Organic Electronics: Emerging Concepts and Technologies [NOOK Book]

Overview

An overview of the tremendous potential of organic electronics, concentrating on those emerging topics and technologies that will form the focus of research over the next five to ten years. The young and energetic team of editors with an excellent research track record has brought together internationally renowned authors to review up-and-coming topics, some for the first time, such as organic spintronics, iontronics, light emitting transistors, organic sensors and advanced structural analysis. As a result, this ...

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Organic Electronics: Emerging Concepts and Technologies

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Overview

An overview of the tremendous potential of organic electronics, concentrating on those emerging topics and technologies that will form the focus of research over the next five to ten years. The young and energetic team of editors with an excellent research track record has brought together internationally renowned authors to review up-and-coming topics, some for the first time, such as organic spintronics, iontronics, light emitting transistors, organic sensors and advanced structural analysis. As a result, this book serves the needs of experienced researchers in organic electronics, graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, as well as scientists active in closely related fields, including organic chemical synthesis, thin film growth and biomaterials.

Cover Figure: With kind permission of Matitaccia.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“The state- of- the- art for each topic and the search for new materials with specific properties, including background theory, is described.” (IEEE Electrical Insulation magazine, 1 September 2014)

“An excellent addition to university and graduate school science library collections.” (Midwest Book Reviews, 1 November 2013)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783527650989
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/17/2013
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 300
  • File size: 11 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Fabio Cicoira (PhD in materials Science and Engineering) is a professor of Chemical Engineering at École Polytechnique in Montréal, Canada. He is known for his studies of organic field-effect transistors, growth of organic semiconductors and organic electrochemical transistors. His activities focus on organic bioelectronics and carbon based electrodes in organic electronic devices. Fabio received his PhD from the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland) in 2002 and worked as a researcher at the National Research Council of Italy (2002–2005 and 2007–2011) and as a postdoctoral fellow at INRS-EMT (2005– 2007). He was a recipient of the Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship of the European Commission and a visiting scientist at Cornell University.

Clara Santato (PhD in Chemistry) is, since August 2007, Assistant Professor at the Department of Engineering Physics of Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal (EPM). Before her appointment as Assistant Professor, she worked as Permanent Research Scientist for the National Research Council of Italy. She has been visiting scientist at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and at Purdue University. Her background is in: Organic Electronics: she pioneered the design, fabrication, and optoelectronic characterization of Organic Light Emitting Field Effect Transistors; Materials Science: she synthesized and characterized nanostructured materials for applications in photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion by scanning probe microscopy, Raman micro-spectroscopy, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction.

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Table of Contents

Preface XIII

List of Contributors XV

1 Nanoparticles Based on p-Conjugated Polymers and Oligomers for Optoelectronic, Imaging, and Sensing Applications: The Illustrative Example of Fluorene-Based Polymers and Oligomers 1
Iren Fischer and Albertus P.H.J. Schenning

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Nanoparticles Based on Fluorene Polymers 3

1.2.1 Optoelectronic Applications 3

1.2.1.1 Characterization of Nanoparticles 3

1.2.1.2 Nanoparticle Film Fabrication and Characterization 4

1.2.1.3 OLEDs 5

1.2.1.4 Solar Cell Applications 8

1.2.2 Imaging and Sensing Applications 10

1.2.2.1 Characterization of Nanoparticles 10

1.2.2.2 Biosensing 11

1.2.2.3 Bioimaging 14

1.3 Nanoparticles Based on Fluorene Oligomer 16

1.3.1 Characterization 16

1.3.2 Nanoparticles for Sensing and Imaging 17

1.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 18

References 19

2 Conducting Polymers to Control and Monitor Cells 27
Leslie H. Jimison, Jonathan Rivnay, and Roisín M. Owens

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Conducting Polymers for Biological Applications 28

