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- Why a Book ...For Dummies?
- Why PageMaker for the Web?
- About This Book
- A Book for the Both of Us
- How to Use This Book
- How This Book Is Organized
- Part I: Welcome to Publishing for the Internet
- Part II: Getting Started with PageMaker 6.5
- Part III: Putting Words in Print and Online
- Part IV: Pumping Up Your Layout Power
- Part V: Say It with Pictures
- Part VI: Weaving a Web Page
- Part VII: The Part of Tens
- Icons Used in This Book
- Where to First?
Part I: Welcome to Publishing for the Internet
- Chapter 1: So, You Want to Be a Web Publisher?
- Planning Your Publication
- Web and Print Pages: Just Alike or Way Different?
- What Is This Thing Called HTML?
- Who's the Fairest Browser of Them All?
- A tour of differences
- Customizing browsers
- America Online 3.0
- Netscape Navigator 3.0
- Microsoft Internet Explorer
- Chapter 2: PageMaker, Word Processors, and HTML Editors. Oh, My!
- When Do I Use PageMaker?
- When you want to avoid the ugly code that underlies Web pages
- For straightforward Web pages
- As a starting point for sophisticated Web pages
- For filling in the content
- When you have multiple columns
- For working with graphics
- For defining Web-page colors
- For combining multiple stories
- For creating hypertext links
- When Do I Use a Word Processor?
- For text-intensive projects and formatting
- For simple layout and formatting
- When Do I Use an HTML Editor?
- To place elements precisely
- For creating tables
- When dealing with code
- Four Things PageMaker Does Best
Part II: Getting Started with PageMaker 6.5
- Chapter 3: Starting, Mousing, and Other Vital Stuff
- Powering Up PageMaker 6.5
- The Shortcut to Launching PageMaker
- Clicking Your Way to Happiness
- Chapter 4: Windowing, Scrolling, and More Vital Stuff
- Making Friends with the PageMaker Interface
- The dull and boring program window
- The more exciting document window
- Tinkering with the toolbox
- Sorting through the other palettes
- Talking Back to Dialog Boxes
- Getting Around
- Changing your view
- Dealing with multiple windows
- Shutting Down and Saving Your Work
- Chapter 5: Filling in the Blanks
- Opening a New (Or Used) Document
- Starting from scratch
- Working on an existing document
- Making Changes to Your Defaults
- Setting Up Your Pages
- Page-size settings
- Tall or wide?
- Margins and side settings
- Number of pages and page numbers
- Printer Settings
- Defining DPI
- Dividing Your Document into Columns
- Working with column guides
- Playing peek-a-boo with guides
- Setting Rulers and Ruler Guides
- Choosing a unit of measurement
- Making page elements snap to it
- Creating ruler guides
- Making Your Own Prefab Layout Grids
Part III: Putting Words in Print and Online
- Chapter 6: All I Need to Know about Fonts and Type
- A Basic Guide to Type Terminology
- Text Formatting You Can Use for the Web
- Character formatting
- Paragraph formatting
- Special character symbols
- Chapter 7: The Joy of Text
- Importing Text versus Entering Text Directly
- Entering text directly in your PageMaker document
- Creating text blocks the new frames way
- Importing text
- Working with Text Blocks and Frames
- Chapter 8: More Joy of Text
- Editing Text
- Using the Story Editor
- Checking Your Spelling
- Teaching PageMaker to spell
- Adding lots of new words to the dictionary
- Finding that Special Word
- Hunting down some text
- Searching by format
- Searching for special characters
- Replacing found text with new text
- Undoing Bad Moves
- Chapter 9: Staying in Style
- Creating and Editing Text Styles
- Importing Styles
- Applying Styles to Text
- Exploring HTML Styles
- Text styles
- Headline styles
- List styles
- PageMaker Styles That Work in HTML
- Converting Styles: PageMaker to HTML
Part IV: Pumping Up Your Layout Power
- Chapter 10: The Layout Shuffle
- Starting a Layout
- Putting Your Text in Place
- Planning the home page
- Planning the section pages
- Dealing with text overflow
- Working with Columns
- One column or two?
