Optical Microscanners and Microspectrometers using Thermal Bimorph Actuators / Edition 1

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Optical Microscanners and Microspectrometers using Thermal Bimorph Actuators shows how to design and fabricate optical microsystems using innovative technologies and and original architectures. A barcode scanner, laser projection mirror and a microspectrometer are explained in detail, starting from the system conception, discussing simulations, choice of cleanroom technologies, design, fabrication, device test, packaging all the way to the system assembly.

An advanced microscanning device capable of one- and two-dimensional scanning can be integrated in a compact barcode scanning system composed of a laser diode and adapted optics. The original design of the microscanner combines efficiently the miniaturized thermal mechanical actuator and the reflecting mirror, providing a one-dimensional scanning or an unique combination of two movements, depending on the geometry. The simplicity of the device makes it a competitive component.

The authors rethink the design of a miniaturized optical device and find a compact solution for a microspectrometer, based on a tunable filter and a single pixel detector. A porous silicon technology combines efficiently the optical filter function with a thermal mechanical actuator on chip. The methodology for design and process calibration are discussed in detail. The device is the core component of an infrared gas spectrometer.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Based on research performed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, this book explores the application of MEMS technology in micro-optical devices that use integrated microactuators for scanning mirrors and optical interference plates. The authors develop thin film chromium and nickel actuators that are based on multimorph beams heated by resistive heating, and present several design and technologies for the realization of scanning micromirrors. The microscanner concept is further realized by optical interference filters made of porous silicon multilayers. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780792376552
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 1/31/2002
  • Series: Microsystems Series, #14
  • Edition description: 2002
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 268
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 MEMS 2
1.3 MOEMS 3
1.4 MOEMS actuation principles 16
2 Basics for a thermally actuated micromirror 27
2.1 Microactuator specifications 27
2.2 Principle of the presented microscanner 28
2.3 The thermal bimorph actuator 28
2.4 Static temperature distribution in the microscanner 46
2.5 Response time of the bimorph beam 59
2.6 General conclusions 64
3 Microscanner technology 67
3.1 Fabrication process 67
3.2 Process improvements 70
3.3 Conclusions 76
4 One-dimensional microscanner 77
4.1 Test Set-up 77
4.2 Static characterization of Chromium based actuators 78
4.3 Static characterization of Nickel based actuators 86
4.4 Dynamic characterization 88
4.5 ID scanner applications 105
4.6 Conclusions 111
5 Two-dimensional microscanner 113
5.1 Principle 113
5.2 Design and modelling of the raster natural frequency 113
5.3 Dynamic measurements 120
5.4 Microprojector application 123
5.5 Conclusions 133
6 Advanced Optical Filters of Porous Silicon 135
6.1 Principle 135
6.2 History of porous silicon 136
6.3 Fabrication of porous silicon 136
6.4 Parameters determining the structure of porous silicon 139
6.5 Electropolishing 144
6.6 Porous silicon as sacrificial layer 145
6.7 Calculation of optical interference filters 145
6.8 Fabrication of optical filter of porous silicon 153
6.9 Summary 163
7 Micromachining using porous Silicon 165
7.1 Goals for the technology 165
7.2 Metal masks 166
7.3 Nitride masks 167
7.4 Free-standing porous silicon films 167
7.5 Mask removal 169
7.6 Thermal actuator design 169
7.7 Mechanical filter plate suspension 181
7.8 Homogeneity of the optical filter 184
7.9 Process flow 190
7.10 Summary 193
8 Tunable Optical Filter and IR Gas Spectroscopy 195
8.1 Overview of devices 195
8.2 Optical characterization 198
8.3 Chip separation and packaging 202
8.4 System integration for gas sensing 205
8.5 Summary 210
9 Conclusions and outlook 211
9.1 Conclusions 211
9.2 Outlook 215
Appendices 217
A.1 Complement to the curvature calculation due to residual stress 217
A.2 Complement to the static temperature distribution calculation 221
A.3 Large deflections 225
References 229
Symbols and Abbreviations 255
Glossary of terms 263
Acknowledgments 267
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