2.2.1 Unique Benefits of Conducting Polymers 29

2.2.2 Biocompatibility of Conducting Polymers 30

2.2.3 Electrochemical Properties and Tools 31

2.3 Conducting Polymers to Control Cells 32

2.3.1 Establishing Conducting Polymers as Cell Culture Environments 32

2.3.2 Optimizing Conducting Polymers for Cell Culture 32

2.3.3 Controlling Cell Adhesion via Redox State 33

2.3.3.1 Redox Switches 34

2.3.3.2 Redox Gradients 35

2.3.3.3 Protein Characterization as a Function of Redox State 36

2.3.4 Direct Patterning of Proteins to Control Cell Adhesion 38

2.3.5 Controlling Cell Growth and Development 39

2.3.5.1 Electrical Stimulation to Promote Neurite Formation and Extension 39

2.3.5.2 Electrical Stimulation to Promote Muscle Cell Proliferation and Differentiation 39

2.3.5.3 Alignment Control via Topographical Cues 40

2.3.5.4 Incorporation of Biomolecules to Control Differentiation 43

2.3.6 Organic Electronic Ion Pumps 46

2.3.7 On-Demand Cell Release 48

2.3.8 Conducting Polymer Actuators 48

2.3.9 Optoelectronic Control of Cell Behavior 49

2.4 Conducting Polymers to Monitor Cells 50

2.4.1 Conducting Polymers to Monitor Neuronal Function 51

2.4.1.1 Conducting Polymer Electrodes 51

2.4.1.2 Transistors 57

2.4.2 Conducting Polymers to Monitor Behavior of Nonelectrically Active Cells 57

2.5 Conclusions 59

References 59

3 Medical Applications of Organic Bioelectronics 69
Salvador Gomez-Carretero and Peter Kj€all

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Regenerative Medicine and Biomedical Devices 71

3.2.1 Scaffolds, Signaling Interfaces, and Surfaces for Novel Biomedical Applications 71

3.2.1.1 Scaffolds and Surface Modulation 71

3.2.1.2 Biomolecule Presenting Surfaces 72

3.2.1.3 Degradable Surfaces for Biomedical Applications 73

3.2.1.4 Controlled Substance Release 73

3.2.2 Prosthetics and Medical Devices 75

3.2.2.1 Organic Bioelectronics as Actuators 76

3.2.2.2 Neuroprosthetics 77

3.3 Organic Electronics in Biomolecular Sensing and Diagnostic Applications 80

3.3.1 Organic Electronics as Biomolecule Sensors: A Technological Overview 80

3.3.2 Small-Molecule and Biological Metabolite Sensing 81

3.3.3 Immunosensors 82

3.3.4 DNA Sensing 83

3.3.5 Medical Diagnosis and the Electronic Nose 83

3.4 Concluding Remarks 85

References 85

4 A Hybrid Ionic–Electronic Conductor: Melanin, the First Organic Amorphous Semiconductor? 91
Paul Meredith, Kristen Tandy, and Albertus B. Mostert

4.1 Introduction and Background 91

4.2 Physical and Optical Properties of Melanin and the Transport Physics of Disordered Semiconductors 94

4.3 The Hydration Dependence of Melanin Conductivity 97

4.4 Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance 101

4.5 Transport Model for Electrical Conduction and Photoconduction in Melanin 104

4.6 Bioelectronics, Hybrid Devices, and Future Perspectives 107

References 110

5 Eumelanin: An Old Natural Pigment and a New Material for Organic Electronics – Chemical, Physical, and Structural Properties in Relation to Potential Applications 113
Alessandro Pezzella and Julia Wünsche

