Ozone and Plant Cell / Edition 1

Ozone and Plant Cell / Edition 1

by Victoria V Roshchina, Valentina D. Roshchina
     
 

ISBN-10: 1402014201

ISBN-13: 9781402014208

Pub. Date: 09/30/2003

Publisher: Springer Netherlands

Ozone is a normal constituent of air but this gas becomes dangerous for living organism when its concentration in the troposphere is too high. Most previous studies of this substance examined it merely in its role as an earth screen for the biosphere or an air pollutant. This book will also view its derivatives (active oxygen species), at a molecular and cellular

Overview

Ozone is a normal constituent of air but this gas becomes dangerous for living organism when its concentration in the troposphere is too high. Most previous studies of this substance examined it merely in its role as an earth screen for the biosphere or an air pollutant. This book will also view its derivatives (active oxygen species), at a molecular and cellular level, as substances that have both positive and negative effects on plant life. Plant cells will be considered as both recipients and sources of ozone, as well as possible biosensors and bioindicators for low and high concentrations of the compound.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781402014208
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
09/30/2003
Edition description:
2003
Pages:
267
Product dimensions:
8.27(w) x 11.69(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
Acknowledgementsx
Introduction1
Chapter 1.Atmospheric Ozone7
1.1.Physico-Chemical Properties of Ozone7
1.2.Formation of Ozone10
1.3.Decomposition of Ozone15
1.3.1.Reaction of ozone with oxides of nitrogen and halogen atoms15
1.3.2.Reaction of ozone with organic components in the atmosphere16
1.4.Chemical Reactivity of Ozone in Water18
1.5.Properties of the Active Oxygen Species Formed in Water as a Result of Ozonolysis20
1.5.1.Superoxide anion radical21
1.5.2.Hydroxyl radical22
1.5.3.Hydrogen peroxide23
1.5.4.Singlet oxygen24
1.6.Doses of Ozone Required to Induce Biological Effects in Living Organisms24
Conclusion26
Chapter 2.Transport of Ozone in Plant Cells and Cellular Reactions27
2.1.Movement of Ozone from Surface Into Plant Tissue27
2.1.1.Cells of leaf and stem28
2.1.1.1.Pathways through stomata and cuticle31
2.1.1.2.Pathways through cell wall and across extracellular space34
2.1.2.Secretory cells37
2.1.3.Cells of microspores39
2.2.Transport of Ozone Through Cellular Membranes41
2.2.1.Pathways through plasmalemma to cytoplasm and cellular organelles42
2.2.2.Plasmalemma44
2.2.3.Cytoplasmic matrix and cellular organelles47
Conclusion54
Chapter 3.Molecular Mechanisms of the Ozone Interaction with Plant Cellular Components55
3.1.Ozonolysis of Biologically Important Cellular Compounds55
3.1.1.Interaction of ozone with compounds in cell cover57
3.1.2.Interaction of ozone with membrane lipids61
3.1.3.Reaction of ozone with amino acids and proteins65
3.1.4.Reactions of ozone with amines68
3.1.5.Interaction of ozone with nucleic acids68
3.1.6.Reaction of ozone with NADH and NADPH69
3.1.7.Reaction of ozone with plant regulators of growth and development70
3.2.Free Radicals as Intermediates in the Process of Ozonolysis73
3.2.1.Free radicals in biological systems73
3.2.2.Formation of free radicals during ozonation and their biological effects78
3.2.3.Mechanisms by which free radicals act on cellular components84
3.3.Peroxides and Hydroperoxides as Intermediates in the Process of Ozonolysis87
3.3.1.Hydrogen peroxide88
3.3.2.Organic peroxides and hydroperoxides in atmospheric air89
3.3.3.Formation of peroxides and hydroperoxides in reactions between ozone and the gas excretions of plants90
3.3.4.Organic peroxides in plant leaves92
3.3.5.Biological effects of peroxides93
3.3.6.Mechanisms of the peroxide action98
Conclusion102
Chapter 4.Protective Cellular Reactions Against Ozone and Steady-State Protective Systems103
4.1.Antioxidant Enzymes103
4.1.1.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plants103
4.1.2.Catalase107
4.1.3.Peroxidase107
4.2.Low-Molecular Antioxidants and Inhibitors of Reactive Oxygen Species110
4.2.1.Phenols110
4.2.2.Tocoferol and ubiquinones112
4.2.3.Ascorbic acid113
4.2.4.Thiol (SH)-compounds114
4.2.5.Uric acid, cytokinins and biogenic amines115
4.2.6.Multiatomic alcohols, polyamines and polyacetylenes115
4.2.7.Terpenoids116
4.2.8.Carbon dioxide117
4.3.Plant Excretions as Natural Antiozonants117
4.4.Interaction of Antioxidants and Their Dual Role in Plant Life124
Conclusion126
Chapter 5.Ozone-Induced Changes in Plant Metabolism127
5.1.Carbon Metabolism127
5.1.1.Photosynthesis127
5.1.2.Respiration131
5.1.3.Changes in the pool of metabolites and in the activity of some enzymes132
5.2.Lipid Metabolism135
5.3.Metabolism of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds139
5.4.Metabolism of Secondary Compounds144
5.4.1.Phenols144
5.4.2.Hydrocarbons149
5.4.3.Polyamines151
Conclusion152
Chapter 6.Cellular Monitoring of Ozone153
6.1.Sensitivity of Plant Cells to Ozone153
6.1.1.Dependence of plant sensitivity on the ozone dose154
6.1.1.1.Dose-dependent sensitivity of plant cellular reactions156
6.1.1.2.Dose-dependent sensitivity of whole plant growth and development164
6.1.1.3.Dose-dependent sensitivity of plant species and cultivars to ozone168
6.1.2.Dependence of the plant ozone sensitivity on external and internal factors169
6.2.Diagnostics of Plant Cell Sensitivity to Ozone173
6.2.1.Diagnostics involving cellular reactions174
6.2.2.Early diagnostics using biochemical and physiological criteria178
6.2.2.1.Stomata opening and gas exchange of leaves180
6.2.2.2.Permeability of membranes and changes in membrane-related processes181
6.2.2.3.Formation of stress ethylene181
6.2.2.4.Changes in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content182
6.2.2.5.Autofluorescence of cell surfaces184
6.2.2.6.Changes in the activity and biosynthesis of enzymes. Peroxidases as indicators of ozone stress186
6.2.2.7.Changes in metabolic pools187
6.2.2.8.Activation and expression of the genes encoding protective low-molecular and high-molecular metabolites189
6.2.3.Diagnostics of cell damage189
6.3.Plant Cells as Biosensors and Bioindicators of Ozone195
6.3.1.Plants as bioindicators of ozone pollution196
6.3.2.Cellular models for studying ozone effects200
6.3.2.1.Pollen200
6.3.2.2.Vegetative microspores of spore-breeding plants204
6.3.2.3.Secretory cells206
Conclusion208
Conclusion209
Appendix 1.Addresses of Internet Sites Related to Ozone Issues213
Appendix 2.List of Plant Species Sensitive to Ozone214
Appendix 3.Autofluorescence of Plant Cells as Bioindicators for Ozone215
References217
Subject Index253
Latin Index265

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