Panic anxiety and panic disorder. Clinical and diagnostic features. Clinical assessment. Interface with general medicine. Epidemiology and familial risk. Uncomplicated and comorbid panic disorder. The origins of panic disorder: etiology and pathogenesis. Etiology. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology: experimental models and biological theories. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology: psychological and psychosocial theories. Validity of panic disorder as a nosologic entity. Clinical description of panic disorder. Laboratory studies. Delimitation from other disorders. Follow-up studies. Family studies and twin studies. Treatments for panic anxiety: research findings. General considerations. Psychopharmacologic treatments. Psychological treatments. Comparative studies of psychopharmacologic and psychological treatments. Combined psychological and psychopharmacologic treatment. Conclusions. Clinical practice patterns for panic disorder. Patterns of prescription and use of antipanic medications. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations. Summary of findings. Implications and guidelines for clinical practice. Future research. References.
American Psychiatric Publishing