Our Energy Future: Resources, Alternatives and the Environment / Edition 1

Our Energy Future: Resources, Alternatives and the Environment / Edition 1

by Christian Ngo, Joseph Natowitz
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0470116609

ISBN-13: 9780470116609

Pub. Date: 07/20/2009

Publisher: Wiley

A Wiley Survival Guide on our Energy Future

Concerned about our energy future? Turn to this guide for easy-to-grasp and up-to-date coverage of the many aspects of the energy value chain:

  • Oil and natural gas
  • Coal
  • Fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect
  • Energy from water
  • Biomass
  • Solar energy
  • Geothermal energy
  • Wind

Overview

A Wiley Survival Guide on our Energy Future

Concerned about our energy future? Turn to this guide for easy-to-grasp and up-to-date coverage of the many aspects of the energy value chain:

  • Oil and natural gas
  • Coal
  • Fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect
  • Energy from water
  • Biomass
  • Solar energy
  • Geothermal energy
  • Wind energy
  • Nuclear energy
  • Electricity
  • Energy storage
  • Transportation
  • Housing
  • Smart energy consumption
  • Hydrogen

Armed with the knowledge in this book, students, teachers, decision-makers, politicians, and consumers can form educated and informed opinions on the future of energy and its impact on the economy, health, and the environment.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470116609
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
07/20/2009
Series:
Wiley Survival Guides in Engineering and Science Series, #11
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
512
Product dimensions:
6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xiii

