Parents as Partners in Education: Families and Schools Working Together / Edition 6

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This book sets the standard for preparing prospective teachers to engage parents of children 0 to 8 in the challenging occupation of educating them. Covers all aspects of the subject, including past and current research, the challenges of working with minority and culturally-diverse families and families of children with disabilities, in-school and home-based programs, parent conferences, child abuse, advocacy, and the rights-and-responsibilities balance. Up-to-date coverage includes the most recent Census data (2000)>197>adressing changing demographics across the United States and their implications for all aspects of education; as well as recent changes in special education law. For educators and those studying to be educators.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130481108
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/14/2003
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 592
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Family Involvement--Essential for a Child's Development 1
Introduction 2
Challenges 3
Family Systems 6
Parents: First Educators 8
Survival of Society 8
Brain Development 8
Attachment 12
Early Theories Concerning Intellectual Development 19
National Responses 22
Evidence in Support of Home-School Collaboration 22
Developmental Continuity and Discontinuity 23
Programs That Work 27
A Sleeping Giant: The Child Advocate 28
Working as an Advocate on a Personal Level 29
National Advocacy 32
Ready to Learn 33
A Look Ahead 36
Summary 37
Chapter 2 Historical Overview of Family Life and Parent Involvement 39
Introduction 40
Part 1 Early History 41
Prehistoric Parent Education 41
Formal Education in Early Societies 41
Parent Involvement in Education and Family Life in Greece 42
Parent Involvement and Family Life in Rome 42
European Children During the Middle Ages 44
People in Other Parts of the World 44
Influence of the Reformation and Invention of the Printing Press 45
The Beginnings of Modern Parent Educators and Child Development Theorists 46
European Children in the 17th and 18th Centuries 48
The Family in Colonial North America 50
Early Education in the Spanish Southwest 52
Development of the Family Concept 52
Native Americans in the 1700s and 1800s 53
Childrearing in the 1800s in the United States 54
Immigration and Annexations 55
Civil War 57
Change in Education 59
Part 2 More Recent History of Parent Education and Child Development 61
Chapter 3 The Family and Community 91
Families 91
Family Forms 100
Growth of a Nation 102
Greater Amount of Education for Parents 102
Working Mothers 103
Greater Involvement of Fathers With Their Children 104
Divorce 108
Single-Parent Families 109
Blended Families 113
Poverty 115
Homeless Families 119
Working with Culturally Diverse Groups 122
The First Inhabitants of North America 127
Arrival of Other Ethnic Groups 129
African-American Families 132
Asians 136
Diversification of Present-Day United States 138
Summary 141
Chapter 4 Effective Home-School-Community Relationships 143
Parent-School Cooperation 143
The Case for Improved Relationships 147
Home-School Continuity 150
Roles of Parents, Teachers, and Administrators 150
Ways to Enhance School-Home-Community Relations 156
Family Center 157
School Activities and Resources 158
Parents as Resources 164
Parents as Partners in Education at Home 165
Contacts Early in the School Year 165
What Works 168
Meeting the Needs of Your School Area 171
Building Family Strengths 173
Volunteers 174
Summary 184
Chapter 5 Communication and Parent Programs 187
Communication 187
One-Way Communication 190
Two-Way Communication 197
Roadblocks to Communication 201
Effective Communication with Parents 203
Parent Education Programs--P.E.T., Active Parenting, Step--Focus on Communication 208
Parent-Teacher Conferences 210
Dealing with Concerns Throughout the Year 228
Summary 228
Chapter 6 Collaborative Leadership--Working with Parents 231
Family Involvement 232
Why Develop Collaborative Leadership Skills? 233
Parent Education 233
Effectiveness of Parent Involvement 235
Needs Assessment 236
Developing Items for a Needs Assessment 236
Interest Finders 237
Development of Objectives 238
How Parents Learn Best 238
Group Discussions 239
Leadership Training 242
Establishing a Positive Atmosphere 245
Group Roles 247
Types of Meetings 252
Arrangements for Meetings 252
