The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series: Volume 3: 12 August 1810 to 17 June 1811

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Volume Three of the definitive edition of Thomas Jefferson's papers from the end of his presidency until his death presents 567 documents covering the period from 12 August 1810 to 17 June 1811. Jefferson is now firmly ensconced in retirement at Monticello and Poplar Forest. He is not free from legal and political concerns, however, with the controversy over the 1807 federal seizure of the Batture Sainte Marie at New Orleans looming particularly large. Jefferson prepares for his defense against Edward Livingston's lawsuit by corresponding at length with his counsel and involved public officials, and seeking out documents and legal authorities to vindicate himself. He also seeks to end Philadelphia journalist William Duane's growing estrangement from mainstream Republican politics, lobbies for the appointment of a committed Republican to fill a vacancy on the Supreme Court, and argues with the Rivanna Company over its proposed encroachments on his property. Other highlights are Jefferson's draft constitution for an agricultural society, his astronomical calculations, his notes on plantings at Poplar Forest, and his estimate of the cost of shipping flour. Documents on slaves and slavery include discussions of schemes for colonizing freed slaves in Africa, information on the medical condition of some of Jefferson's slaves, and an account of a visit to Monticello with a distinctly unflattering portrayal of the ex-president's standing in the community and his relations with his slaves.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780691128672
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 12/18/2006
  • Series: Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series, #3
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 768
  • Product dimensions: 6.60 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 7.30 (d)

Meet the Author

J. Jefferson Looney is Editor of "The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series", sponsored by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc., Charlottesville, Virginia.

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The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Retirement Series, Volume 3: 12 August 1810 to 17 June 1811

Princeton University Press

Copyright © 2006 Princeton University Press
All right reserved.

Chapter One


* * *

Jefferson and the Publication of Destutt de Tracy's Commentary on Montesquieu





Using the French manuscript that he received from the author in 1809, Jefferson undertook to see into print an English edition of Destutt de Tracy's commentary on Montesquieu's Esprit des Lois. He recruited Philadelphia printer and journalist William Duane for the task with the letter and sample translations printed below. Duane engaged his own translator, even for the portions Jefferson had already translated, and made further revisions himself before sending the work in batches to Jefferson for his review. Jefferson spent part of the last months of 1810 composing a preface and reviewing the draft translation. He expressed some concern about the quality of the translation and his inability to check it thoroughly without the French original, which remained in Duane's hands until 1813. Progress was temporarilysuspended by labor and financial troubles, but Duane published the work anonymously in the summer of 1811 as A Commentary and Review of Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws. Prepared for press from the Original Manuscript, in the Hands of the Publisher. To which are annexed, Observations on the Thirty-First Book, by the late M. Condorcet: and Two Letters of Helvetius, on the merits of the same work (Philadelphia, 1811; Sowerby, no. 2327; Poor, Jefferson's Library, 10 [no. 623]; title page reproduced elsewhere in this volume). Despite Jefferson's enthusiastic approval, the first edition did not sell out. It was not reprinted in English in his or Destutt de Tracy's lifetime, although French, German, Italian, and Spanish versions did eventually appear (Destutt de Tracy to TJ, 12 June 1809, 11 Apr. 1818, 10 Mar. 1819, 24 Nov. 1820; Duane to TJ, 17 Aug., 29 Oct. 1810, 25 Jan., 15 Mar., 5 July 1811, 14 Feb. 1813; TJ to Duane, 16 Sept., 25 Oct., 13 Nov. 1810, 18, 26 Jan. 1811, 4 Apr. 1813; Destutt de Tracy, Commentaire sur l'Esprit des Lois de Montesquieu [Paris, 1819; Poor, Jefferson's Library, 10 (no. 622)], Charakterzeichnung der politik aller staaten der erde. Kritsicher commentar über Montesquieu's Geist der gesetze, 2 vols. [Heidelberg, 1820-21], Comentario sopra lo spirito delle leggi di Montesquieu [Naples, 1820], and Comentario sobre el Espíritu de las leyes de Montesquieu [Valencia, 1821; trans. Ramón Salas]).

I. To William Duane

Sir Monticello Aug. 12. 10.

Your letter of July 16. has been duly recieved, with the paper it inclosed, for which accept my thanks, and especially for the kind sentiments expressed towards myself. these testimonies of approbation, and friendly remembrance, are the highest gratifications I can recieve from any, and especially from those in whose principles & zeal for the public good I have confidence. of that confidence in yourself the military appointment to which you allude was sufficient proof, as it was made, not on the recommendations of others, but on our own knolege of your principles & qualifications. while I cherish with feeling the recollections of my friends, I banish from my mind all political animosities which might disturb it's tranquility, or the happiness I derive from my present pursuits. I have thought it among the most fortunate circumstances of my late administration that during it's eight years continuance, it was conducted with a cordiality and harmony among all the members which never were ruffled on any, the greatest or smallest occasion. I left my brethren with sentiments of sincere affection & friendship, so rooted in the uniform tenor of a long & intimate intercourse, that the evidence of my own senses alone ought to be permitted to shake them. anxious, in my retirement, to enjoy undisturbed repose, my knolege of my successor & late co-adjutors, and my entire confidence in their wisdom and integrity, were assurances to me, that I might sleep in security with such watchmen at the helm; and that whatever difficulties & dangers should assail our course, they would do what could be done to avoid or surmount them. in this confidence I envelope myself, & hope to slumber on to my last sleep. and should difficulties occur, which they cannot avert, if we follow them in phalanx, we shall surmount them without danger.