- Making text columns line up
- Altering columns and text blocks
- Changing the number of columns
- Moving columns and text blocks
- Inserting columns or text blocks
- Locking and Grouping Elements
- Adjusting Print Layouts for the Web
- Chapter 11: What Are Links and Layers -- And Why Should You Care?
- Setting Link Defaults
- The Store Copy in Publication option
- The Update Automatically option
- The Alert Before Updating option
- Updating Individual Elements
- Recognizing Symbols for Links Problems
- Working with Layers
- Chapter 12: Doing Less Work Next Time
- Using Master Pages
- Creating your document master pages
- Creating additional master pages
- Creating new master pages from existing ones
- Applying master pages
- Removing master pages and their elements
- Editing a master page
- Building a Template
- Creating a layout from a template
- Editing a template
- Getting Your Library Card
- Creating libraries
- Adding and deleting library elements
- Setting library displays
- Finding library elements
- Using library elements
Part V: Say It with Pictures
- Chapter 13: Adding Pretty Pictures
- Preparing Graphics for PageMaker
- What formats can PageMaker import?
- Image formats
- Drawing formats
- What to do before you import
- Bringing Graphics into Your Layout
- Copying Graphics for Export
- Creating Lines
- Chapter 14: Sizing, Shaping, and Other Final Touches
- Sizing and Trimming a Graphic
- Working with Graphics as a Unit
- Aligning and distributing multiple objects
- Locking objects in place
- Applying Special Effects
- But first, what doesn't work on the Web
- Distorting a graphic
- Photoshop filters
- Chapter 15: Let There Be Color!
- A Primer on Color Models
- Dabbling with the Color Palette
- Applying colors
- Adding colors
- Checking Out Color Libraries
- Changing Colors
- Deleting Colors
- Importing Colors from Other Documents
- Specifying Colors for the Web
- How many colors can I use?
- Where can I use colors?
Part VI: Weaving a Web Page
- Chapter 16: Hop to It! Creating Hypertext Links
- Setting Up Hyperlink Preferences
- Creating Hyperlinks
- Displaying the new hyperlinks palette
- Linking to destinations
- Establishing hyperlink sources
- Altering Hyperlinks
- Changing the name or source
- Deleting hyperlinks
- Importing Ready-Made Hyperlinks
- Importing from a document
- Importing from the Web
- Using copyrighted materials
- Chapter 17: Turning a PageMaker Page into a Web Page
- Set Up the Master Elements
- Fill the Individual Pages
- Do Some Cleanup Work
- Add the Hypertext Links
- Export the Document to HTML
- Create an export style
- Select stories or pages for export
- Add background graphics
- Save the export settings
- Choose export options
- Decide if you want to preserve layout
- Assign style attributes
- Select a graphics format option
- Execute the export
- Chapter 18: Techniques for Taming HTML
- Making Use of HTML Editing Tools
- Managing Hyperlinks
- Using hyperlinks that survive export
- Setting up a Web page hierarchy
- Adding hyperlinks in HTML
- Tweaking the Layout with Table Cells
- Resizing table cells
- Merging table cells
- Adding lines around cells
- Examining some real table code
- Finishing Up
- Chapter 19: Creating Web Pages with Adobe Acrobat
- When to Use the Acrobat Option
- Exporting PageMaker Files to Acrobat
- Selecting output settings
- Managing fonts
- Setting file compatibility
- Compressing graphics
- Handling hyperlinks
- Creating outlines
- Creating articles
- Saving settings
- Adding Extra Features
Part VII: The Part of Tens
- Chapter 20: Ten Shortcut Groups You'll Always Use
- Opening, Saving, and Quitting
- Zooming with Keyboard and Clicks
- Navigating inside Your Document
- Locking and Grouping Objects
- Displaying Palettes
- Selecting Tools
- Undoing Mistakes
- Making Copies
- Editing Text in the Story Editor
- Formatting Text
- Making Styles and Colors
- Chapter 21: Ten Ways to Avoid Web Publishing "Gotchas"
- Stick to Web-Friendly Formatting
- Get a Grip on Using Graphics
- Avoid the Jump-Happy Syndrome
- Always Link to Required Programs
- Label Sources and Anchors Properly
- Set Your Global Preferences
- Keep Page Elements in Bounds
- Make Safety Precautions a Habit
- Check Your Work Online
- Use the Correct Tool for the Job
- Chapter 22: The Ten Most Useful HTML Tag Groups
- Text Formatting
- Breaks in Text
- Paragraph Styles
- Heading Styles
- List Styles
- Text Alignment
- Color Specifications
- Housekeeping Codes
- Special Type Symbols
- Chapter 23: Ten Web Pages Worth a Good Look
- Apple Computer QuickTime
- Walter S. Arnold
- Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
- IDG Books Worldwide
- Macworld Daily
- PC World
- Thunder Lizard Productions
- U.S. Robotics Pilot
- Appendix: How to Install PageMaker 6.5
- Basic Installation
- Basic Custom Setup
- More Custom Setup Options
- Registering and Restarting PageMaker
- Reinstalling to Change Options
- Upgrading from PageMaker 6.0
IDG Books Worldwide Registration Card
In This Chapter
Face it. You're a print junkie. You crave the written word. Heck, you've got this book in your hands right now. It all probably started with bedtime fairy tales, then progressed to Dr. Seuss (the twentieth century master of the rhyming couplet). The next thing you know you're hiding comic books in your underwear drawer (okay, so maybe you still do). Sure, you read sometimes because you have to. You cram for exams. You answer those memos, review those reports, look to see if Publishers Clearing House has already Made You a Winner! You discovered magazine racks are the new singles spot of the '90s. Why, you might even be responsible for producing some of this printed stuff.
Now the Internet has you hooked and it's come time for you to join the expanding ranks of World Wide Web publishers. But unless you're among the very techno-hippest residents of the online universe, you probably don't know the Web anywhere as well as you know print. The notion of publishing in cyberspace can be intimidating, and you may end up trying to fit a square peg (print) into a round hole (the Web) when you begin to design your Web pages (which is not to say that the printed word is for squares).
Although the Web may seem new and strange, in many ways it should seem familiar. The process of learning how to publish for the Web isn't as difficult as, say, venturing from magazine design to TV production. You're still dealing essentially with text and pictures that people read and digest, even though the information appears on a computer screen, not on the printed page, and can include animation and sound effects as part of the package.
The World Wide Web (or Web for short) is a hypermedia system that lets you cruise through the many words, pictures, and sounds on the Internet. Other systems exist for accessing information through the Internet, but the Web has become the most popular, largely because of Web browsers that enable you to simply point and click to link to other places on the Internet.
Many of the fundamentals of creating a publication are the same for the Web as they are for print. I'm thinking of the nuts-and-bolts publication planning and organization that's invisible to the reader but is the skeleton upon which the publication is built.
Planning a Web publication involves this same sort of process. Each page of your Web document needs a message worth communicating, a target audience, a logical organization, and a defined level of detail.
I'll use something near and dear to me (this book) as an example of how to organize information. Notice how the major sections, called parts, group together related information based on a particular topic (such as starting out, dealing with text, planning layouts, and so forth). Several chapters exist within each part, each detailing an aspect of the part's bigger topic. Then, within each chapter are sections and subsections that further distinguish related components. This kind of hierarchy (now, there's word to throw around at your next clambake) is typical in almost any publication -- print or Web.
Because this book has to communicate lots of information on a number of areas, I grouped similar information together to make it easier to digest one big concept at a time. I also broke big pieces of information into smaller, more focused topics to make them less overwhelming and to make finding specific information easier.
Just as there's more to an animal's innards than its skeleton, a publication's fundamentals are more than this high-falutin'-sounding hierarchy. Consider this book again. I've used some other devices to help keep the information distinct yet related -- icons in the page margins that help you find specific kinds of information that appear throughout the book, sidebars on topics not directly related but still relevant to the subject at hand, and the index and table of contents to help you navigate around this book quickly and read it in any order you want.
Now compare a Web page with a print page (shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2) to see how organizing a document for either medium is accomplished in similar ways. The pages aren't too fancy, so you can focus on fundamentals.
