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In the last 33 years this bestseller has met the needs of nearly one million students. The eleventh edition of Samovar's Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures offers a straightforward, practical approach to public speaking. The text is noted for its clear and concise writing style, abundant use of examples, and logical organization. Chapter sequencing allows students to begin making speeches within the first few days of class.
In addition to its core of rhetorical training, Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures continues to stake out new territory. This new edition links three contemporary developments to the context of public speaking:
* New technological advancements.
* Shifting ethnic and cultural patterns.
* An increased awareness of ethical issues.
Special features in the new edition include:
* The role of culture in listening, evidence, humor, credibility, small groups, audience analysis, and reasoning.
* A chapter on critical thinking.
* A discussion of ethics in each chapter.
* Material on the uses of electronic tools (such as the Internet) throughout the text.
* End-of-chapter discussion questions and exercises.
A comprehensive Instructor's Manual/Testing Program includes course guidelines, overviews, classroom activities, examination questions, and test item files (available in book form or on disk).
Part I: Preliminary Considerations
1. Communication: Overview and Preview
The Importance of Communication Communication and Democracy Communication and Careers Communication and Social Relationships Communication and Culture International Contacts Domestic Contacts Improving Communication The Communication Process Defining Communication The Ingredients of Communication Communication and Public Speaking Public Speaking and Writing Public Speaking and Conversation Ethical Responsibilities of Communication Some Working Principles Ethics and Public Speaking The Sender's Responsibilities The Receiver's Responsibilities Culture and Ethics Preview of Principles Organizing Ideas Presenting Ideas
2. Your First Speeches: Getting Started
Selecting a Topic Begin With Yourself Looking Elsewhere Important Considerations Narrowing a Topic Formulating a General Purpose Speech to Inform Speech to Persuade Speech to Entertain Formulating a Specific Purpose Choosing a Title Choosing a Method of Speaking Speaking From a Manuscript Speaking From Memory Impromptu Delivery Extemporaneous Delivery Using Notecards Practicing the Speech Gaining Confidence Understanding Communication Apprehension Dealing With Communication Apprehension
3. Audience Analysis: Understanding Your Listeners
The Importance of Audience Analysis Assessing the Audience What Listeners Bring to Communication Cultural Characteristics Religious Characteristics Age-Level Characteristics Gender Characteristics Occupational Characteristics Educational Characteristics Group Characteristics Geographical Characteristics Special Characteristics Gathering Information About the Audience Before the Speech During the Speech Analyzing the Speaking Occasion Kind of Occasion Physical Surroundings Time Culture and the Occasion Adapting to Your Audience Ask Rhetorical Questions Focus on the Audience Use Personal Pronouns Use the Experiences of the Audience
4. Sound and Action: Presenting Your Ideas
Visual Dimensions of Presentation General Appearance Facial Expression Eye Contact Movement The Use of Space Visual Dimensions and Culture Aural Dimensions of Presentation Loudness (Volume)
Pitch Rate Distinctness (Articulation)
Dialects Aural Dimensions and Culture Improving Your Speech Delivery Your Body Your Voice Your Confidence
5. Listening: Evaluation and Criticism
The Rewards of Listening The Process of Listening The Purposes of Listening Empathic Listening Informational Listening Evaluative Listening Appreciative Listening Misconceptions About Listening Hearing Versus Listening Objectivity Versus Subjectivity Active Versus Passive Listener Versus Speaker Change Versus Static Barriers to Listening Faking Attention Listening Only for Facts Avoiding Difficult Material Avoiding the Uninteresting Criticizing the Speaker Yielding to Distractions Defensive Listening Prejudice Constant Self-Focus Message Overload Thinking-Speaking Rate Short Attention Span Improving Listening Identify Personal Listening Characteristics Be Motivated to Listen Make Use of the Thinking-Speaking Time Difference Focus on Matter Rather Than Manner Be an Active Listener Ask Questions Use Vocal and Nonverbal Cues Practice Evaluating Speeches Purpose Substance Argument Structure Style Credibility Delivery Effects Presenting Your Evaluation Listener and Speaker Responsibilities Listener Responsibility Speaker Responsibility Culture and Listening
