Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures / Edition 11

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Overview

In the last 33 years this bestseller has met the needs of nearly one million students. The eleventh edition of Samovar's Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures offers a straightforward, practical approach to public speaking. The text is noted for its clear and concise writing style, abundant use of examples, and logical organization. Chapter sequencing allows students to begin making speeches within the first few days of class.

In addition to its core of rhetorical training, Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures continues to stake out new territory. This new edition links three contemporary developments to the context of public speaking:

* New technological advancements.
* Shifting ethnic and cultural patterns.
* An increased awareness of ethical issues.
Special features in the new edition include:

* The role of culture in listening, evidence, humor, credibility, small groups, audience analysis, and reasoning.
* A chapter on critical thinking.
* A discussion of ethics in each chapter.
* Material on the uses of electronic tools (such as the Internet) throughout the text.
* End-of-chapter discussion questions and exercises.
A comprehensive Instructor's Manual/Testing Program includes course guidelines, overviews, classroom activities, examination questions, and test item files (available in book form or on disk).

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195329919
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 1/19/2000
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 526
  • Product dimensions: 9.90 (w) x 6.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Part I: Preliminary Considerations
1. Communication: Overview and Preview
The Importance of Communication
Communication and Democracy
Communication and Careers
Communication and Social Relationships
Communication and Culture
International Contacts
Domestic Contacts
Improving Communication
The Communication Process
Defining Communication
The Ingredients of Communication
Communication and Public Speaking
Public Speaking and Writing
Public Speaking and Conversation
Ethical Responsibilities of Communication
Some Working Principles
Ethics and Public Speaking
The Sender's Responsibilities
The Receiver's Responsibilities
Culture and Ethics
Preview of Principles
Organizing Ideas
Presenting Ideas
2. Your First Speeches: Getting Started
Selecting a Topic
Begin With Yourself
Looking Elsewhere
Important Considerations
Narrowing a Topic
Formulating a General Purpose
Speech to Inform
Speech to Persuade
Speech to Entertain
Formulating a Specific Purpose
Choosing a Title
Choosing a Method of Speaking
Speaking From a Manuscript
Speaking From Memory
Impromptu Delivery
Extemporaneous Delivery
Using Notecards
Practicing the Speech
Gaining Confidence
Understanding Communication Apprehension
Dealing With Communication Apprehension
3. Audience Analysis: Understanding Your Listeners
The Importance of Audience Analysis
Assessing the Audience
What Listeners Bring to Communication
Cultural Characteristics
Religious Characteristics
Age-Level Characteristics
Gender Characteristics
Occupational Characteristics
Educational Characteristics
Group Characteristics
Geographical Characteristics
Special Characteristics
Gathering Information About the Audience
Before the Speech
During the Speech
Analyzing the Speaking Occasion
Kind of Occasion
Physical Surroundings
Time Culture and the Occasion
Adapting to Your Audience
Ask Rhetorical Questions
Focus on the Audience
Use Personal Pronouns
Use the Experiences of the Audience
4. Sound and Action: Presenting Your Ideas
Visual Dimensions of Presentation
General Appearance
Facial Expression
Eye Contact
Movement
The Use of Space
Visual Dimensions and Culture
Aural Dimensions of Presentation
Loudness (Volume)
Pitch Rate
Distinctness (Articulation)
Correctness (Pronunciation)
Dialects
Aural Dimensions and Culture
Improving Your Speech Delivery
Your Body
Your Voice
Your Confidence
5. Listening: Evaluation and Criticism
The Rewards of Listening
The Process of Listening
The Purposes of Listening
Empathic Listening
Informational Listening
Evaluative Listening
Appreciative Listening
Misconceptions About Listening
Hearing Versus Listening
Objectivity Versus Subjectivity
Active Versus Passive
Listener Versus Speaker
Change Versus Static
Barriers to Listening
Faking Attention
Listening Only for Facts
Avoiding Difficult Material
Avoiding the Uninteresting
Criticizing the Speaker
Yielding to Distractions
Defensive Listening
Prejudice
Constant Self-Focus
Message Overload
Thinking-Speaking Rate
Short Attention Span
Improving Listening
Identify Personal Listening Characteristics