The organization of Figures 1-1 and 1-2 is basically the same: general information up front and more specific information following, bulleted lists, a title and subtitles, and information grouped by topic. (More information was crammed into the print page, obviously; I explain that in the sidebar "How long should a Web page be?") Many other ways to create a print or a Web version of this example exist, but the basic principles apply for either.
Before you dive in and start creating Web pages, you need to be aware of the basic differences between print and online publications to create the most effective and interesting Web pages you can. If you're making the transition from print to Web, you may need to get some of your old assumptions out of the way. Those old assumptions about producing print publications often don't work on the Web, and using them can turn off potential Web readers. Two examples follow:
Web documents differ from print documents in two main ways that seem almost contradictory:
How can this contradiction be true? Read on.
How long should a Web page be?
Many Web pages, especially the early ones, were no more than long lists of information. Until recently, the Web didn't easily support multicolumn documents, graphics with text wrapping around them, and all that other layout razzmatazz because large numbers of these elements increased the downloading time (the time it takes to get a document off the Web and on to your screen). This was so much the case that Web readers gave up and went and surfed elsewhere. Pages of text tended to look like the one in Figure 1-2, which shows about a sixth of an entire page contained in that particular Web document. (The print version is about twice as space-efficient as the Web version because Web text has to be made bigger because small text is hard to read on a computer monitor.)
Look again at Figures 1-1 and 1-2: You can actually see more information in Figure 1-1 than in Figure 1-2, even though the pages are the same size. The reason is that you can get away with using smaller type (such as 8 or 9 points) on paper and still keep the text legible. (On the Web, 10 or 12 points is a typical font size.)
Studies have shown only 5 percent of people who read newspapers get past the first few paragraphs of a story. You can blame television, or you can just say paragraph after paragraph of textual matter just isn't that exciting. The situation isn't much different on the Web. Because people hate to read long lists, smart Web-page designers break information into small chunks. These smaller pieces of information are connected by a chain of hypertext links that let you hop from connection to connection as the mood suits you. Print documents, on the other hand, use lots of headlines, titles, graphics, and other elements to keep you moving through lengthy text in either a linear fashion or by skipping around (like the elements do in this book).
The upper-left window in Figure 1-3 shows the page from Figure 1-2 redone in a style that's much more "hyperlink-y" (which has nothing to do with the adorable metal spring that rolls down staircases). The information provided in each document is largely the same, but Figure 1-3 presents it in a way that more greatly resembles a typical Web page. Neither the Figure 1-2 or Figure 1-3 style is inherently better than the other, they're simply used differently. The following are the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches shown in Figures 1-2 and 1-3:
The entry form shown in Figures 1-1 through 1-3 is a real one. The print version (Figure 1-1) was mailed to entrants to fill out. The headlines make this version pretty easy to use and the layout is compact and linear. But for the Web, the awards committee posted two versions: an HTML version with hyperlinks, and a downloadable version designed to be "pulled down" from the Web, read, and printed out from the user's computer. From there, the document could be mailed back with the entry.
Wait a minute. Did I say two versions were posted? I meant three. The page creators later decided that some people would prefer one big file to scroll through on the Web. So the document in Figure 1-2 was hyperlinked to the main screen (shown in Figure 1-3), giving online readers a choice to either jump to what they need or read the whole thing on screen. See, you can have your nonfat cake and eat it, too! (More on how to accomplish this is in Part VI.)
Web documents can be designed to allow readers to acquire information through a line-by-line read, or by a hop, skip, and a jump, so you can choose the best approach for your message. Although print documents have this kind of flexibility -- that's why this book has a table of contents and an index to let you turn to specific sections -- this mixing of formats isn't as easy in print as it is on the Web, where your only real limitations are time and the size of your available file space.
Web documents rely heavily on the HT in HTML (HyperText Markup Language). HTML is a programming language that makes it possible for your pages to be used on the World Wide Web. HTML is based on a special set of codes embedded into text that add text formatting and hypertext links. When you click into a hypertext link for the item you're interested in, the information you want pops up from a Web document anywhere in the Internet. Within your own document, it divides the content of your publication into many separate pieces that you can connect by jumping from one link to another.