I have been long intending to write to you as one of the associated company for printing useful works.

Our laws, language, religion, politics, & manners are so deeply laid in English foundations, that we shall never cease to consider their history as a part of ours, and to study ours in that as it's origin. every one knows that judicious matter & charms of stile have rendered Hume's history the Manual of every student. I remember well the enthusiasm with which I devoured it when young, and the length of time, the research & reflection which were necessary to eradicate the poison it had instilled into my mind. it was unfortunate that he first took up the history of the Stuarts, became their Apologist, and advocated all their enormities. to support his work, when done, he went back to the Tudors, and so selected and arranged the materials of their history as to present their arbitrary acts only, as the genuine samples of the constitutional power of the crown; and, still writing backwards, he then reverted to the early history, and wrote the Saxon & Norman periods with the same perverted view. altho' all this is known, he still continues to be put into the hands of all our young people, and to infect them with the poison of his own principles of government. it is this book which has undermined the free principles of the English government, has persuaded readers of all classes that these were usurpations on the legitimate and salutary rights of the crown, and has spread universal toryism over the land, and the book will still continue to be read here as well as there. Baxter, one of Horne Tooke's associates in persecution, has hit on the only remedy the evil admits. he has taken Hume's work, corrected in the text his misrepresentations, supplied the truths which he suppressed, and yet has given the mass of the work in Hume's own words. and it is wonderful how little interpolation has been necessary to make it a sound history, and to justify what should have been it's title, to wit, 'Hume's history of England abridged and rendered faithful to fact and principle.' I cannot say that his amendments are either in matter or manner, in the fine style of Hume. yet they are often unpercieved and occupy so little of the whole work as not to depreciate it. unfortunately he has abridged Hume, by leaving out all the less important details. it is thus reduced to about one half it's original size. he has also continued the history, but very summarily, to 1801. the whole work is of 834. quarto pages, printed close, of which the Continuation occupies 283. I have read but little of this part. as far as I can judge from that little, it is a mere Chronicle, offering nothing profound. this work is so unpopular, so distasteful to the present Tory palates & principles of England that I believe it has never reached a 2d edition. I have often enquired for it in our book shops, but never could find a copy in them, and I think it possible the one I imported may be the only one in America. can we not have it reprinted here? it would be about 4. vols [8.sup.vo].

I have another enterprize to propose for some good printer. I have in my possession a MS. work in French, confided to me by a friend, whose name alone would give it celebrity were it permitted to be mentioned. but considerations insuperable forbid that. it is a Commentary and Review of Montesquieu's Spirit of laws. the history of that work is well known. he had been a great reader, and had commonplaced every thing he read. at length he wished to undertake some work into which he could bring his whole Commonplace book in a digested form. he fixed on the subject of his Spirit of laws, & wrote the book. he consulted his friend Helvetius about publishing it, who strongly dissuaded it. he published it however, and the world did not confirm Helvetius's opinion. still every man, who reflects as he reads, has considered it as a book of paradoxes, having indeed much of truth & sound principle, but abounding also with inconsistences, apocryphal facts, & false inferences. it is a correction of these which has been executed in the work I mention, by way of Commentary and Review; not by criticising words or sentences, but by taking a book at a time, considering it's general scope, & proceeding to confirm or confute it. and much of confutation there is, & of substitution of true for false principle: and the true principle is ever that of republicanism. I will not venture to say that every sentiment in the book will be approved: because, being in MS. and the French character, I have not read the whole but so much only as might enable me to estimate the soundness of the author's way of viewing his subject; and judging from that which I have read, I infer with confidence that we shall find the work generally worthy of our high approbation, and that it every where maintains the preeminence of Representative government, by shewing that it's foundations are laid in reason, in right, and in general good. I had expected this from my knolege of the other writings of the author, which have always a precision rarely to be met with. but to give you an idea of the manner of it's execution, I translate and inclose his commentary on Montesquieu's [II.sup.d] book, which contains the division of the work. I wish I could have added his review at the close of the 12. first books, as this would give a more compleat idea of the extraordinary merit of the work. but it is too long to be copied. I add from it however, a few extracts of his reviews of some of the books as specimens of his plan and principles. if printed in French it would be of about 180. pages [8.sup.vo] or 23. sheets. if any one will undertake to have it translated and printed on their own account, I will send on the MS. by post, and they can take the copyright as of an original work, which it ought to be understood to be. I am anxious it should be ably translated, by some one who possesses style, as well as capacity to do justice to abstruse conceptions. I would even undertake to revise the translation if required. the original sheets must be returned to me, and I should wish the work to be executed with as little delay as possible.

