Arguing that the contemporary commitment to the importance of cultural identity has renovated rather than replaced an earlier commitment to racial identity, Walter Benn Michaels asserts that the idea of culture, far from constituting a challenge to racism, is actually a form of racism. Our America offers both a provocative reinterpretation of the role of identity in modernism and a sustained critique of the role of identity in postmodernism.
“We have a great desire to be supremely American,” Calvin Coolidge wrote in 1924. That desire, Michaels tells us, is at the very heart of American modernism, giving form and substance to a cultural movement that would in turn redefine America’s cultural and collective identity—ultimately along racial lines. A provocative reinterpretation of American modernism, Our America also offers a new way of understanding current debates over the meaning of race, identity, multiculturalism, and pluralism.
Michaels contends that the aesthetic movement of modernism and the social movement of nativism came together in the 1920s in their commitment to resolve the meaning of identity—linguistic, national, cultural, and racial. Just as the Johnson Immigration Act of 1924, which excluded aliens, and the Indian Citizenship Act of the same year, which honored the truly native, reconceptualized national identity, so the major texts of American writers such as Cather, Faulkner, Hurston, and Williams reinvented identity as an object of pathos—something that can be lost or found, defended or betrayed. Our America is both a history and a critique of this invention, tracing its development from the white supremacism of the Progressive period through the cultural pluralism of the Twenties. Michaels’s sustained rereading of the texts of the period—the canonical, the popular, and the less familiar—exposes recurring concerns such as the reconception of the image of the Indian as a symbol of racial purity and national origins, the relation between World War I and race, contradictory appeals to the family as a model for the nation, and anxieties about reproduction that subliminally tie whiteness and national identity to incest, sterility, and impotence.
In 1919, activist and internationally acclaimed author Waldo Frank's Our America (AMS Pr., 1991. reprint) was published as an attack on the nation's middle class. Frank's "our" embraced his literary and artistic contemporaries. Over 50 years later, Michaels (English, Johns Hopkins) returns to some of the literary elite of the same period-Faulkner, Cather, and Hemingway-as well as to the Immigration Act of 1924 and the Indian Citizenship Act as the basis for defining his nativist modernism. This modernism led him to a reexamination of American cultural identity based along racial lines. His essay focuses on identity, i.e., what it is that makes us Americans. Although Our America is an important study in American culture, it is not an easy book to read, being aimed at scholars and specialists. Recommended for academic libraries only.-Boyd Childress, Auburn Univ. Lib., Ala.