5.1 Introduction: The “Nature-Inspired” 113

5.2 Natural Melanins 114

5.2.1 Overview 114

5.2.2 Distribution and Isolation of Natural Eumelanin 115

5.2.3 Melanogenesis: From Understanding the In Vivo Path to In Vitro Pigment Preparation 116

5.3 Synthetic Melanins 118

5.3.1 Overview 118

5.3.2 Oxidative Polymerization of 5,6-Dihydroxyindole(s) 118

5.4 Chemical–Physical Properties and Structure–Property Correlation 122

5.4.1 Stability against Acids and Bases 122

5.4.2 Molecular Weight 123

5.4.3 Hydration, Aggregation, and Supramolecular Organization 124

5.4.4 Light Absorption and Scattering 125

5.4.5 Metal Chelation 126

5.4.6 Redox State 127

5.4.7 Autoxidation 128

5.4.8 Bleaching 129

5.4.9 NMR Spectroscopy 130

5.4.10 EPR Spectroscopy 130

5.5 Thin Film Fabrication 131

5.6 Melanin Hybrid Materials 132

5.7 Conclusions 133

References 133

6 New Materials for Transparent Electrodes 139
Thomas W. Phillips and John C. de Mello

6.1 Introduction 139

6.1.1 Indium Tin Oxide 139

6.1.2 Optoelectronic Characteristics 140

6.1.2.1 The Influence of Sheet Resistance 143

6.1.2.2 Optical Transparency 146

6.1.2.3 Transmittance Versus Sheet Resistance Trade-off Characteristics 146

6.1.2.4 Work Function 147

6.2 Emergent Electrode Materials 149

6.2.1 Graphene 149

6.2.1.1 Fabrication 151

6.2.1.2 Outlook 152

6.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes 153

6.2.2.1 Structure 153

6.2.2.2 Networks 155

6.2.2.3 Film Fabrication 156

6.2.2.4 Improving Performance 158

6.2.3 Metal Nanowires 161

6.2.3.1 Silver Nanowires 161

6.2.3.2 Alternative Metal Nanowires 164

6.3 Conclusions 166

References 167

7 Ionic Carriers in Polymer Light-Emitting and Photovoltaic Devices 175
Sam Toshner and Janelle Leger

7.1 Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells 175

7.2 Ionic Carriers 178

7.3 Fixed Ionic Carriers 181

7.4 Fixed Junction LEC-Based Photovoltaic Devices 183

7.5 Conclusions 184

References 185

8 Recent Trends in Light-Emitting Organic Field-Effect Transistors 187
Jana Zaumseil

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 Working Principle 188

8.2.1 Unipolar LEFETs 188

8.2.2 Ambipolar LEFETs 190

8.3 Recent Trends and Developments 197

8.3.1 Heterojunction Light-Emitting FETs 197

8.3.2 Single-Crystal Light-Emitting FETs 200

8.3.3 Carbon Nanotube Light-Emitting FETs 204

8.4 Conclusions 206

References 206

9 Toward Electrolyte-Gated Organic Light-Emitting Transistors: Advances and Challenges 215
Jonathan Sayago, Sareh Bayatpour, Fabio Cicoira, and Clara Santato

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 Electrolyte-Gated Organic Transistors 216

9.3 Electrolytes Employed in Electrolyte-Gated Organic Transistors 218

9.4 Preliminary Results and Challenges in Electrolyte-Gated Organic Light-Emitting Transistors 220

9.5 Relevant Questions and Perspectives in the Field of EG-OLETs 226

References 227

10 Photophysical and Photoconductive Properties of Novel Organic Semiconductors 233
Oksana Ostroverkhova

10.1 Introduction 233

10.2 Overview of Materials 234

10.2.1 Benzothiophene, Anthradithiophene, and Longer Heteroacene Derivatives 234

10.2.2 Pentacene and Hexacene Derivatives 236

10.2.3 Indenofluorene Derivatives 238

10.3 Optical and Photoluminescent Properties of Molecules in Solutions and in Host Matrices 238

10.4 Aggregation and Its Effect on Optoelectronic Properties 241

10.4.1 J-Versus H-Aggregate Formation 241

10.4.2 Example of Aggregation: Disordered H-Aggregates in ADT-TES-F Films 241

10.4.2.1 Aggregate Formation: Optical and Photoluminescent Properties 242

10.4.2.2 Aggregate Formation: Photoconductive Properties 243

10.4.2.3 ADT-TES-F Aggregates: Identification and Properties 244

10.4.3 Effects of Molecular Packing on Spectra 246

10.4.3.1 Molecular Structure and Solid-State Packing 246

10.4.3.2 Film Morphology and Spectra 247

10.5 (Photo)Conductive Properties of Pristine Materials 248

10.5.1 Ultrafast Photophysics and Charge Transport on Picosecond Timescales 248

10.5.2 Charge Transport on Nanosecond and Longer Timescales 250

10.5.3 Dark Current and cw Photocurrent 251

10.6 Donor–Acceptor Composites 252

10.6.1 Donor–Acceptor Interactions: FRET versus Exciplex Formation 254

10.6.2 Donor–Acceptor Interactions Depending on the Donor–Acceptor LUMO Energies Offset, Donor and Acceptor Separation, and Film Morphology 256

10.6.2.1 Effects on the Photoluminescence 256

10.6.2.2 Effects on the Photocurrent 257

10.7 Summary and Outlook 260

References 261

11 Engineering Active Materials for Polymer-Based Organic Photovoltaics 273
Andrew Ferguson, Wade Braunecker, Dana Olson, and Nikos Kopidakis