I close this long letter with assurances of my great esteem & respect Th: Jefferson

PoC (DLC); at foot of first page: "Mr Duane." Tr (MHi); posthumous copy; last page only. Enclosures: TJ's translations of Documents II and III.

TJ purchased David Hume, The History of England, from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688 (London, 1754-62) in 1764 while YOUNG (Douglas L. Wilson, "Jefferson vs. Hume," WMQ, 3d ser., 46 [1989]: 49-70; for a London reprint of 1790-91 subsequently acquired by TJ, see Sowerby, no. 370). Radical British politician John Horne Tooke and some of his associates were imprisoned in the Tower of London for their involvement with the parliamentary reform movement in 1793-94 (ODNB). TJ IMPORTED a copy of John Baxter, A new and Impartial History of England, from the most Early Period of Genuine Historical Evidence to the Present Important and Alarming Crisis (London, 1796?801; Sowerby, no. 405) in 1805 (W. & S. Jones to TJ, 23 July 1805 [MoSHi: TJC-BC]). He admired Baxter's work and frequently recommended it as superior to Hume? original. TJ endorsed Baxter? history for use by students at the University of Virginia, but he failed in several efforts to get it reprinted in America (TJ to Mathew Carey, 22 Nov. 1818; TJ to Thomas W. White, 5 Feb. 1820; TJ to George W. Lewis, 25 Oct. 1825).

The posthumously published works of the French philosopher Claude Adrien HELVETIUS included his letter advising Montesquieu against printing his Esprit des Lois (Oeuvres complettes de M. Helvétius [London, 1781; Sowerby, no. 1242]).

II. Destutt de Tracy's Commentary on Book 2 of Montesquieu's Esprit des Lois

[ca. 12 June 1809]

Livre Second:

Des Loix qui derivent directement de la Nature du Gouvernement.

Esprit des lois Copies liv. [2.sup.e] Il ny a que deux especes de Gouvernemens, Ceux qui Sont fondés Sur les droits généraux des hommes, et ceux qui Se pretendent fondés Sur Des droits particuliers.

La division ordinaire des gouvernemens en republicains, monarchiques, et despotiques, me parait essentiellement mauvaise.

Le mot republicain est un terme trés vague Sous lequel on comprend une multitude de gouvernemens prodigieusement di?erends les uns des autres, depuis la démocratie paisible de Schwitz et la democratie turbulente d'athènes jusqua l'aristocratie concentrée de Berne, et a la Sombre oligarchie de Venise: De plus cette qualification de republicain nest pas propre à figurer en opposition avec celle de monarchique. Car les provinces unies de la hollande, les etats unis de lamerique ont un chef unique, et Sont regardés comme des republiques: et lon a toujours eté incertain Si lon devait dire le royaume ou la republique de Pologne.

Le mot monarchique designe proprement un gouvernement dans lequel le pouvoir executif reside dans les mains dun Seul. mais ce n'est là quune Circonstance qui peut Se trouver reunie avec beaucoup dautres três diverses: et qui ne caracterise pas lessence de lorganisation Sociale. La preuve en est ce que nous venons de dire de la Pologne, de la hollande, et des etats unis. on peut y ajouter la Suede et la grande bretagne qui à beaucoup degards Sont des aristocraties royales, on pourrait citer encore le corps germanique qui avec beau-coup de raison, a Souvent eté appellé une republique de princes souverains: et même l'ancien gouvernement de France. Car ceux qui le connoissaient à fond Savent bien que C'etait proprement une aristocratie réligieuse, et feodale tant de Robe que d'Epée.

Quant au mot despotique, il designe un abus, un vice qui Se trouve plus ou moins dans tous les gouvernemens, parce que toutes les institutions humaines Sont imparfaites comme leurs auteurs; mais ce n'est point là le nom d'une forme particuliere de Societé, d'une espéce particuliere de gouvernement, il y a despotisme, oppression, abus d'autorité, partout où la loi etablie est Sans force, et cede à la volonté illegale d'un homme ou de plusieurs: Cela Se voit partout de tems en tems. Dans beaucoup de païs les hommes imprudens ou ignorans n'ont pris aucune precaution pour empecher ce malheur, dans d'autres ils n'en ont pris que d'insu8santes, mais il n'a eté etabli nulle part en principe, (pas même dans l'orient) que cela doive être ainsi. Il n'y a donc point de gouvernement qui par Sa nature mérite d'etre appellé Despotique

S'il y avait un tel gouvernement dans le monde ce Serait celui du dannemarck, où la nation après avoir Secoué le joug des pretres et des nobles et craignant leur influence dans Ses assemblées Si elle Se réunissait de nouveau a prié le Roi de gouverner Seul et par lui même, S'en rapportant à lui du Soin de Faire les lois qu'il jugerait necessaires au bien de l'etat: et depuis elle ne lui à jamais demandé compte de ce pouvoir discrétionaire. Cependant ce gouvernement Si illimité par la Loi, a toujours eté Si moderé (et c'est même pour cela qu'on ne S'est jamais occupé de restreindre Son autorité), il est, dis-je, Si moderé que personne n'oserait dire que le dannemarck est un etat despotique.


