Output Measurements for Medical Ultrasound

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540196921
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 9/27/1991
  • Pages: 180

Table of Contents

1 Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasonic Equipment: The Relevance of Acoustic Output Information to the Clinical User.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The Relevance of Acoustic Output Information.- 1.2.1 What Is Acoustic Output Information?.- 1.2.2 What Is Acoustic Output Information Used For?.- 1.2.3 Why Should You Know the Acoustic Output Levels of Your Equipment?.- 1.2.4 Are Acoustic Output Levels Really that Important?.- 1.3 Acoustic Output Information.- 1.3.1 What Type of Acoustic Output Information Is Important?.- 1.3.2 What Type of Information Is Given?.- 1.3.3 Why Are Different Parameters Important?.- 1.3.4 How Can You Obtain Acoustic Output Information?.- 1.3.5 Are There Sources of Published Data on Acoustic Output?.- 1.4 Acoustic Fields and Output of Medical Ultrasonic Equipment.- 1.4.1 What Types of Ultrasonic Fields Are Generated?.- 1.4.2 What Type of Field Is Generated by Diagnostic Imaging Equipment?.- 1.4.3 What Type of Field Is Generated by Doppler Equipment?.- 1.4.4 What Type of Field Is Generated by Physiotherapy Equipment?.- 1.4.5 What Type of Field Is Generated by a Lithotripter?.- 1.4.6 What Are the Acoustic Output Levels of Different Equipment?.- 1.5 Standards and Regulations.- 1.5.1 What Is Being Done Internationally About Acoustic Output and Safety?.- 1.5.2 What Is Being Done Nationally About Acoustic Output and Safety?.- 1.6 The Impact on the Clinician.- 1.6.1 What Should You Be Doing?.- 1.6.2 What Are the Consequences of High Power/Intensities?.- 1.6.3 What Modes Produce the Highest Power/Intensities?.- 1.6.4 What Intensity Levels Are Acceptable?.- 1.6.5 What Can You Do to Minimise Exposure of Patients to High Power/Intensities?.- 1.6.6 What Are the Consequences of High Acoustic Pressures?.- 1.6.7 What Modes Produce the Highest Pressures?.- 1.6.8 What Pressure Levels Are Acceptable?.- 1.6.9 What Can You Do to Minimise Exposure to High Acoustic Pressures?.- 1.6.10 What Should You Do to Keep Up to Date?.- 1.6.11 What Should You Do if You Have the Opportunity of Buying New Equipment?.- 1.7 Conclusions.- 1.8 Recommended Additional Reading Material.- 1.9 References.- 2 Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Propagation.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Ultrasonic Wave Propagation.- 2.2.1 Types of Wave.- 2.2.2 Wave Parameters.- 2.2.3 Linear Wave Propagation.- 2.2.4 Mechanics of Echo Production.- 2.2.5 Attenuation.- 2.3 Transduction.- 2.3.1 Piezoelectric Materials.- 2.3.2 Transducer Construction.- 2.4 Ideal Fields.- 2.4.1 Sinusoidal Time Excitation.- 2.4.2 Axial Distribution Near Field.- 2.4.3 Far Field.- 2.4.4 Rectangular Sources.- 2.4.5 General Time Excitation.- 2.4.6 Focusing.- 2.5 Nonlinear Propagation.- 2.6 Recommended Additional Reading Material.- 3 Overview of Measurement Techniques.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Key Acoustical and Other Field Parameters.- 3.3 Acoustic Pressure.- 3.3.1 Pulse-echo Technique Using a Small Target.- 3.3.2 Piezoelectric Hydrophones.- 3.3.3 Optical Techniques.- 3.4 Acoustic Displacement.- 3.4.1 Optical Interferometry.- 3.4.2 The Capacitance Probe.- 3.5 Radiation Force.- 3.5.1 Large Target — The Radiation Force Balance.- 3.5.2 Small Target — The Suspended Sphere Radiometer.- 3.5.3 Surface Levitation.- 3.6 Temperature Rise.- 3.6.1 Calorimetry.- 3.6.2 Thermal Probes.- 3.7 Summary of Quantitative Measurement Techniques.- 3.8 Assessment of Measurement Uncertainty.- 3.9 Measurement Traceability.- 3.10 Qualitative Techniques.- 3.11 References.- 4 Hydrophones.