Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics / Edition 1

Hardcover (Print)

Overview

This book examines how aberrations arise in optical systems and how they affect optical wave propagation and imaging based on geometrical and physical optics. It focuses on concepts, physical insight, and mathematical simplicity, intended for students and professionals. Figures and drawings illustrate concepts and enhance readability. This book is useful as a textbook, reference, or tutorial.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Based on the author's lectures at the University of Southern California, where he teaches a graduate course in optical imaging and aberrations, this volume provides an understanding of how aberrations arise in optical systems and how they affect imaging. Emphasis is placed on the primary aberrations of simple optical systems as a foundation for the design of more complex and high image-quality systems. Each chapter ends with a set of problems. A separate volume (Volume 2) treats imaging based on diffraction. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780819425157
  • Publisher: SPIE Press
  • Publication date: 7/21/1998
  • Series: Press Monographs
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 500
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Symbols and notation xv
Chapter 1 Gaussian Optics
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Foundations of Geometrical Optics 4
1.2.1 Fermat's Principle 5
1.2.2 Laws of Geometrical Optics 6
1.2.3 Optical Path Lengths of Neighboring Rays 9
1.2.4 Malus-Dupin Theorem 11
1.2.5 Hamilton's Point Characteristic Function 12
1.3 Gaussian Imaging 13
1.3.1 Introduction 13
1.3.2 Sign Convention 14
1.3.3 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) 15
1.3.3.1 Gaussian Imaging Equation 15
1.3.3.2 Refracting Power and Focal Lengths 17
1.3.3.3 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant 18
1.3.3.4 Graphical Imaging 21
1.3.3.5 Newtonian Imaging Equation 21
1.3.4 Thin Lens 22
1.3.4.1 Gaussian Imaging Equation 22
1.3.4.2 Refracting Power and Focal Length 23
1.3.4.3 Undeviated Ray 25
1.3.4.4 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant 27
1.3.4.5 Newtonian Imaging Equation 29
1.3.5 Refracting Systems 29
1.3.5.1 Cardinal Points and Planes 30
1.3.5.2 Gaussian Imaging 32
1.3.5.3 Nodal Points 35
1.3.5.4 Newtonian Imaging Equation 36
1.3.6 Afocal System 37
1.3.7 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) 41
1.3.7.1 Gaussian Imaging Equation 41
1.3.7.2 Reflecting Power and Equivalent Focal Length 42
1.3.7.3 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant 45
1.3.7.4 Graphical Imaging 47
1.3.7.5 Newtonian Imaging Equation 47
1.4 Paraxial Ray Tracing 49
1.4.1 Refracting Surface 50
1.4.2 Thin Lens 53
1.4.3 Two Thin Lenses 55
1.4.4 Thick Lens 57
1.4.5 Reflecting Surface (Mirror) 61
1.4.6 Two-Mirror System 61
1.4.7 Catadioptric System: Thin Lens-Mirror Combination 64
References 69
Problems 70
Chapter 2 Radiometry of Imaging
2.1 Introduction 75
2.2 Stops, Pupils, and Vignetting 76
2.2.1 Introduction 76
2.2.2 Aperture Stop, and Entrance and Exit Pupils 76
2.2.3 Chief and Marginal Rays 79
2.2.4 Vignetting 79
2.2.5 Size of an Imaging Element 82
2.2.6 Telecentric Aperture Stop 82
2.2.7 Field Stop, and Entrance and Exit Windows 82
2.3 Radiometry of Point Sources 84
2.3.1 Irradiance of a Surface 84
2.3.2 Flux Incident on a Circular Aperture 87
2.4 Radiometry of Extended Sources 88