Excerpted from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Retirement Series, Volume 3: 12 August 1810 to 17 June 1811 Copyright © 2006 by Princeton University Press . Excerpted by permission.
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Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Acknowledgments ix
Editorial Method and Apparatus xiii
Maps xl
Illustrations xlv
Jefferson Chronology 2


Jefferson and the Publication of Destutt de Tracy's Commentary on Montesquieu 3

I. To William Duane, 12 August 4
II. Destutt de Tracy's Commentary on Book 2 of Montesquieu's Esprit des Lois 7
III. Extracts from Destutt de Tracy's Reflections on Montesquieu's First Twelve Books 20

From William C. C. Claiborne, 13 August 25
From Henry Dearborn, 15 August 27
From James Madison, 15 August 29
To John Barnes, 16 August 29
To Albert Gallatin, 16 August 30
From Louis Philippe Gallot de Lormerie, 16 August 32
To James Madison, 16 August 35
To William Chamberlayne, 17 August 36
From William Duane, 17 August 37
From John R. Fenwick, 18 August 41
From Robert Patterson, 18 August 41
To Littleton W. Tazewell, 18 August 42
From Jean Potocki, 19 August 43
From Archibald Thweatt, 19 August 44
To Thomas Ladd, 20 August 45
To James Madison, 20 August 45
From Henry Wheaton, 20 August 46
To William Wirt, enclosing Notes on William Wirt's Comments on the Batture Statement, 20 August 47
To William D. Meriwether, 21 August 49
From Jean Marie de Bordes, 22 August 49
From Delaplaine & Hellings, 24 August 50
From James McKinney, 24 August 51
From William C. C. Claiborne, 25 August 52
From Lafayette, 25 August 54
From Nathaniel H. Hooe, 28 August 55
From Littleton W. Tazewell, 28 August 55
Memorandum from Charles Johnston on Lynchburg Mail, [ca. 1-7 September] 56
From Claude Alexandre Ruelle, 1 September 56
To Benjamin Morgan, 2 September 59
From Carl L. Siegfried, 3 September 60
From John S. Cogdell, 4 September 61
From Julian Ursin Niemcewicz, 4 September 62
From William Thornton, 4 September 63
To William A. Burwell, 5 September 64
From Charles Clay, 5 September 65
From Claude Antoine Prieur Duvernois, 5 September 65
From George Jefferson, 7 September 67
To Hugh Chisholm, 10 September 67
From Albert Gallatin, enclosing Albert Gallatin's Notes on Thomas Jefferson's Statement on the Batture Case, 10 September 68
From Isaac Hillard, 10 September 74
To James Madison, 10 September 75
From Samuel H. Smith, 11 September 76
From Sylvanus Bourne, 12 September 76
From Plumard, 12 September 77
From John B. Colvin, 14 September 78
From Thomas Cooper, 14 September 79
From Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, 14 September 80
From George Jefferson, 14 September 83
To Henry Voigt, 14 September 83
To Archibald Thweatt, 15 September 84
To William Duane, 16 September 86
To John Barnes, 17 September 89
From Martha C. Lewis, Lucy B. Lewis, and Ann M. Lewis, 17 September 90
From Charles L. Lewis, [ca. 17 September] 91
From Jonathan Williams, 17 September 93
Memorandum on James Bowdoin's Letter, 18 September 96
From Nicolas G. Dufief, 18 September 97
To John R. Fenwick, 18 September 98
To John B. Colvin, 20 September 99
To Gideon Granger, 20 September 102
From Lafayette, 20 September 105
To William Short, 21 September 106
From Alexander von Humboldt, 23 September 107
To Robert Smith, 23 September 109
To John Christoph Süverman, 23 September 110
From James Gibbon, 24 September 111
To Nathaniel H. Hooe, 24 September 111
From Horatio G. Spafford, 24 September 112
From Charles P. De Lasteyrie, 25 September 114
From Levett Harris, 25 September 115
From William Pinkney, 25 September 116
To Caesar A. Rodney, 25 September 117
To James Dinsmore, 26 September 119
From Samuel Haines, 26 September 120
To Joseph Milligan, 26 September 122
To Albert Gallatin, 27 September 123
From Gideon Granger, 27 September 126
From Littleton W. Tazewell, 27 September 130
From George Jefferson, 28 September 135
From John H. Cocke, 29 September 136
To John S. Cogdell, 29 September 136
To Nicolas G. Dufief, 29 September 137
To Henry Wheaton, 29 September 137
To Peter Minor, 30 September 138
To John H. Cocke, 1 October 147
From Robert Smith, 1 October 147
From Gideon Granger, 4 October 147
From George Jefferson, 5 October 148
From Benjamin Morgan, 5 October 149
To Benjamin Smith Barton, 6 October 150
From Caesar A. Rodney, 6 October 151
To George Hay, 7 October 152
To James Gibbon, 8 October 153
To George Jefferson, 8 October 154
To William Bentley, 9 October 155
To William Caruthers, 9 October 155