Part II: Your Ideas
6. Evidence: The Foundation of Your Ideas
The Importance of Evidence Verbal Support Illustrations Specific Instances Statistics Testimony Analogy Other Forms of Verbal Support The Ethical Use of Evidence The Ethical Use of Statistics The Ethical Use of Testimony When to Use Verbal Support How to Use Verbal Support Direct Quotations and Paraphrases Transitions Visual Support The Role of Culture in the Use of Evidence
7. Visual Aids: Displaying Your Ideas
The Importance of Visual Aids Retention Support Clarity Organization Attention Credibility Culture Choosing the Appropriate Aid Specific Purpose Audience Size Audience Analysis Time, Money, Availability Expertise Nonelectronic Visual Aids People Objects Models Posters Maps Paintings and Drawings Photographs Charts and Graphs Chalkboards and Dry-Erase Boards Flip Charts Duplicated Material (Handouts)
Electronic Visual Aids Slides Videotape Computer Arts CD-ROM Transparencies Audio Aids Preparing Visual Aids Using Visual Aids
8. Research: The Content of Your Ideas
Having a Research Agenda Start Early Decide on a Specific Purpose Use a Variety of Sources Select a Research Strategy Keep Complete and Accurate Records Systematically Organize Your Material Finding Material Personal Experience Interviews Writing, Phoning, Faxing, and E-mailing Visual Electronic Media Using the Library Using the Internet Recording Your Material Photocopying Material Being Accurate Citing Traditional Sources Citing Internet Sources Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research Evaluating Your Sources Avoiding Plagiarism Using Copyrighted Material
9. Critical Thinking: The Appraisal of Your Ideas
Personal Barriers to Critical Thinking Frozen Evaluations Self-Interest Ego-Defense Ethnocentrism Stereotyping Prejudice Detecting Fallacies Language Deceptions Extraneous Appeals Faulty Logic
10. Organization: Assembling Your Ideas
The Importance of Organization Core Statement Informative Core Statements Persuasive Core Statements Formulating Main Points and Subpoints Relationship to the Core Statement Separation from Other Main Points Collective Completeness of the Main Points Organizational Patterns Chronological Pattern Spatial Pattern Topical Pattern Cause-Effect Pattern Problem-Solution Pattern Level-of-Acceptance Pattern Motivated Sequence Organizational Patterns and Culture Outlining the Message Importance of Outlining Characteristics of Effective Outlines A Sample Outline Using Transitions
11. Introductions and Conclusions: Connecting Your Ideas
Preparing the Introduction Gaining Attention Guidelines in Using Introductions Preparing Your Audience for the Speech Justify the Topic Delimit the Topic Presenting Your Speaking Credentials (Establishing Credibility)
Defining Your Terms Providing Background Information Establishing Common Ground Introductions and Culture Preparing the Conclusion Summary Quotations Illustration or Story Challenge Declaration of Intent Alluding to the Introduction Guidelines in Using Conclusions
12. Language: The Medium of Your Ideas
The Importance of Language Understanding How Language Works Words Are Only Symbols Words Have Many Uses Words Evoke Denotative and Connotative Meanings Words Convey a Partial Picture of Reality Words and Their Meanings Are Learned Words Reflect Our Experiences Language and Intercultural Communication Idioms Ambiguity Directness Loquacity Formality Characteristics of Effective Style Effective Style Is Clear Effective Style Observes the Rules of Grammar Effective Style Is Vivid Effective Style Is Appropriate Effective Style Is Free From Distractions Ethics and Language Be Accurate in Your Use of Words Be Aware of the Emotional Impact of Your Words Do Not Be Hateful in Your Use of Words Improving Your Language Habits
Part III: Having an Influence
13. Informative Speaking: Being Understood
Basic Assumptions About Learning Motivation Coupling the Known With the Unknown Logical Sequence Repetition Multisensory Stimulation Communication Overload Depth Central Focus Types of Informative Speeches Instructions Descriptions Explanations Reports Preparing a Speech to Inform Determining A Purpose Choosing and Narrowing the Topic Gathering and Selecting Material The Materials of Informative Speaking Contributing to Clarity Contributing to Interest and Attention Organizing a Speech to Inform Introduction Body Conclusion Sample Outline