2.4.1 Lambertian Surface 89
2.4.2 Exitance of a Lambertian Surface 89
2.4.3 Radiance of a Tube of Rays 91
2.4.4 Irradiance by a Lambertian Surface Element 92
2.4.5 Irradiance by a Lambertian Disc 92
2.5 Radiometry of Point Object Imaging 96
2.6 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging 98
2.6.1 Image Radiance 98
2.6.2 Pupil Distortion 101
2.6.3 Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in Front of the System 102
2.6.4 Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in Back of the System 104
2.6.5 Telecentric Systems 105
2.6.6 Throughput 106
2.6.7 Condition for Uniform Image Irradiance 106
2.6.8 Concentric Systems 108
2.7 Photometry 109
2.7.1 Photometric Quantities and Spectral Response of Human Eye 109
2.7.2 Imaging by a Human Eye 110
2.7.3 Brightness of a Lambertian Surface 111
2.7.4 Observing Stars in the Daytime 113
Appendix A A Radiance Theorem 117
Appendix B Generalized Lagrange Invariant 121
References 125
Problems 126
Chapter 3 Optical Aberrations
3.1 Introduction 131
3.2 Wave and Ray Aberrations 131
3.2.1 Definitions 131
2.2.2 Relationship Between Wave and Ray Aberrations 134
3.3 Defocus Aberration 137
3.4 Wavefront Tilt 139
3.5 Aberration Function of a Rotationally Symmetric System 141
3.5.1 Rotational Invariants 141
3.5.2 Power-Series Expansion 145
3.5.2.1 Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates 145
3.5.2.2 No Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates 148
3.5.3 Zernike Circle-Polynomial Expansion 153
3.5.4 Relationships Between Coefficients of Power-Series and Zernike-Polynomial Expansions 158
3.6 Observation of Aberrations 159
3.6.1 Primary Aberrations 160
3.6.2 Interferograms 163
3.7 Conditions for Perfect Imaging 167
3.7.1 Imaging of a 3-D Object 167
3.7.2 Imaging of a 2-D Transverse Object 170
3.7.3 Imaging of a 1-D Axial Object 172
3.7.4 Linear Coma and the Sine Condition 174
3.7.5 Optical Sine Theorem 175
3.7.6 Linear Coma and Offense Against the Sine Condition 178
Appendix A Degree of Approximation in Eq. (3-11) 182
Appendix B Wave and Ray Aberrations: Alternative Definition and Derivation 184
References 190
Problems 191
Chapter 4 Geometrical Point-Spread Function
4.1 Introduction 195
4.2 Theory 195
4.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 199
4.3.1 Spherical Aberration 200
4.3.2 Coma 207
4.3.3 Astigmatism and Field Curvature 212
4.3.4 Distortion 221
4.4 Balanced Aberrations for Minimum RMS Spot Radius 222
4.5 Spot Diagrams 224
4.6 Summary of Results 226
4.6.1 Spherical Aberration 226
4.6.2 Coma 228
4.6.3 Astigmatism and Field Curvature 228
4.6.4 Distortion 230
References 231
Problems 232
Chapter 5 Calculation of Primary Aberrations: Refracting Systems
5.1 Introduction 235
5.2 Spherical Refracting Surface with Aperture Stop at the Surface 237
5.2.1 On-Axis Point Object 237
5.2.2 Off-Axis Point Object 240
5.2.2.1 Aberrations with Respect to Petzval Image Point 240
5.2.2.2 Aberrations with Respect to Gaussian Image Point 246
5.3 Spherical Refracting Surface with Aperture Stop 249
5.3.1 On-Axis Point Object 249
5.3.2 Off-Axis Point Object 251
5.4 Aplanatic Points of a Spherical Refracting Surface 253
5.5 Conic Refracting Surface 258
5.5.1 Sag of a Conic Surface 258
5.5.2 On-Axis Point Object 262
5.5.3 Off-Axis Point Object 263
5.6 General Aspherical Refracting Surface 267
5.7 Series of Coaxial Refracting (and Reflecting) Surfaces 268
5.7.1 General Imaging System 268
5.7.2 Petzval Curvature and Corresponding Field Curvature Wave Aberration 269