Preface to the First Edition xv

1. We Need Energy 1

1.1. Generalities 1

1.1.1. Primary and Secondary Energy 1

1.1.2. Energy Units 3

1.1.3. Power 5

1.1.4. Energy and First Law of Thermodynamics 5

1.1.5. Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics 6

1.1.6. Exergy 7

1.1.7. Going Back to the Past 7

1.1.8. Humans and Energy 8

1.2. Always More! 9

1.2.1. Why do we Need More Energy? 10

1.2.2. Energy Sources we Use 13

1.2.3. Security of Supply 18

1.2.4. Environmental Concerns 24

2. Oil and Natural Gas 26

2.1. Genesis of Oil and Natural Gas 27

2.2. Recovering Oil and Gas 30

2.3. Peak Oil 32

2.4. Reserves 34

2.4.1. Crude Oil Reserves 35

2.4.2. Natural Gas Reserves 36

2.5. Properties of Hydrocarbons 38

2.6. Oil Fields 40

2.7. Prices 41

2.8. Consumption 44

2.9. Electricity Generation 46

2.10. Impact on Environment 49

2.11. Conclusion 52

3. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources 53

3.1. Hydrocarbon Formation 53

3.2. Offshore Hydrocarbons 55

3.3. Unconventional Hydrocarbons 58

3.4. Unconventional Oils 59

3.4.1. Unconventional Oils Contained in Reservoirs 59

3.4.2. Unconventional Oils Contained in Source Rock 60

3.5. Unconventional Gases 61

3.5.1. Unconventional Gases Contained in Reservoirs 61

3.5.2. Unconventional Gases Contained in Source Rocks 62

3.6. Methane Hydrates 69

3.7. Conclusion 70

4. Coal: Fossil Fuel of the Future 71

4.1. Genesis of Coal 72

4.2. Rank of Coals 73

4.3. Classification of Coals 73

4.4. Peat 76

4.5. Use of Coal 78

4.6. Coal Reserves 78

4.7. Production and Consumption 82

4.8. Electricity Production 86

4.9. Coal Combustion for Power Generation 87

4.9.1. Advanced Pulverized Coal Combustion 88

4.9.2. Fluidized-Bed Combustion at Atmospheric Pressure 88

4.9.3. Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion 88

4.10. Combined Heat and Power Generation 88

4.11. Integrated Gasification Combined–Cycle Power Plants 89

4.12. Coal-to-Liquid Technologies 90

4.13. Direct Coal Liquefaction 90

4.14. Indirect Coal Liquefaction 91

4.15. Direct or Indirect CTL Technology? 92

4.16. Carbon Capture and Sequestration 93

4.16.1. Capture 93

4.16.2. Transport 97

4.16.3. Sequestration 97

4.16.4. Cost 100

4.17. Coal Pit Accidents 100

4.18. Environmental Impacts 101

4.19. Conclusion 102

5. Fossil Fuels and Greenhouse Effect 103

5.1. Greenhouse Effect 104

5.2. Greenhouse Gases 107

5.3. Weather and Climate 111

5.4. Natural Change of Climate 112

5.5. Anthropogenic Emissions 112

5.6. Water and Aerosols 115

5.7. Global Warming Potentials 116

5.8. Increase of Average Temperature 117

5.9. Model Predictions 118

5.10. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 119

5.11. Consequences 126

5.12. Other Impacts on Ocean 126

5.13. Factor 4 128

5.14. Kyoto Protocol 129

5.15. Conclusion 131

6. Energy from Water 133

6.1. Hydropower 133

6.1.1. Hydropower: Important Source of Electricity 134

6.1.2. Dams and Diversions 137

6.1.3. Head and Flow 139

6.1.4. Turbines 140

6.1.5. Small-Scale Hydropower 142

6.1.6. Environmental Concerns 144

6.1.7. Costs 144

6.2. Energy from the Ocean 145

6.2.1. Offshore Wind Energy 147

6.2.2. Wave Energy 147

6.2.3. Tidal Energy 151

6.2.4. Marine Current Energy 153

6.2.5. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 154

6.2.6. Osmotic Energy 155

7. Biomass 157

7.1. Producing Biomass 159

7.2. An Old Energy Resource 161

7.3. Electricity Production 162

7.4. Technologies 164

7.4.1. Direct Combustion Technologies 164

7.4.2. Cofiring Technologies 165

7.4.3. Biomass Gasification 165

7.4.4. Anaerobic Digestion 166

7.4.5. Pyrolysis 166

7.5. Heat Production 167

7.6. Biomass for Cooking 168

7.7. Environmental Impact 169

7.8. Market Share 170

7.9. Biofuels 172

7.9.1. First-Generation Biofuels 174

7.9.2. Second-Generation Biofuels 181

7.9.3. Third-Generation Biofuels 182

7.10. From Well to Wheels 182

7.11. Conclusion 183

8. Solar Energy 184

8.1. Solar Energy: A Huge Potential 185

8.2. Thermal Solar Energy 186

8.2.1. Producing Hot Water for Domestic Purposes 186

8.2.2. Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Using Solar Energy 189