11.1 Introduction 273

11.2 Device Architectures and Operating Principles 276

11.2.1 Device Architectures 276

11.2.1.1 Active Layer 276

11.2.1.2 Contacts 277

11.2.2 Energetics of Charge Generation in OPV Devices 278

11.3 Bandgap Engineering: Low-Bandgap Polymers 283

11.4 Molecular Acceptor Materials for OPV 285

11.4.1 Morphology 286

11.4.2 Electron Affinity 288

11.4.3 Stabilization of Reduced Acceptor 290

11.4.4 Complementary Light Absorption 292

11.5 Summary 295

References 295

12 Single-Crystal Organic Field-Effect Transistors 301
Taishi Takenobu and Yoshihiro Iwasa

12.1 Introduction 301

12.2 Single-Crystal Growth 302

12.3 MISFET 303

12.4 Schottky Diode and MESFET 304

12.5 Ambipolar Transistor 307

12.6 Light-Emitting Ambipolar Transistor 309

12.7 Electric Double-Layer Transistor 312

12.8 Conclusion 315

References 316

13 Large-Area Organic Electronics: Inkjet Printing and Spray Coating Techniques 319
Oana D. Jurchescu

13.1 Introduction 319

13.2 Organic Electronic Devices – Operation Principles 320

13.3 Materials for Organic Large-Area Electronics 322

13.4 Manufacturing Processes for Large-Area Electronics 324

13.4.1 Organic Devices Fabricated by Printing Methods 325

13.4.1.1 Soft Lithography 325

13.4.1.2 Inkjet Printing 328

13.4.2 Spray Deposition for Organic Large-Area Electronics 330

13.4.2.1 Motivation and Technical Aspects for Spray Deposition 330

13.4.2.2 Top Electrodes Deposited by Spray Coating 332

13.4.2.3 Spray-Deposited Organic Thin-Film Transistors 333

13.4.2.4 Large-Area, Low-Cost Spray-Deposited Organic Solar Cells 334

13.5 Conclusions 335

References 335

14 Electronic Traps in Organic Semiconductors 341
Alberto Salleo

14.1 Introduction 341

14.2 What are Traps in Organic Semiconductors and Where Do They Come From? 343

14.3 Effect of Traps on Electronic Devices 345

14.3.1 Transistors 345

14.3.2 Light-Emitting Diodes 347

14.3.3 Photovoltaics 348

14.3.4 Sensors 348

14.4 Detecting Traps in Organic Semiconductors 349

14.4.1 Optical Methods 349

14.4.2 Scanning Probe Methods 351

14.4.3 Electrical Methods 352

14.4.4 Use of Electronic Devices 353

14.5 Experimental Data on Traps in Organic Semiconductors 358

14.5.1 Traps in Organic Single Crystals 358

14.5.2 Traps in Polycrystalline Thin Films 364

14.5.3 Traps in Conjugated Polymer Thin Films 368

14.6 Conclusions and Outlook 372

References 373

15 Perspectives on Organic Spintronics 381
Alberto Riminucci, Mirko Prezioso, and Patrizio Graziosi

15.1 Introduction 381

15.2 Magnetoresistive Phenomena in Organic Semiconductors 382

15.2.1 Interface Phenomena – The Role of Tunnel Barriers 384

15.2.2 Bulk Phenomena and Spin Transport 387

15.2.3 Interplay between Conductivity Switching and Spin Transport 388

15.3 Applications of Organic Spintronics 390

15.3.1 Sensor Applications 390

15.3.2 Memristive Phenomena in a Prototypical Spintronic Device 391

15.4 Future Developments 396

References 397

16 Organic-Based Thin-Film Devices Produced Using the Neutral Cluster Beam Deposition Method 401
Hoon-Seok Seo, Jeong-Do Oh, and Jong-Ho Choi

16.1 Introduction 401

16.2 Neutral Cluster Beam Deposition Method 403

16.3 Organic Thin Films and Organic Field-Effect Transistors 405

16.3.1 Morphological and Structural Properties of Organic Thin Films 406

16.3.2 Characterization of OFETs 408

16.3.3 Transport Phenomena 412

16.4 Organic Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors 414

16.4.1 Characterization of the Component OFETs of Ambipolar OLEFETs 416

16.4.2 Electroluminescence and Conduction Mechanism 419

16.5 Organic CMOS Inverters 422

16.5.1 Characterization of the Component OFETs of Organic CMOS Inverters 422

16.5.2 Realization of Air-Stable, Hysteresis-Free Organic CMOS Inverters 425

16.6 Summary 427

References 428

Index 433

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