Imagine going to an art museum with a separate room for each artist. Every room has four doors, each leading into an adjoining room. The path you take through the museum isn't necessarily the same as someone else's chosen path, so you are likely to end up seeing a different set of paintings and artists in a different order than another person. You may see some of the same artists another person sees, or you may not. (If you've ever been to the Chicago Art Institute, you'll know exactly what I mean!) It's numerous options like these that make "surfing" the Web the ultimate in customized reading, although you might not realize you're customizing what you see.
In a hypertext document (such as on the Web), you're traveling along your own personalized reading path.
Much of the text formatting you rely on when designing print documents does a disappearing act when it comes time for its journey to the Web. Chapter 6 provides examples of formatting that runs into trouble along the way to the Web -- the mixed results of using columns, the lack of choice of specific fonts, and the inability to do sophisticated formatting like text wraps.
Part of the reason for this is that HTML is a primitive formatting language -- more primitive than that of even very early PageMaker. Another reason is that each Web browser interprets HTML differently (a browser is the software that lets you view Web documents). This means that what you see on your browser doesn't necessarily look exactly like what I see on my browser, or what your Uncle Samson sees on his browser.
Even on the newest versions of the three most popular browsers -- Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and America Online (which uses a version of Internet Explorer) -- the same page is going to look different on each one. The page is also going to look different in Windows than on a Mac. Older versions of browsers display pages differently than newer ones. Not only are some newer features like table formatting not going to display correctly on older browser versions, but the look of text may vary from one version of the browser to another. The width of the browser window also affects column widths and how text lines wrap (move from line to line). To make the whole process even more complicated, many browsers let individual users set their own preferred fonts and sizes.
What this all means is that Web-page font sizes are going to change, columns are going to shift, and text may appear in different fonts depending on the equipment being used to cruise the Internet. That means your documents probably won't look exactly like what you create in PageMaker, or after you tweak them in an HTML editor, once those documents are on the Web.
These discrepancies are unavoidable. My advice is to avoid spending too much of your time fine-tuning type sizes and column placements. Instead, focus on the organization of your content and making your arrangements simple so that your publication can survive the trip to the Web.
Notice that I haven't said anything about graphic images changing in appearance depending on where they're viewed. Pictures also can look different from browser to browser and platform to platform, although the difference is usually confined to varying color hues (see Chapter 15 for more on this). Because Web graphics are bitmapped images -- made up of a predefined, fixed series of dots -- the likelihood of your browser making your images look any different than they do in PageMaker, Photoshop, or Corel Photo-Paint is practically impossible.
How different can the same page look from browser to browser? Examine Figures 1-4 through 1-9. They show the same page as it appears in America Online 3.0, Netscape Navigator 3.0, and Internet Explorer 2.0 for both Windows 95 and Macintosh, all at their default settings. These browsers are updated over time, so the version you own may be a more current one than was available when this book was written.
If you look carefully at Figures 1-4 through 1-9, you'll notice that the formatting varies somewhat from browser to browser and platform to platform. (I scrolled up or down a bit on each screen to better point out the differences.) You can see that the text size varies, as well as the positioning of the columns.
You, too, can use Web publishing lingo
To become savvy to the vocabulary used in publishing to the Internet, just cruise through the following terms:
Browser A program that lets you view, deliver, and receive information and files over the Internet. A browser plug-in is a program that the browser uses to add functionality, such as the display of animation (Shockwave, for example) or motion video (such as QuickTime).
Internet The global network of computers that supports the means for computer users around the world to communicate. It includes the World Wide Web, Internet Relay Chat, Gopher, news groups, and FTP.
World Wide Web The Web for short, this portion of the Internet lets computer users anywhere view information and exchange data. It is based on the Internet's HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which allows for the display of documents on the Web. The
Web page A document viewed on screen through a Web browser, rather than in a word processor or page-layout program.
HTML The HyperText Markup Language is a set of specifications for formatting text and inserting graphics on a Web page. The HTML language is fairly primitive (it doesn't support fonts and symbols that PageMaker users take for granted) because the first Internet users in the 1970s were on mainframes, DOS PCs, and UNIX workstations, and HTML was written to take their limited display capabilities into account. Now that Windows and the Mac rule the PC world, HTML is slowly evolving to support richer formatting.