Be Motivated to Listen
Make Use of the Thinking-Speaking Time Difference
Focus on Matter Rather Than Manner
Be an Active Listener
Ask Questions
Use Vocal and Nonverbal Cues
Practice
Evaluating Speeches
Purpose
Substance
Argument
Structure
Style
Credibility
Delivery
Effects
Presenting Your Evaluation
Listener and Speaker Responsibilities
Listener Responsibility
Speaker Responsibility
Culture and Listening
Part II: Your Ideas
6. Evidence: The Foundation of Your Ideas
The Importance of Evidence
Verbal Support
Illustrations
Specific Instances
Statistics
Testimony
Analogy
Other Forms of Verbal Support
The Ethical Use of Evidence
The Ethical Use of Statistics
The Ethical Use of Testimony
When to Use Verbal Support
How to Use Verbal Support
Direct Quotations and Paraphrases
Transitions
Visual Support
The Role of Culture in the Use of Evidence
7. Visual Aids: Displaying Your Ideas
The Importance of Visual Aids
Retention
Support
Clarity
Organization
Attention
Credibility
Culture
Choosing the Appropriate Aid
Specific Purpose
Audience Size
Audience Analysis
Time, Money, Availability
Expertise
Nonelectronic Visual Aids
People
Objects
Models
Posters
Maps
Paintings and Drawings
Photographs
Charts and Graphs
Chalkboards and Dry-Erase Boards
Flip Charts
Duplicated Material (Handouts)
Electronic Visual Aids
Slides
Videotape
Computer Arts
CD-ROM
Transparencies
Audio Aids
Preparing Visual Aids
Using Visual Aids
8. Research: The Content of Your Ideas
Having a Research Agenda
Start Early
Decide on a Specific Purpose
Use a Variety of Sources
Select a Research Strategy
Keep Complete and Accurate Records
Systematically Organize Your Material
Finding Material
Personal Experience
Interviews
Writing, Phoning, Faxing, and E-mailing
Visual Electronic Media
Using the Library
Using the Internet
Recording Your Material
Photocopying Material
Being Accurate
Citing Traditional Sources
Citing Internet Sources
Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research
Evaluating Your Sources
Avoiding Plagiarism
Using Copyrighted Material
9. Critical Thinking: The Appraisal of Your Ideas
Personal Barriers to Critical Thinking
Frozen Evaluations
Self-Interest
Ego-Defense
Ethnocentrism
Stereotyping
Prejudice
Detecting Fallacies
Language Deceptions
Extraneous Appeals
Faulty Logic
10. Organization: Assembling Your Ideas
The Importance of Organization
Core Statement
Informative Core Statements
Persuasive Core Statements
Formulating Main Points and Subpoints
Relationship to the Core Statement
Separation from Other Main Points
Collective Completeness of the Main Points
Organizational Patterns
Chronological Pattern
Spatial Pattern
Topical Pattern
Cause-Effect Pattern
Problem-Solution Pattern
Level-of-Acceptance Pattern
Motivated Sequence
Organizational Patterns and Culture
Outlining the Message
Importance of Outlining
Characteristics of Effective Outlines
A Sample Outline
Using Transitions
11. Introductions and Conclusions: Connecting Your Ideas
Preparing the Introduction
Gaining Attention
Guidelines in Using Introductions
Preparing Your Audience for the Speech
Justify the Topic
Delimit the Topic
Presenting Your Speaking Credentials (Establishing Credibility)
Defining Your Terms
Providing Background Information
Establishing Common Ground
Introductions and Culture
Preparing the Conclusion
Summary Quotations
Illustration or Story
Challenge
Declaration of Intent
Alluding to the Introduction
Guidelines in Using Conclusions
12. Language: The Medium of Your Ideas
The Importance of Language
Understanding How Language Works
Words Are Only Symbols
Words Have Many Uses
Words Evoke Denotative and Connotative Meanings
Words Convey a Partial Picture of Reality
Words and Their Meanings Are Learned
Words Reflect Our Experiences
Language and Intercultural Communication
Idioms
Ambiguity
Directness
Loquacity
Formality
Characteristics of Effective Style
Effective Style Is Clear
Effective Style Observes the Rules of Grammar
Effective Style Is Vivid
Effective Style Is Appropriate
Effective Style Is Free From Distractions
Ethics and Language
Be Accurate in Your Use of Words
Be Aware of the Emotional Impact of Your Words
Do Not Be Hateful in Your Use of Words
Improving Your Language Habits
Part III: Having an Influence
13. Informative Speaking: Being Understood
Basic Assumptions About Learning
Motivation
Coupling the Known With the Unknown
Logical Sequence
Repetition
Multisensory Stimulation
Communication Overload
Depth
Central Focus
Types of Informative Speeches
Instructions
Descriptions
Explanations
Reports
Preparing a Speech to Inform
Determining A Purpose
Choosing and Narrowing the Topic
Gathering and Selecting Material
The Materials of Informative Speaking
Contributing to Clarity
Contributing to Interest and Attention
Organizing a Speech to Inform