To Isaac Hillard, 9 October 156
To James McKinney, 9 October 156
To Henry Wheaton, 9 October 157
From William C. C. Claiborne, 10 October, enclosing James Mather to William C. C. Claiborne, 5 August 157
From Peter Minor, 10 October 161
From William A. Burwell, 12 October 162
To Samuel Haines, 12 October 163
To Charles Johnston, 12 October 164
To James Madison, 15 October 165
From Benjamin Smith Barton, 16 October 166
To William C. C. Claiborne, 16 October 167
To George Jefferson, 16 October 168
From John Harvie, 18 October, enclosing Appraisal of Chattels at Belmont Estate, [after 5 October], and Payment Plan for Money Due from John Harvie to Thomas Jefferson, [18 October] 169
From Caesar A. Rodney, 18 October 173
From George Jefferson, 19 October 176
From James Madison, 19 October 177
From William J. Stone, 19 October 179
From Charles Yancey, 19 October 180
To Nathaniel H. Hooe, 20 October 180
To Benjamin Smith Barton, 22 October 181
To Gideon Granger, 22 October 182
From Henry Skipwith, 22 October 183
To William Wardlaw, 22 October 183
To Charles Yancey, 22 October 184
From James McKinney, 23 October 184
To William Duane, 25 October 184
From Charles Holt, 25 October 185
To Benjamin Morgan, 27 October 186
Agreement to Convey Bedford County Lands to Charles L. Bankhead, 29 October 186
From William Duane, 29 October 189
From Gideon Gooch, 29 October 190
To George Jefferson, 29 October 190
To Peter Minor, enclosing Proposed Agreement with the Directors of the Rivanna Company, 31 October 191
From Charles Yancey, 31 October 194
From John Wayles Eppes, 1 November 195
From Charles Everette, 1 November, enclosing Thomas Jefferson's Account with Charles Everette, [ca. 23 February] 196
From William Short, 1 November 197
From William Wardlaw, 1 November 200
From William Caruthers, 4 November 201
From George Hay, 5 November 201
Census of Inhabitants and Supplies at Monticello, 8 November 202
To George Hay, 11 November 203
To John Wayles Eppes and William B. Giles, 12 November 203
From John Tyler, 12 November 205
To William Duane, 13 November 207
From Thomas Law, [received 14 November] 209
From Samuel Overton, 14 November 209
To John Harvie, 15 November 210
To Henry Skipwith, 15 November 210
To William J. Stone, 15 November 211
From Lafayette, 16 November 211
To Daniel Scott, 16 November 214
Account with Hugh Chisholm, 17 November 215
To Peter Minor, 18 November 216
From Pierre Paganel, [received 19 November] 219
From William Partridge, 19 November 221
From James Ronaldson, 19 November 223
To Peter Minor, 20 November 224
From Daniel Scott, 20 November 224
From Peter Minor, 21 November 225
From Anonymous, [received 22 November] 225
To Littleton W. Tazewell, 22 November 226
To Charles Holt, 23 November 227
To John Tyler, 25 November 228
From John Armstrong, 26 November 228
From David Howell, 27 November 229
From James Mather, 30 November, enclosing List of Batture-Related Papers Sent to Thomas Jefferson, 29 November 233
To James Ronaldson, 3 December 238
To William Partridge, 4 December 238
To William Jarvis, 5 December 239
To Lydia R. Bailey, 6 December 241
From Joseph Dougherty, 6 December 241
From Samuel & James Leitch, 6 December 242
To Craven Peyton, 6 December 242
To William Prichard, 6 December 243
To John Wayles Eppes, 7 December 244
To David Gelston, 7 December 245
From James Madison, 7 December 245
From Thomas B. Robertson, 7 December 246
To James Madison, 8 December 248
From Horatio Turpin, 8 December 249
To William Chamberlayne, 11 December 250
From David Bailie Warden, 11 December 250
To John Armstrong, 13 December 251
To Joseph Dougherty, 13 December 252
Petition of Thomas Jefferson and Others to the Virginia General Assembly, [before 13 Dec. 1810] 253
From John Wayles Eppes, 14 December 254
From John Wayles Eppes, 14 December 256
To David Howell, 15 December 257
From James Mather, 15 December 258
From Gibson & Jefferson, 17 December 258
From Jones & Howell, 17 December 259
From Robert Smith, 19 December 260
From David Bailie Warden, 19 December 260
From Thomas Law, 22 December, enclosing Thomas Law to Jacob Wagner, [ca. 5-22 December], and Jacob Wagner to Mr. Barry, [ca. 5-22 December] 261
From Robert Bakewell, 23 December 263
From William C. C. Claiborne, 24 December 264
From James Monroe, 24 December 266
From John Lynch, 25 December 267
From William Chamberlayne, 27 December 270
From Littleton W. Tazewell, 29 December 270
From Peter Minor, 30 December 271
From Samuel H. Smith, 30 December 272
From William Short, 31 December 272