8.2.3. The Solar Cooker 190

8.3. Concentrated Solar Power Plants 191

8.3.1. Parabolic Troughs 191

8.3.2. Power Towers 193

8.3.3. Parabolic Dish Collectors 194

8.4. Solar Chimneys or Towers 194

8.5. Photovoltaic Systems 196

8.5.1. Market Dominated by Silicon 197

8.5.2. Other Photovoltaic Technologies 198

8.5.3. Applications 199

8.6. Electricity Storage 204

8.7. Economy and Environment 205

8.8. Conclusion 205

9. Geothermal Energy 207

9.1. Available in Many Places 210

9.2. Different Uses 212

9.3. Technologies 212

9.4. Geothermal Energy in the World 216

9.5. Conclusion 219

10. Wind Energy 220

10.1. Already A Long History 220

10.2. From Theory to Practice 222

10.3. Development of Wind Power 224

10.4. Offshore Wind Turbines 232

10.5. Conclusion 233

11. Nuclear Energy 234

11.1. Basics of Nuclear Energy 234

11.1.1. Atoms and Nuclei 235

11.1.2. Radioactivity 236

11.1.3. Energy and Mass 238

11.1.4. Fission 240

11.1.5. Fissile and Fertile 241

11.1.6. Chain Reaction 242

11.1.7. Critical Mass 244

11.1.8. Nuclear Reactors 245

11.1.9. Natural Nuclear Reactors: Oklo 246

11.1.10. Conclusion 247

11.2. Uses of Nuclear Energy 247

11.2.1. Different Technologies 248

11.2.2. Selection Process 251

11.2.3. Why Nuclear Energy? 253

11.2.4. Uranium Resources 254

11.2.5. Fuel Cycles 257

11.2.6. Safety 260

11.2.7. Nuclear Waste 263

11.2.8. Conclusion 265

11.3. Thermonuclear Fusion 266

11.3.1. Nuclei: Concentrated Sources of Energy 266

11.3.2. The Sun 267

11.3.3. Fusion of Light Nuclei 268

11.3.4. Difficulties 268

11.3.5. A Bit of History 269

11.3.6. Thermonuclear Fusion in Tokamaks 269

11.3.7. ITER: New Step Toward Mastering Fusion 270

11.3.8. About Fuel Reserves 271

11.3.9. Longer Term Possibilities 271

11.3.10. Safety and Waste Issues 272

11.3.11. Conclusion 272

Appendix 273

12. Electricity: Smart Use of Energy 274

12.1. Rapid Development 275

12.2. Energy Sources for Electricity Production 279

12.3. No Unique Solution 281

12.4. From Mechanical Energy to Consumer 286

12.5. Impact on Environment 288

12.6. Cost 289

12.7. Conclusion 290

13. Weak Point of Energy Supply Chain 292

13.1. Electricity Storage 294

13.1.1. Characteristics of Electricity Storage 296

13.1.2. Large-Quantity Storage Technologies 297

13.1.3. Electrochemical Batteries 303

13.1.4. Supercapacitors 315

13.1.5. Flywheels 317

13.2. Thermal Energy Storage 318

13.2.1. Basic Heat Storage 320

13.2.2. Sensible Heat Storage 320

13.2.3. Phase Change Materials 320

13.2.4. Thermochemical and Thermophysical Energy Storage 322

13.2.5. Applications of Thermal Energy Storage 323

13.2.6. Underground Energy Storage 324

13.2.7. Conclusion 326

14. Transportation 327

14.1. Short History of Transportation 327

14.2. Energy and Transportation 329

14.3. Road Transportation 331

14.4. Ship Transportation 336

14.5. Air Transport 337

14.6. Car Dynamics 339

14.7. Fuels for Road Transportation 340

14.8. Co2 Emissions 343

14.9. Hybrid Vehicles 354

14.10. Electric Vehicles 356

14.11. Conclusion 358

15. Housing 359

15.1. Importance of Housing 359

15.2. Toward More Efficient Housing 363

15.3. Different Regions, Different Solutions 367

15.4. Bioclimatic Architecture 369

15.5. Insulation 370

15.6. Glazing 374

15.7. Lighting 376

15.8. Ventilation 379

15.9. Water 380

15.10. Energy Use in a Household 382

15.11. Heat Pumps 384

15.12. Impact on Environment 387

15.13. Conclusion 390

16. Smart Energy Consumption 391

16.1. Housing 392

16.2. Improving the Way we Consume Energy 393

16.3. Cogeneration 394

16.4. Standby Consumption 396

16.5. Lighting 401

16.6. Transportation 402

16.6.1. Technology 404

16.6.2. Individuals 405

16.7. Conclusion 407

17. Hydrogen 409

17.1. From Production To Distribution 409

17.1.1. Properties 409

17.1.2. Production 411

17.1.3. Storage 420

17.1.4. Hydrogen Transport and Distribution 425

17.1.5. Conclusion 428

17.2. Hydrogen: Energetic Applications 428

17.2.1. Fundamentals of Fuel Cells 428

17.2.2. Different Types of Fuel Cells 431

17.2.3. Transportation 439

17.2.4. Direct Use of Hydrogen 446

17.2.5. Direct Combined Heat and Power 447

17.2.6. Hydrogen and Portable Devices 448

17.2.7. Hydrogen Safety 449

17.2.8. Conclusion 450

18. Nanotechnology and Energy 452

18.1. What is New at the Nanoscale? 452

18.1.1. Surface Effects Prevail 453

18.1.2. Quantum Effects 453

18.2. Nanotechnology and Energy Production 456

18.2.1. Fossil Fuels 457

18.2.2. Syngas 458

18.3. New Energy Technologies 459

18.3.1. Solar Energy 460

18.3.2. Wind Energy 462

18.3.3. Hydrogen 462

18.3.4. Fuel Cells 462

18.3.5. Batteries 463

18.3.6. Thermoelectricity 464

18.3.7. Electrical Distribution 464

18.4. Nanotechnology and Housing 464

18.4.1. Construction Engineering 464

18.4.2. Insulation 465

18.4.3. Lighting 466

18.4.4. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning 468

18.4.5. Surface Materials 468

18.5. Nanotechnology and Transportation 468

18.5.1. Bodywork 469

18.5.2. Interior of the Car 470

18.5.3. Tires 470

18.5.4. Powertrain 471

18.5.5. Electronics 471

18.5.6. Outlook in the Automotive Sector 471

18.6. Conclusion 472

19. Conclusion 474

Exercises 480

Solutions 490

Bibliography 500

Index 505

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