Optimising Pesticide Use / Edition 1

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Overview

Optimising Pesticide Use brings together the wide range of scientific disciplines necessary to ensure best practice through monitoring what is used and improving how it is formulated and applied. The book provides:

  • An in-depth exploration of pesticide optimisation from the view point of industry and research scientist
  • A case study on the development of a new range of active chemistries from bacteria
  • A discussion of complementary pest control methods

This text will provide essential information to workers in the pesticide industry and regulatory community who need to be aware of current thinking and advancements in the optimal use of pesticidal compounds and systems, as well as environmental organisations and aid development organisations.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...a comprehensive and timely contribution...key issues are brought together in a discussion of Rational Pesticide Use..." (International Pest Control, Vol 46(1), Jan/Feb 2004)

“…gives a complete overview of all the available and latest technologies for optimising pesticide use.” (International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol.23, No.2, 2005)

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Product Details

Table of Contents

Contributors.

1. Optimising Pesticide Use – Introduction (M. F. Wilson).

2. Pesticide Usage Monitoring (M. R. Thomas).

3. Application Technologies (J. C. van de Zande, C. S. Parkin and A. J. Gilbert).

4. Handling and Dose Control (P. C. H. Miller).

5. Specialised Application Technology (G. A. Matthews).

6. The Aerial Application of Pesticides (N. Woods).

7. Formulating Pesticides (R. Sohm).

8. Rational Pesticide Use: Spatially and Temporally Targeted Application of Specific Products (R. Bateman).

9. Complementary Pest Control Methods (C. H. Bell, D. M. Armitage and B. R. Champ).

Index.

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First Chapter

Optimising Pesticide Use


John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-49075-X


Preface

Pest control and thus a reliance on pesticides, has been around for a long time. Records show that the Ancient Egyptians used alkaloid containing hemlock and aconite and Homer describes how Odysseus "fumigated the hall, house and court with sulphur to control pests". The amount of effort man has put into pest control is often inversely proportional to the food supply. In times of famine, we are less keen on sharing the food supply with other species - pests - or tolerant of spoilage to our food from pest activity. Conversely, in times of plenty, as is currently the case in the developed world, people have the option of seeking food grown without chemical pest control and balancing the possible risks from chemical residues with the perceived benefits, quality and abundance of untreated foods. This is not a global option.

World Wars I and II served as a watershed for the modern chemical industry. Many chemicals and technologies initially developed for warfare, were later adapted, developed further and focused on civilian uses. Swiss chemist Paul Müller discovered the insecticidal properties of DDT in 1939, an innovation that later earned him the Nobel Prize. German scientists experimenting with nerve gas during World War II synthesized the organophosphorus insecticide parathion, marketed in 1943, and still in use today. Throughout the 1950s and 60s, these types of chemicals became major pest control agents.

However, "Silent Spring", RachelCarson's challenge to the perceived abuse of synthetic pesticides, published in 1962, initiated the a movement toward strict agrochemical regulation and the far more rigorous assessment of risks and benefits from pesticide use.

Whilst today's pesticides are designed to have fewer residues at harvest, persist in the environment for shorter periods and are to be less lethal to non-target species than the early days of calcium arsenate and DDT, the chemistry and biochemistry of pesticide design continues to improve. Such improvements are not confined to the chemistry and biochemistry of the active ingredients of pesticides. The way in which an active ingredient is formulated into a usable preparation and the engineering behind the manner in which it is applied to the crop have an equal part to play in minimising the risks from pest control. Each activity is designed to ensure that the pesticide molecule reaches and remains on its target - and preferably only its target - by adjusting the physio-chemical properties of the formulation and the precision of the application methods. Finally, pesticide use is part of broader agricultural practice and the non-prophylactic, limited use of pesticides as part of integrated pest management programmes is often the optimal way of achieving adequate pest control with minimal chemical use.

As editor of this volume, I am grateful to the authors that have contributed to this work. It is hopefully a fresh look at possible means of optimising pesticide use. Measuring precisely what is being used in response to real pest pressure and improving the application technologies are as important as the design and development of new chemistries. These facets are often overlooked and I hope this volume partly redresses this imbalance. I also would like to thank colleagues at the Central Science Laboratory for their help and advice during the production of manuscripts and for their patience during the long gestation period. I am particularly grateful to Andrew Gilbert for both his contribution and his help in collating some of the other chapters. Finally, I would like to thanks the series editors and staff at John Wiley & Sons, Ltd for useful comments and suggestions through the production of this volume.

MICHAEL WILSON York June 2003

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Optimising Pesticide Use Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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