From Mary Page, 2 January 276
From Benjamin Rush, 2 January 276
From David Bailie Warden, 2 January 279
From James Lyle, 3 January 280
To John Wayles Eppes, 5 January 281
To John Graham, 5 January 282
To William Chamberlayne, 6 January 283
From John Barnes, 7 January 284
From Thomas T. Hewson, 8 January 284
From William Lambert, 8 January 285
To James Monroe, 8 January 286
From William Coolidge, 9 January 288
To John Barnes, 10 January 289
To John Wayles Eppes, 10 January 290
To Jones & Howell, 10 January 290
To Amos Stoddard, 10 January 291
To David Bailie Warden, 10 January 292
From John Graham, 11 January 292
To James Walker, 11 January 293
From Benjamin Brown, 12 January 294
To David Bailie Warden, 12 January 294
To Archibald Stuart, 13 January 295
From William Prichard, 14 January 296
From John Graham, 15 January 297
From Skelton Jones, 15 January 297
To Thomas Law, 15 January 298
Account with Jonathan & Isaac Shoemaker, 15 January 300
To Nathaniel H. Hooe, 16 January 302
To James Monroe, 16 January 303
To Benjamin Rush, 16 January 304
From David Bailie Warden, 16 January 308
Lease Agreement with William Johnson, 17 January 310
To William Duane, enclosing Thomas Jefferson's Preface for Destutt de Tracy's Commentary on Montesquieu, 18 January 310
To Thomas T. Hewson, 18 January 312
From David Bailie Warden, 19 January 312
To John Hollins, 20 January 313
To Lafayette, 20 January 313
To Caesar A. Rodney, 20 January 316
To Horatio Turpin, 20 January 316
From John Wayles Eppes, 21 January 317
From George Jefferson, 21 January 317
To John Lynch, 21 January 318
From François André Michaux, 21 January 320
From James Monroe, 21 January 322
From James Wilkinson, 21 January 323
From William C. C. Claiborne, 24 January 325
To William Coolidge, 24 January 326
To John Wayles Eppes, 24 January 327
To Eli Alexander, 25 January 328
To Benjamin Brown, 25 January 328
From William Duane, 25 January 329
From George Hay, 25 January 331
To James Monroe, 25 January 332
From Peter B. Porter, 25 January 333
To William Prichard, 25 January 334
To Thomas Eston Randolph, 25 January 334
To Destutt de Tracy, 26 January 334
To William Duane, 26 January 339
From David Bailie Warden, 26 January 339
From John Hollins, 27 January 341
To James Lyle, 27 January 341
From Richard Barry, 29 January 342
From George W. Erving, 29 January 342
From William C. C. Claiborne, 30 January 344
From Matthias Nack, 30 January 345
To Wilson Cary Nicholas, 1 February 347
Constitution for Proposed Agricultural Society of Albemarle, [ca. 1 February] 347
Notes on Poplar Forest Plantings and Geography, 1 February 1811-6 October 1821 352
From Benjamin Rush, 1 February 356
From Ezekiel Bacon, 2 February 358
From James Walker, 3 February 359
From John B. Colvin, 4 February 359
Astronomical Calculations, 5-11 February 361
From William Chamberlayne, 6 February 367
From James W. Wallace, 8 February 368
Conveyance of Ivy Creek Lands to Samuel J. Harrison, 9 February 368
From Gabriel Richard, 9 February 369
To Charles A. Scott, 9 February 371
From John Fletcher, 11 February 372
From George Jefferson, 11 February 373
From Lyman Spalding, 11 February 373
To Samuel J. Harrison, 13 February 374
From Philip Mazzei, 15 February, enclosing Power of Attorney, 4 February 375
From John Melish, 16 February, enclosing John Melish to James Madison, 7 February 383
To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 17 February 392
From Nicolas G. Dufief, 24 February 393
To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 24 February 394
From Peter Derieux, 25 February 394
Charles Clay's Bedford County Temperature Readings, [ca. 26 February] 396
General Plea in Livingston v. Jefferson, [ca. 28 February] 397
Plea in Livingston v. Jefferson on Ground of Acting Officially, [ca. 28 February] 397
Plea in Livingston v. Jefferson on Ground of Jurisdiction, [ca. 28 February] 400
Plea in Livingston v. Jefferson on Ground of Intrusion, [ca. 28 February] 401
Plea in Livingston v. Jefferson on Ground of Justification to Abate a Nuisance, [ca. 28 February] 404
Plea in Livingston v. Jefferson on Ground of Justification under an Act of Congress, [ca. 28 February] 407
Motion to Dismiss Livingston v. Jefferson, [ca. 28 February] 410
Conveyance of James Hubbard to Reuben Perry, February 411
Notes on Shipping Costs for Flour, [February] 413
From Eleuthère I. du Pont de Nemours, 1 March 414
From George Jefferson, 1 March 415
From Tadeusz Kosciuszko, 1 March 415
From Robert Wash, 1 March 418
From André Thoüin, 2 March 419