14. Persuasive Speaking: Changing Beliefs, Attitudes, Values, and Behavior
Defining Persuasion Types of Persuasive Speeches Speech to Convince Speech to Actuate Speech to Stimulate The Goals of Persuasive Speaking Beliefs Attitudes Values Behaviors Concerns of Persuasion Questions of Fact Questions of Value Questions of Policy Preparing a Persuasive Speech Choosing a Topic Formulating a Specific Purpose Analyzing an Audience Finding Material Convincing Arguments Impelling Psychological Appeals Using Motive Appeals Our Desire to Maintain Consistency Our Susceptibility to Suggestion Personal Credibility Organizing a Persuasive Speech Introduction Body Conclusion Designing the Persuasive Speech Problem-Solution Pattern Monroe's Motivated Sequence Deduction Induction Persuasive Strategies Placing Ideas Deciding Which Argument to Place First Presenting Both Sides of the Argument Making Your Proposition Clear Combining Evidence With Emotional Appeals Culture and Persuasion Culture and Convincing Arguments Cultural Variations in the Use of Evidence The Quantity of Evidence Used Cultural Variations in Reasoning Cultural and Psychological Appeals Culture and Personal Credibility Persuasion and Ethics
Part IV: Changing Environments
15. Special Occasions: The Unique Communication Situation
Impromptu Speech Preparing an Impromptu Speech Delivering an Impromptu Speech Manuscript Speech Preparing a Manuscript Speech Delivering a Manuscript Speech Entertaining Speeches Characteristics of the Entertaining Speech Using Humor Developing an Entertaining Speech Television Speeches Television's Unique Features Preparing for Television Presenting Yourself on Television Controlling Nervousness Practicing Your Television Prevention Ethical Considerations and Television Speeches of Introduction Question-and-Answer Sessions Ways to Formulate an Effective Reply Organizing a Reply
16. Discussion: Group Communication
The Importance of Group Communication Speech Communication and Group Communication Types of Group Discussion Public Discussion Private Discussion Characteristics of Problem-Solving Groups Cooperation Analysis and Investigation Subjectivity and Objectivity Reflective Thinking Skepticism Group Cohesion Group Norms Democratic Process Preparing for Discussion Selecting a Subject Wording the Subject Gathering Material Organizing a Discussion Recognizing and Defining the Problem Description of the Problem Discovery of Possible Solutions Evaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best Solution Plan of Action Brainstorming as an Organizational Pattern Impromptu Speech Preparing an Impromptu Speech Delivering an Impromptu Speech Manuscript Speech Preparing a Manuscript Speech Delivering a Manuscript Speech Entertaining Speeches Characteristics of the Entertaining Speech Using Humor Developing an Entertaining Speech Television Speeches Television's Unique Features Preparing for Television Presenting Yourself on Television Controlling Nervousness Practicing Your Television Prevention Ethical Considerations and Television Speeches of Introduction Question-and-Answer Sessions Ways to Formulate an Effective Reply Organizing a Reply
16. Discussion: Group Communication
The Importance of Group Communication Speech Communication and Group Communication Types of Group Discussion Public Discussion Private Discussion Characteristics of Problem-Solving Groups Cooperation Analysis and Investigation Subjectivity and Objectivity Reflective Thinking Skepticism Group Cohesion Group Norms Democratic Process Preparing for Discussion Selecting a Subject Wording the Subject Gathering Material Organizing a Discussion Recognizing and Defining the Problem Description of the Problem Discovery of Possible Solutions Evaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best Solution Plan of Action Brainstorming as an Organizational Pattern Participating in Small Groups Functional and Task Roles Maintenance and Supportive Roles Presenting Your Ideas Leadership in Small Groups Leadership Tasks Leadership and Culture Dealing With Conflict Definition of Conflict Causes of Conflict Managing Conflict Conflict and Culture Barriers to Discussion Apathy Excessive Formality Control Dogmatism Lack of Patience Groupthink The Role of Culture in Group Communication Individualism or Collectivism Conformity Use of Language Use of Time Compromise Group Norms Decision Making Uncertainty and Ambiguity Nonverbal Communication Taking Part in a Videoconference The Characteristics of a Videoconference Preparing for a Videoconference Participating in a Videoconference Evaluating a Discussion