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Types of Hydrophone.- 4.2.1 Ceramic Hydrophones.- 4.2.2 Pvdf Needle-Probe Hydrophones.- 4.2.3 Pvdf Membrane Hydrophones.- 4.2.4 Multielement Hydrophones - NPL Ultrasound Beam Calibrator.- 4.3 Using a Hydrophone.- 4.3.1 Water.- 4.3.2 Mounting and Alignment.- 4.3.3 Shielding.- 4.3.4 Reflections.- 4.3.5 Active Element Size.- 4.3.6 Temperature.- 4.3.7 Bandwidth Limitations.- 4.3.8 Calibration.- 4.3.9 Hydrophone and Amplifier Impedance.- 4.3.10 Which Hydrophone to Choose?.- 4.4 References.- 5 Ultrasonic Power Balances.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 The Radiation Force Balance.- 5.3 Choosing a Configuration and Target.- 5.3.1 Reflecting Targets.- 5.3.2 Absorbing Targets.- 5.4 Examples of Radiation Force Balances.- 5.4.1 General.- 5.4.2 The NPL Radiation Force Balance.- 5.4.3 A Commercial Portable Power Balance.- 5.4.4 The Tethered Float Radiometer.- 5.5 Measurement Considerations.- 5.5.1 Propagating Medium and Attenuation.- 5.5.2 Streaming and Convection Currents.- 5.5.3 Cavitation.- 5.5.4 Thermal Drifts.- 5.5.5 Coping With Scanning Systems.- 5.6 Summary of Important Points to Note During Measurements.- 5.7 References.- 6 Hydrophone-Based Measurements on a Specific Acoustic Pulse Part 1: Field Characterisation.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Acoustic Pulse Waveform.- 6.3 Pressure Parameters.- 6.4 Derivation of Intensity from Pressure Measurements.- 6.5 Intensity Parameters.- 6.6 Spatial-peak Parameters.- 6.7 Beam-Shape Information.- 6.8 Spatial-Average Parameters.- 6.9 Power Parameters.- 6.10 Output Beam Intensity.- 6.11 Locating Maxima in Fields.- 6.12 Concept of in-situ or Derated Levels.- 6.13 References.- 7 Measurements on a Specific Acoustic Pulse Part 2: Measurements.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The Measurement System.- 7.2.1 System Bandwidth.- 7.2.2 Spatial Resolution.- 7.2.3 Digital Acquisition Systems.- 7.2.4 Analogue Acquisition Systems.- 7.3 Spatial-Peak Measurements.- 7.3.1 Finding the Acoustic Axis.- 7.3.2 Finding the Measurement Plane.- 7.3.3 Calculation of Acoustic Parameters.- 7.4 Spatial-Average Measurements.- 7.4.1 Deciding on the Scan Parameters.- 7.4.2 Practical Details.- 7.5 Continuous-Wave Systems.- 7.5.1 CW Doppler Systems.- 7.5.2 Physiotherapy Equipment.- 7.6 Accuracy Assessment.- 7.7 Recommended Additional Reading Material.- 7.8 References.- 8 Real-Time Scanning Systems Part 1: Modes of Operation.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Principles of Operation.- 8.2.1 Imaging.- 8.2.2 Doppler.- 8.3 Pulse Characteristics.- 8.3.1 Imaging.- 8.3.2 Pulsed Doppler.- 8.3.3 Duplex.- 8.3.4 CW Doppler.- 8.4 Pulse Patterns.- 8.4.1 Discrete Modes.- 8.4.2 Combined Modes.- 8.4.3 Multiple Focal Zones.- 8.4.4 Repeated Lines.- 8.5 Scanner Settings.- 8.5.1 Imaging.- 8.5.2 Pulsed Doppler.- 8.5.3 Duplex.- 8.5.4 CW Doppler.- 8.6 Discussion.- 8.7 Recommended Further Reading Material.- 9 Real-Time Scanning Systems Part 2: Measurements.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Measurement Systems.- 9.2.1 Test-tank Arrangements.- 9.2.2 Mechanical Clamping of the Transducer.- 9.2.3 Bubbles.- 9.2.4 Measurement Methods Without an Electrical Trigger.- 9.2.5 Electrical Trigger.- 9.3 Making Measurements.- 9.3.1 Locking on to Repetitive Scan Lines.- 9.3.2 Modes of Operation - Special Problems.- 9.3.3 Scan Format.- 9.3.4 Variation Between Scan Lines.- 9.3.5 Multiple Focal Zones and Multiple Firing.- 9.3.6 Overlap Factor in Determining /spta.- 9.3.7 Asymmetrical Beam Shapes.- 9.3.8 Total Power.- 9.3.9 Corrections.- 9.4 Measurement Uncertainties.- 9.5 References.- Glossary: Definitions Relevant to Ultrasonic Field Measurements.

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