5.7.3 Relationship between Petzval Curvature and Field Curvature Astigmatism Wave Aberration Coefficients 273
5.8 Aberation Function in Terms of Seidel Sums or Seidel Coefficients 274
5.9 Effect of Change in Aperture Stop Position on the Aberration Function 193
5.9.1 Change of Peak Aberration Coefficients 277
5.9.2 Illustration of the Effect of Aperture-Stop Shift on Coma and Distortion 281
5.9.3 Aberrations of a Spherical Refracting Surface with Aperture Stop Not at the Surface Obtained from those with Stop at the Surface 282
5.10 Thin Lens 284
5.10.1 Imaging Relations 285
5.10.2 Aberration Function of a Thin Lens with Spherical Surfaces and Aperture Stop at the Lens 287
5.10.3 Petzval Surface 292
5.10.4 Spherical Aberration and Coma 293
5.10.5 Aplantic Lens 295
5.10.6 Aberration Function of a Thin Lens with Conic Surfaces 298
5.10.7 Aberration Function of a Thin Lens with Aperture Stop Not at the Lens 299
5.11 Field Flattener 300
5.11.1 Imaging Relations 300
5.11.2 Aberration Function 301
5.12 Plane-Parallel Plate 304
5.12.1 Introduction 304
5.12.2 Imaging Relations 304
5.12.2 Aberration Function 307
5.13 Chromatic Aberrations 308
5.13.1 Introduction 308
5.13.2 Single Refracting Surface 309
5.13.3 Thin Lens 312
5.13.4 General System: Surface-by-Surface Approach 315
5.13.5 General System: Use of Principal and Focal Points 320
Problems 332
Chapter 6 Calculation of Primary Aberrations: Reflecting and Catadioptric Systems
6.1 Introduction 339
6.2 Conic Reflecting Surface 339
6.2.1 Conic Surface 339
6.2.2 Imaging Relations 342
6.2.3 Aberration Function 342
6.3 Petzval Surface 346
6.4 Spherical Mirror 349
6.4.1 Aberration Function and Aplantic Points 262
6.4.2 Aperture Stop at the Mirror Surface 263
6.4.3 Aperture Stop at the Center of Curvature of Mirror 265
6.5 Paraboloidal Mirror 267
6.6 Catadioptric Systems 356
6.6.1 Schmidt Camera 356
6.6.2 Bouwers-Maksutov Camera 366
6.7 Beam Expander 370
6.7.1 Introduction 370
6.7.2 Gaussian Parameters 370
6.7.3 Aberration Contributed by Primary Mirror 372
6.7.4 Aberration Contributed by Secondary Mirror 373
6.7.5 System Aberration 373
6.8 Two-Mirror Astronomical Telescopes 374
6.8.1 Introduction 374
6.8.2 Gaussian Parameters 375
6.8.3 Petzval Surface 290
6.8.4 Aberration Contributed by Primary Mirror 280
6.8.5 Aberration Contributed by Secondary Mirror 382
6.8.6 System Aberration 383
6.8.7 Classical Cassegrain and Gregorian Telescopes 384
6.8.8 Aplanatic Cassegrain and Gregorian Telescopes 387
6.8.9 Afocal Telescope 388
6.8.10 Couder Anastigmatic Telescopes 389
6.8.11 Schwarzschild Telescope 390
6.8.12 Dall-Kirkham Telescope 393
6.9 Astronomical Telescopes Using Aspheric Plates 394
6.9.1 Introduction 394
6.9.2 Aspheric Plate in a Diverging Object Beam 394
6.9.3 Aspheric Plate in a Converging Image Beam 396
6.9.4 Aspheric Plate and a Conic Mirror 398
Chapter 7 Calculation of Primary Aberrations: Perturbed Optical Systems
7.1 Introduction 407
7.2 Aberrations of a Misaligned Surface 408
7.2.1 Decentered Surface 408
7.2.2 Tilted Surface 412
7.2.3 Despaced Surface 414
7.3 Aberrations of Perturbed Two-Mirror Telescopes 414
7.3.1 Decentered Secondary Mirror 415
7.3.2 Tilted Secondary Mirror 415
7.3.3 Decentered and Tilted Secondary Mirror 417
7.3.4 Despaced Secondary Mirror 419
7.4 Fabrication Errors 419
7.4.1 Refracting Surface 420
7.4.2 Reflecting Surface 422
References 424
Problems 425
Bibliography 427
Index 429
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