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Sample Outline
14. Persuasive Speaking: Changing Beliefs, Attitudes, Values, and Behavior
Defining Persuasion
Types of Persuasive Speeches
Speech to Convince
Speech to Actuate
Speech to Stimulate
The Goals of Persuasive Speaking
Beliefs
Attitudes
Values
Behaviors
Concerns of Persuasion
Questions of Fact
Questions of Value
Questions of Policy
Preparing a Persuasive Speech
Choosing a Topic
Formulating a Specific Purpose
Analyzing an Audience
Finding Material
Convincing Arguments
Impelling Psychological Appeals
Using Motive
Appeals
Our Desire to Maintain Consistency
Our Susceptibility to Suggestion
Personal Credibility
Organizing a Persuasive Speech
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Designing the Persuasive Speech
Problem-Solution Pattern
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
Deduction Induction
Persuasive Strategies
Placing Ideas
Deciding Which Argument to Place First
Presenting Both Sides of the Argument
Making Your Proposition Clear
Combining Evidence With Emotional Appeals
Culture and Persuasion
Culture and Convincing Arguments
Cultural Variations in the Use of Evidence
The Quantity of Evidence Used
Cultural Variations in Reasoning
Cultural and Psychological Appeals
Culture and Personal Credibility
Persuasion and Ethics
Part IV: Changing Environments
15. Special Occasions: The Unique Communication Situation
Impromptu Speech
Preparing an Impromptu Speech
Delivering an Impromptu Speech
Manuscript Speech
Preparing a Manuscript Speech
Delivering a Manuscript Speech
Entertaining Speeches
Characteristics of the Entertaining Speech
Using Humor
Developing an Entertaining Speech
Television Speeches
Television's Unique Features
Preparing for Television
Presenting Yourself on Television
Controlling Nervousness
Practicing Your Television Prevention
Ethical Considerations and Television
Speeches of Introduction
Question-and-Answer Sessions
Ways to Formulate an Effective Reply
Organizing a Reply
16. Discussion: Group Communication
The Importance of Group Communication
Speech Communication and Group Communication
Types of Group Discussion
Public Discussion
Private Discussion
Characteristics of Problem-Solving Groups
Cooperation Analysis and Investigation
Subjectivity and Objectivity
Reflective Thinking
Skepticism
Group Cohesion
Group Norms
Democratic Process
Preparing for Discussion
Selecting a Subject
Wording the Subject
Gathering Material
Organizing a Discussion
Recognizing and Defining the Problem
Description of the Problem
Discovery of Possible Solutions
Evaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best Solution
Plan of Action
Brainstorming as an Organizational Pattern
Impromptu Speech
Preparing an Impromptu Speech
Delivering an Impromptu Speech
Manuscript Speech
Preparing a Manuscript Speech
Delivering a Manuscript Speech
Entertaining Speeches
Characteristics of the Entertaining Speech
Using Humor
Developing an Entertaining Speech
Television Speeches
Television's Unique Features
Preparing for Television
Presenting Yourself on Television
Controlling Nervousness
Practicing Your Television Prevention
Ethical Considerations and Television
Speeches of Introduction
Question-and-Answer Sessions
Ways to Formulate an Effective Reply
Organizing a Reply
16. Discussion: Group Communication
The Importance of Group Communication
Speech Communication and Group Communication
Types of Group Discussion
Public Discussion
Private Discussion
Characteristics of Problem-Solving Groups
Cooperation Analysis and Investigation
Subjectivity and Objectivity
Reflective Thinking
Skepticism
Group Cohesion
Group Norms
Democratic Process
Preparing for Discussion
Selecting a Subject
Wording the Subject
Gathering Material
Organizing a Discussion
Recognizing and Defining the Problem
Description of the Problem
Discovery of Possible Solutions
Evaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best Solution
Plan of Action
Brainstorming as an Organizational Pattern
Participating in Small Groups
Functional and Task Roles
Maintenance and Supportive Roles
Presenting Your Ideas
Leadership in Small Groups
Leadership Tasks
Leadership and Culture
Dealing With Conflict
Definition of Conflict
Causes of Conflict
Managing Conflict
Conflict and Culture
Barriers to Discussion
Apathy
Excessive Formality
Control
Dogmatism
Lack of Patience
Groupthink
The Role of Culture in Group Communication
Individualism or Collectivism
Conformity
Use of Language
Use of Time
Compromise
Group Norms
Decision Making
Uncertainty and Ambiguity
Nonverbal Communication
Taking Part in a Videoconference
The Characteristics of a Videoconference
Preparing for a Videoconference
Participating in a Videoconference
Evaluating a Discussion
Index

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