtedly be remembered as the "Internet craze" or "dot-com mania," but this would be selling the madness short. While the fortunes of individual dot-coms have provided journalists and financial historians with some of the most dramatic, colorful, and apocryphal tales, they form only a peripheral portion of a much larger and more significant tale. No industry looked more promising or bled more money than telecommunications. With a collapse in market capitalization of more than $4 trillion and job losses in excess of 500,000 between 1999 and 2002, the telecom meltdown ranks as the greatest stock market debacle ever.

Lucent embodied the transformation in telecommunications. Born in April 1996 as a spin-off of the foundering telecom giant AT&T, Lucent had once been part of the largest regulated monopoly in the United States and thus was protected from the vagaries of the marketplace.

Lucent was the largest initial public offering ever, and because each AT&T shareholder became a Lucent shareholder (along with the new investors attracted by Lucent's stellar performance), it was not long before Lucent was the most widely held stock in America.

Market booms and busts have been studied over time from a macro perspective, with the observer stepping back to examine their insidious effects on the economy as a whole. Perhaps some light can be shed on the boom and bust at the turn of the century by adopting a micro point of view, by studying the path that leads to madness through the actions of a single company that in every way embodied its times. Lucent was born at the inception of the greatest market bubble ever, at the outset of an investment boom that poured billions of dollars into the telecommunications industry. And while understanding this mania in investment is essential to comprehending the company, the reverse may be true as well.

Lucent's startling transformation from an obscure division of AT&T to the sixth-largest corporation in America and then to a company gasping for its financial life left investors and observers by turns delighted, shocked, confused, and finally dismayed as they sought an explanation for the company's descent. The speed of Lucent's decline was as staggering as its magnitude. In the space of twenty-four months, the market capitalization of the company dropped by a quarter of a trillion dollars as its stock price plummeted by 99 percent. Lucent went from spending $100 million to advertise its new name to turning off lights and shuttering bathrooms to save pennies. This is the story of a financially sound company steeped in world-class talent, dominant in one of the world's fastest-growing industries, that in the space of two painful years found itself branded with a junk-bond credit rating, under investigation by the SEC for its fraudulent accounting practices, fighting off rumors of insolvency, and, hat in hand, begging its bankers for a little more time.

Situated on the seam where the new economy met the old, Lucent's prominence alone might have made its downfall a moderately interesting tale. But the story is surprisingly dramatic for a telecom equipment vendor, complete with a boardroom coup, a stock rise and fall in the shape of Mount Everest, and a series of financial and product decisions that left the company enfeebled. This is not a tale that can be charted over decades by pointing to a corporate culture decaying from within or a market in, say, buggy whips or bonnets disappearing in its entirety. Nor is it the story of teenagers popping out of a garage with an invention that would earn them billions, yet finding themselves unable to run the company they built. Lucent's leaders were the men and women of AT&T, the people who practically invented the modern corporate structure. As an old-world stalwart turned new-world bellwether, Lucent experienced the fallout from this historic event with as much force as any ethereal dot-com. When it was over, CEO Henry Schacht was forced to admit that the frenzy that engulfed the stock markets had badly distorted the company's value structure, tampered with its moral compass, and led to decisions that would never have been made in saner times.

The moment of inflection for Lucent came when the U.S. government passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996, igniting competition and forever shattering the rigid confines of this cozy, quasi-monopolistic industry. For Lucent, this regulatory change was a godsend. While Lucent remained inside AT&T, its customers had been AT&T itself and the local Bell phone companies. Soon hundreds of upstart telecom carriers were in a race to build their own state-of-the-art networks, relying almost entirely on borrowed funds. A spending free-for-all broke out, and as the world's largest purveyor of telecommunications equipment, Lucent could not have been better situated to take advantage of this investment binge.

Henry Schacht is known for his business wisdom, and in his earliest days as CEO, he accurately foretold the difficulties that would plague his company and its industry in this unsettled environment: "The pace of change is escalating dramatically at a time when visibility and predictability are declining dramatically." Management would need to pick up the pace, and for those coming from AT&T "the future is getting more opaque. My analogy is that it is the equivalent of a racecar driver accelerating in an increasingly dense fog. This is not a description that human beings find very comforting. We instinctively shy away from rapid destabilizing change; an element of fear is introduced." Even he would be surprised at the prescience of his predictions.

Copyright © 2004 by Lisa Endlich
Read More Show Less

Table of Contents



Chapter One: Looking Back

Chapter Two: Early Years

Chapter Three: McGinn and Schacht

Chapter Four: 1996

Chapter Five: 1997

Chapter Six: 1998

Chapter Seven: 1999

Chapter Eight: 2000

Chapter Nine: 2001

Chapter Ten: 2002-2003


Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Average Rating 1.5
( 3 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star


4 Star


3 Star


2 Star


1 Star


Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation


  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously
Sort by: Showing all of 3 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted April 21, 2014

    Dont get it

    This really isnt a illusion book. It only has one. But its a dum one.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted January 26, 2013

    No illonsions

    Exept ONE for 200 pages

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted March 7, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

Sort by: Showing all of 3 Customer Reviews

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
Why is this product inappropriate?
Comments (optional)