Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models

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Numerical weather prediction models play an increasingly important role in meteorology, both in short-and medium-range forecasting and global climate change studies. Arguably, the most important components of any numerical weather prediction model are the subgrid-scale parameterization schemes. These parameterization schemes determine the amount of energy that reaches the Earth's surface; determine the evolution of the planetary boundary layer; decide when subgrid-scale clouds and convection develop and produce rainfall; and determine the influence of subgrid-scale orography on the atmosphere. The analysis and understanding of parameterization schemes is a key aspect of numerical weather prediction.

This is the first book to provide in-depth explorations of the most commonly used types of parameterization schemes that influence both short-range weather forecasts and global climate models. Each chapter covers a different type of parameterization scheme, starting with an overview explaining why each scheme is needed, and then reviewing the basic theory behind it. Several parameterizations are summarized and compared, followed by a discussion of their limitations. Review questions at the end of each chapter enable readers to monitor their understanding of the topics covered, and solutions are available at Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models will be an essential reference for academic researchers, meteorologists, weather forecasters, and graduate students interested in numerical weather prediction and its use in weather forecasting.

About the Author:
David J. Stensrud is also an adjunctprofessor at the University of Oklahoma

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"While I enthusiastically recommend Stensrud's book as a text for use in courses related to atmospheric physics and numerical modeling, I also believe that this book will quickly become the 'go-to' reference for those involved in NWP-related research and applications, as it is the most up-to-date and comprehensive reference of the disparate physical processes that are currently included in sophisticated numerical weather prediction models. I commend Stensrud's efforts in bringing all of this varied information together in writing this book." - Michael Baldwin, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

"This is the first book to provide in-depth explorations of the most commonly used types of parameterization schemes that influence both short-range weather forecasts and global climate models." -Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521865401
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 5/28/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 478
  • Product dimensions: 6.85 (w) x 9.72 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

David Stensrud is a Research Meteorologist at the National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Norman, Oklahoma. He is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Oklahoma and was Editor or Joint Chief Editor for Weather and Forecasting, a professional journal of the American Meteorological Society, from 1999-2006.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xi
List of principal symbols and abbreviations     xv
Why study parameterization schemes?     1
Introduction     1
Model improvements     3
Motivation     7
Question     11
Land surface-atmosphere parameterizations     12
Introduction     12
Overview of the surface energy budget     14
Net radiation     23
Sensible heat flux     28
Latent heat flux     42
Ground heat flux     48
Surface energy budget equation     55
Representation of terrain     56
Discussion     58
Questions     60
Soil-vegetation-atmosphere parameterizations     63
Introduction     63
Describing vegetation in models     66
Describing soils in models     75
Biophysical control of evapotranspiration     80
Momentum transfer     92
Soil moisture availability     93
Radiation     107
Specifying soil temperature and soil moisture     109
Discussion     109
Questions     117
Water-atmosphere parameterizations     120
Introduction     120
Observing sea surface temperature     124
Sensible heat flux     127
Latent heat flux     133
Coupled ocean-atmosphere models     135
Discussion     135
Questions     137
Planetary boundary layer and turbulence parameterizations     138
Introduction     138
Reynolds averaging     146
Turbulence closure     147
Non-local closure schemes     151
Local closure schemes     164
Turbulence and horizontal diffusion     175
Discussion     176
Questions     181
Convective parameterizations     185
Introduction     185
Influences of deep convection on the environment     193
Deep-layer control convective schemes     201
Low-level control convective schemes     227
Shallow convection     249
Trigger functions     249
Discussion     250
Questions     258
Microphysics parameterizations     260
Introduction     260
Particle types     265
Particle size distributions      274
Bulk microphysical parameterizations     275
Discussion     297
Questions     304
Radiation parameterizations     306
Introduction     306
Basic concepts     309
Longwave radiative flux     315
Shortwave radiative flux     326
Radiative transfer data sets     335
Discussion     337
Questions     343
Cloud cover and cloudy-sky radiation parameterizations     346
Introduction     346
Cloud cover parameterizations     349
Cloud-radiation interactions     360
Discussion     367
Questions     371
Orographic drag parameterizations     373
Introduction     373
Simple theory     375
Gravity wave drag parameterizations     384
Low-level blocking drag parameterizations     387
Discussion     388
Questions     392
Thoughts on the future     393
Introduction     393
Ensemble predictions     395
Ensembles and high-resolution single forecasts     401
Statistical postprocessing     403
The road forward     405
References     408
Index     449
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