To George Hay, 3 March 420
To George Jefferson, 3 March 420
To Peter Minor, 3 March 421
To Skelton Jones, 4 March 422
To Mary Page, 4 March 423
From Dudley Richardson, 4 March 424
From Caesar A. Rodney, 4 March 424
From John Harvie, 5 March 425
From Skeffington Selby, 5 March 426
From David Bailie Warden, 5 March 427
To Ezekiel Bacon, enclosing Memorandum on Correspondence with James Wilkinson, 6 March 428
From Robert Elliott, 6 March 431
To Robert Patterson, 7 March 431
To Mary Stith, 7 March 432
From John Threlkeld, 7 March 433
From Dominick Barthe, 8 March 434
From George Jefferson, 8 March 434
From George Jefferson, 8 March 435
To James Madison, 8 March 436
To Peter B. Porter, 8 March 437
To William Short, 8 March 438
From John Rhea, 9 March 439
From Bernard McMahon, 10 March 439
To John Melish, 10 March 440
To James Wilkinson, 10 March 440
From Richard Barry, 11 March 441
To George Jefferson, 11 March 441
To George Jefferson, 11 March 443
To David Bailie Warden, 11 March 443
From Lafayette, 12 March 444
From Robert Patterson, 12 March 447
From Isaac A. Coles, 13 March 448
From William Duane, 15 March 449
From George Jefferson, 15 March 453
To Samuel Carr, 16 March 453
From Samuel Carr, 16 March 454
To George Divers, 16 March 454
Notes on Monticello Plantings, 16 March 455
To Dominick Barthe, 17 March 456
From George Divers, 17 March 456
To Robert Elliott, 17 March 456
From Samuel J. Harrison, 17 March 457
To Skeffington Selby, 17 March 457
From Mary Stith, 17 March 458
To John Threlkeld, 17 March 458
From Theodorus Bailey, 18 March 459
From Theodorus Bailey, 18 March 459
To Richard Barry, 18 March 460
To George Divers, 18 March 460
To Samuel J. Harrison, 18 March 461
From Charles P. De Lasteyrie, 18 March 461
From James Madison, 18 March 462
From David Bailie Warden, 18 March 464
From Opie Norris, 19 March 464
From Palisot de Beauvois, 19 March 465
From John Wayles Eppes, 20 March 473
To Albert Gallatin, 20 March 474
To Patrick Magruder, 20 March 475
To Robert Smith, enclosing List of Batture-Related State Department Documents, 20 March 475
To James Mather, 21 March 479
To Robert Patterson, 21 March 479
From Benjamin Morgan, 22 March, enclosing Abner L. Duncan's Instructions on Settlement of John Peyton's Estate, [by 15 September 1810] 480
To Archibald Stuart, 22 March 481
To George Hay and William Wirt, enclosing List of Batture-Related Papers and Pamphlets sent to Counsel, 23 March 481
From James Lyle, 23 March 489
Statement of Facts in the Batture Case, [ca. 23 March] 489
To Littleton W. Tazewell, 23 March 499
To Nathaniel Ellicott, 24 March 500
To John Wayles Eppes, 24 March 501
From Theodorus Bailey, 25 March 503
To Madame de Tessé, 27 March 503
To Peter Walsh, 27 March 505
To Theodorus Bailey, 28 March 506
To William Duane, 28 March 506
From Nathaniel Ellicott, 28 March 509
From Bernard Smith, 28 March 510
From Archibald Stuart, 28 March 511
To David Bailie Warden, 28 March 512
From George Jefferson, 29 March 512
From Reuben Perry, 29 March 513
To John Wayles Eppes, 30 March 513
From Caesar A. Rodney, 30 March 513
To William Wirt, 30 March 515
From Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, 31 March 515
To George Jefferson, 1 April 518
From James Madison, 1 April 518
To James Oldham, 1 April 520
From James Walker, 1 April 520
From Theodorus Bailey, 2 April 521
From Clement Caines, 2 April 521
To Thomas Eston Randolph, with Account, 2 April 522
From John Martin Baker, 3 April 523
From John Barnes, 3 April 524
To Richard Barry, 3 April 525
To John Hollins, 3 April 525
To Jones & Howell, 3 April 526
From Peter Minor, 3 April 527
From James Monroe, 3 April 527
To John Barnes, 4 April 528
To William Chamberlayne, 4 April 529
To Joseph Darmsdatt, 4 April 530
To Henry Foxall, 4 April 530
To Gordon, Trokes & Company, 4 April 530
To George Jefferson, 4 April 531
From Count Théodore Pahlen, 4 April 532
From John G. Jackson, 5 April 532
From Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 5 April 534
To James Lyle, 5 April 538
From David Bailie Warden, 6 April 538
From Peter Carr, 7 April 540
To Kemp Catlett, 7 April 541
From Gibson & Jefferson, 7 April 541
To James Madison, 7 April 542
From George W. Varnum, 7 April 543
To Bernard McMahon, 8 April 544
To Littleton W. Tazewell, George Hay, and William Wirt, enclosing List of Authorities cited in Statement on the Batture Case, 9 April 545
From William Coghlan, 10 April 548
From William Wirt, 10 April 549
From Joseph Darmsdatt, 11 April 550