Hyperlink One of the cool things about Web pages is that you can create hypertext, which creates links to other pages or even other Web sites. The text usually appears in blue and is underlined, and clicking it just once with your mouse immediately transports you to a new location (the hyperlink's destination). You can navigate the Web quickly, jumping from one place to another with the click of your mouse.
Internet Relay Chat This part of the Internet allows a form of live conferencing among groups of people, who can simultaneously read each other's text messages.
Gopher The Internet's search function, which lets you find files on the Internet.
News groups These are essentially bulletin boards on the Internet, where people can leave messages that anyone can read and add their own messages to. The news groups are arranged by topical interest.
FTP The File Transfer Protocol is one way that people and companies make files available for transfer from their computer to your computer. (The other way is to have a hyperlink to a file on their computer.)
If you've read the preceding sections of this chapter, you know that browsers can make Web pages look a little different than what their creators intended. Here's a chance to get even -- you can call some of the shots on how your browser displays pages. The following shows you some options to customize the way the three major browsers display pages.
American Online allows you really only one custom option: You can ask for images to be drawn after the entire page has been downloaded to your computer. This is a more efficient process than watching the graphics files gradually materialize on screen as they arrive. You can do this through the Prefs button in the AOL browser, which is located just below the box for the URL line (the Internet address box). This takes you to the Preferences dialog box shown in Figure 1-10.
Netscape Navigator gives you a number of choices to individualize your screen viewing. To select your custom preferences, use Options-->General Preferences to open the dialog box shown in Figure 1-11.
In the Appearance pane, check the Underlined option in the Link Styles section (Windows) or Followed Links Expire (Mac) to specify that hypertext links (words or phrases you click to get to other spots on the Web) are underlined.
In the Fonts pane (shown in the figure), select the font you want for your text. You need to specify fonts for two types of text: fixed text and proportional characters. Fixed text is used for some lists and commands on the Web, to indicate file names, and to show what you need to type into your computer. Generally, you want to choose a font that looks like typewriting (Courier is a good example). Proportional characters are pretty much all the rest of the type fonts you see on the screen.
You can also change the size of the text in the Appearance panes. So, if you're not seeing enough of the text in your browser window, you can reduce the size of the text to fit more on your screen. Figure 1-12 provides an example of reformatted text and how it can change the appearance of your Web page. Compare it to Figure 1-6, which displays the same information with a different text size and font.
In the Colors pane, choose the color you want the hyperlinks to appear in. Hyperlinks are the connections to other material within your Web document or to material in other documents. They stand out from the rest of the text through the use of color or underscores. You can pick colors both for read hyperlinks (ones you have clicked on) and unread hyperlinks (not yet clicked on). You can even choose the color of regular text, although I suggest you leave the regular-text color at a safe, readable black.
In the Images pane, you can tell Navigator how to deal with colors that may have been specified in a Web document but that your monitor can't display. I recommend you leave this on the default setting, which is Automatic. You can also choose to have graphics display while the page is downloading or after it's done. I prefer to have this set at After loading (so you can read the text while the images are still loading), but either preference works.
Don't worry about the other panes; they don't affect what you see on screen.
Internet Explorer fans are well aware that Explorer 3.0 is the most recent version now available. However, at the time this book was written, Microsoft had not yet released Explorer 3.0 for Macintosh, so I'm covering just Explorer 2.0 here.
You can exercise your options on a number of Internet Explorer settings to suit your personal taste. Use View-->Options to open the set of tabbed panes that control the Internet Explorer preferences. Figure 1-13 shows the Options dialog boxes for Mac and Windows 95 (obviously, they look very different).
In Windows 95, limit your dabbling with Options to just the Appearances pane, which lets you set everything from fonts to link colors.
On the Mac, use the following panes (Windows users should follow the Mac steps but look for all the options in the Appearances pane):
Posted February 27, 2001
IF you want a great book about Web page development, this is your book! In fact, I wish the title had been a little more clear on this point. For all the tens of thousands of us who still do DTP and are looking for the same, typically first class coverage of this particular software program, IDG messed up on this one. There is no DTP version presently in print. Which is too bad.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.