Origins of the Gulf Wars

Overview

The last quarter of the 20th Century saw political and military upheavals in the Persian Gulf area which included, among other things, an epochal revolution in Iran, a very long and bloody war between Iran and Iraq, a second war between Iraq and an American-led United Nations coalition, following the invasion and annexation of Kuwait by the Iraqi army, and continuing low level warfare between the British and American forces and Iraq well into the beginning of the century. The Middle East was and is to this date ...

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Overview

The last quarter of the 20th Century saw political and military upheavals in the Persian Gulf area which included, among other things, an epochal revolution in Iran, a very long and bloody war between Iran and Iraq, a second war between Iraq and an American-led United Nations coalition, following the invasion and annexation of Kuwait by the Iraqi army, and continuing low level warfare between the British and American forces and Iraq well into the beginning of the century. The Middle East was and is to this date the theater for several, often overlapping conflicts. In this book, Morris Mottale examines the various conflicts that have plagued the region.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
An overview of the military and geostrategic history of the Persian Gulf states that focuses on the military backgrounds of the Iran-Iraq war and, to a lesser extent, the American-Iraq war. Introductory chapters briefly discuss the role of nationalism, Islam, oil, the politics of the Cold War, and the artificial (imposed by Europeans) borders of the region in fueling conflict. The recent histories and military policies of Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia are then outlined. The five factors considered most significant in causing the wars are found to be an ideological background that justified militarization as a function of leadership, a surge of oil revenue capital fueling militarization, the willingness of the United States and the Soviet Union to supply weapons, continuing simmering conflicts involving the Israelis and the Kurds, and the use of militarization to control societal forces and counter elites that challenged the political system. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780761821298
  • Publisher: University Press of America
  • Publication date: 1/1/2002
  • Pages: 224
  • Product dimensions: 5.46 (w) x 8.38 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Meet the Author

Morris M. Mottale is Senior Associate Professor of International Relations and Comparative Politics at Franklin College, Switzerland.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction 1
Ch. 1 Ideology in the Middle East 11
Islam and Western Ideologies in the Middle East 17
Nationalism 18
Nationalism and Modernization 20
Islam and Patrimonialism 22
Ch. 2 Oil and Arms: Background to Modernization 30
Modernization and the Military 33
The Role of Oil 34
Ch. 3 The Role of the Superpowers 44
The American Experience 51
The Iranian-American Relationship 53
The Carter Doctrine 55
The Post-Revolutionary Period 56
The Soviet Experience 56
Ch. 4 Iran: Recent History and Military Policies 61
The Armed Forces 63
The White Revolution 69
The Politics of Personal Leadership 76
The Shah's Military Programs 80
The Islamic Revolution 80
Khomeini's Destruction of the Old Regime 83
The Foreign Policies of the Islamic Revolution 88
Ch. 5 Iraq: Recent History and Military Policies 101
Iraqi Armed Forces 102
The Evolution of Iraqi Military Regimes 104
Soviet-Iraqi Ties 107
Iraq: 1968-1979 113
Prelude to the Gulf War 115
The First Gulf War: the Iran-Iraq Conflict 118
The Last Phase of the Iran-Iraq War 122
The Second Gulf War: 1991 126
Ch. 6 Saudi Arabia: Recent History and Military Policies 132
Saudi Foreign Policy 139
Ch. 7 The Wars 148
At Sea 151
In the Air 151
The Second Gulf War 154
Conclusion 160
A Note on Sources 166
Note on Transliteration 167
Selected Bibliography 168
Index 205
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