From Gibson & Jefferson, 11 April, enclosing Thomas Jefferson's Account with Morris & Dunnington, [ca. 10 April] 550
To George Jefferson, 11 April 551
From Thomas Law, 13 April 552
From Henry Dearborn, 14 April 552
To Alexander von Humboldt, 14 April 553
To Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 14 April 555
From David Bailie Warden, 14 April 557
From John Barnes, 15 April 558
To Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, 15 April 559
To George Jefferson, 15 April 561
To François André Michaux, 15 April 561
To Pierre Paganel, 15 April 562
To Count Théodore Pahlen, 15 April 563
To William Wirt, 15 April 563
To Joel Barlow, 16 April 564
To Tadeusz Kosciuszko, 16 April 565
From James Monroe, 16 April 567
From John Hollins, 17 April 567
From Skelton Jones, 17 April 569
Survey of Boundary between Lego and Pantops, 17 April 570
From William Wirt, 17 April 573
From James Oldham, 18 April 575
To Peter Derieux, 19 April 575
From Henry Foxall, 19 April 576
From Gibson & Jefferson, 19 April 577
From James Madison, 19 April 577
To Thomas Law, 23 April 578
From Oliver Pollock, 23 April, enclosing Oliver Pollock to William Robertson, and Reply, 30 January 579
From Thomas Richards, 23 April 581
To Edward Coles, 24 April 581
To C. & A. Conrad & Company, 24 April 582
From John Dortic, 24 April 583
To Eleuthère I. du Pont de Nemours, 24 April 583
To Albert Gallatin, 24 April 584
To James Madison, 24 April 585
From John Barnes, 25 April, enclosing Maria Beckley to John Barnes, 21 April 587
From James Oldham, 25 April 588
From Edward Parker and Joseph Delaplaine, 27 April 589
From "A Friend to the Christian Religion" ("Goodwill"), 28 April 590
From Edward Coles, 29 April 590
To William Duane, 30 April 591
Bennett H. Henderson to Craven Peyton, 30 April 594
To Robert Smith, 30 April 595
From Benjamin Smith Barton, 1 May 596
To Jones & Howell, 1 May 597
From Theodorus Bailey, 2 May 597
From Joel Barlow, 2 May 598
From Fitzwhylsonn & Potter, 3 May 599
From James Madison, 3 May 600
To William Wirt, 3 May 601
To William Wirt, 3 May 601
To John Dortic, 4 May 604
To Bernard McMahon, 4 May 604
To Oliver Pollock, 4 May 605
To John Hollins, 5 May 606
To James Monroe, 5 May 607
From Robert Smith, 5 May 608
To Henry Foxall, 7 May 609
To Edward Parker and Joseph Delaplaine, 7 [May] 609
Elijah Fletcher's Account of a Visit to Monticello, [8 May] 610
From Thomas Newton, 8 May 611
From George Jefferson, 9 May 612
To Reuben Perry, 10 May 612
To Joel Barlow, 11 May 613
From John Dortic, 11 May 614
To Thomas Richards, 11 May 614
To Dudley Richardson, 11 May 615
To Bernard Smith, 11 May 615
To Johann Severin Vater, 11 May 615
To Robert Wash, 11 May 616
To John Graham, 12 May 616
To Tadeusz Kosciuszko, 12 May 617
To Craven Peyton, [12 May] 617
To Jean Potocki, 12 May 618
To David Bailie Warden, 12 May 619
From Joel Barlow, 15 May 619
From John Dortic, 16 May 619
From George Jefferson, 16 May 620
From Eleuthère I. du Pont de Nemours, 17 May 621
To William Short, 17 May 621
From William F. Gray, 18 May 623
From Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 19 May 624
Memorandum on Craven Peyton and Reuben Grady, 19 May 625
From William Wirt, 19 May 626
From John Graham, 20 May 627
From James Lyle, 22 May 627
From Thomas Ringgold, 22 May 628
To John Dortic, 23 May 628
From George Jefferson, 23 May 629
To James Monroe, 23 May 629
From James Ogilvie, 24 May 630
To Ann C. Bankhead, 26 May 633
To James Madison, 26 May 634
From Samuel J. Harrison, 29 May 634
To Cornelia J. Randolph, 3 June 635
From William C. Rives, 4 June 635
To John Milledge, 5 June 636
From George Jefferson, 6 June 637
From James Monroe, 6 June 637
From James Madison, 7 June 638
From Samuel J. Harrison, 8 June 639
Notes on Account with Jonathan & Isaac Shoemaker, [ca. 8 June] 640
Account with Jonathan & Isaac Shoemaker, 8 June 642
To Charles L. Bankhead, 10 June 644
To Isaac A. Coles, 10 June 644
From Isaac A. Coles, 10 June 645
From Anthony Gerna, enclosing Teophane Arata to Thomas Jefferson, 10 June 645
From Thomas T. Loury, 11 June 647
To Benjamin Morgan, 11 June 648
From Benjamin F. Salvage, 11 June 649
From C. & A. Conrad & Company, 12 June 649
From George Jefferson, 13 June 650
From William D. Meriwether, 13 June 650
From Osborn Sprigg, 15 June 651
To Burwell Bassett, 17 June, enclosing Extracts from Palisot de Beauvois's Letter to Thomas Jefferson, 19 March, with Jefferson's Notes 651

Appendix: Supplemental List of Documents Not Found 655
Index 657

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