Summary 270
Appendix A Parent Needs Assessment 273
Appendix B Promoting Children's Self-Esteem 279
Chapter 7 School-Based Programs 281
Seven Levels of Parent Involvement 283
Issues and Concerns 284
Six Types of Involvement 285
Middle and Secondary Schools 288
A Walk Through an Elementary School 290
School and Center Programs 292
Child Health Services--School Collaboration 296
School-Based Parent Involvement 298
U.S. Department of Education Efforts 301
Helping Parents Work with Their Children 302
Resources in the Home 303
Workshops for Parents 308
Implementation of Home Learning Activities 311
Reaching Reticent Parents 311
Parent Education for Teenagers 315
Comprehensive Service Delivery--Family Resource Centers 318
Family Literacy 320
Making Programs Happen 321
Summary 323
Chapter 8 Home-Based Programs 325
Home Visiting 326
Home-Based Education 327
Programs That Work 327
Deciding on a Home-Based Program 345
Need for a Program 346
Home Learning Activities 352
Five-Step Guide to Learning Activities 352
Screening for Better Understanding 355
Homeschooling 358
Homework, Homestudy, or Enrichment at Home 360
Homework at Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary School 362
Summary 366
Chapter 9 Working with Parents of a Child with Disabilities 367
Development of Special Education 368
Legislation for People with Disabilities 372
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: IDEA--P.L. 101-476 375
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (P.L. 105-17) 376
Who Is the Exceptional Child? 380
Development of the IEP 385
Child Find Project 389
Part C of IDEA 97 390
The Individualized Family Service Plan and Family Survey 392
Children with Disabilities in Head Start and Child Care 394
Helping the Young Child Develop 399
Teaching the Student with a Disability 399
Communication with Parents of Children with Disabilities 401
How Parents Can Help the School-aged Child at Home 402
Parent Involvement in the Classroom 405
Parental Reactions 406
Parents Share Their Feelings 407
Special Problems of Parents of Children with Disabilities 408
Advocacy in Special Education 409
Gifted and Talented Students 409
Concern for Those Who Work with Children with Disabilities 409
Rights and Services Available to Parents 410
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 411
Learning Is Hard 411
Summary 412
Chapter 10 The Abused Child 415
Responsibility to Report 415
Background 418
Extent of Child Abuse and Neglect 420
Child Maltreatment 421
Neglect 421
Physical Abuse and Neglect 422
Emotional Abuse 425
Sexual Abuse 427
Age of Victims 429
Communication with Families 430
Corporal Punishment in Schools 430
Factors in Child Abuse 431
Who Are the Abused and the Abusers? 432
Who Reports Maltreatment Cases? 433
Behaviors and Attitudes of Parents and Children That May Indicate Child Abuse 435
Behavior and Psychological Characteristics of the Child in School 435
Why Do Abuse and Neglect Continue to Happen? 439
Characteristics and Risk Factors of Abusive Parents 440
Why Is There Abuse? 442
Development of Policies 443
How to Talk with Children and Parents 445
Programs to Prevent Abuse 447
Intervening in Sexual Abuse 449
Summary 452
Chapter 11 Rights, Responsibilities, and Advocacy 455
Origin of Parents' and Children's Rights 456
Parents' Right to Select Their Child's Education 458
Student Records--Open Record Policy 460
Rights and Responsibilities of Students and Parents 462
Developing Criteria Together 470
Child Advocacy 471
Advocacy for Children Around the World 473
Facts on Children and Families 474
Preparing for Advocacy 478
Steps to Take for Public Advocacy 480
Case or Class Action 480
Developing an Advocacy Approach in Your Community School 481
Summary 484
Appendix Resources for Home and School Programs 485
Bibliography 527
Index 551
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The beginning of a new century makes one reflect on the accomplishments and disappointments of the past as well as the opportunities that lie ahead. During the past decades there was change from distancing families from their children's education toward engaging families and communities more completely as partners in education. A look at today's families, schools, and communities shows that, although they remain the same in their roles of nurturing, educating, and providing services, they differ in their delivery systems. But diversity in meeting the needs of children increases the chances that those needs will be met.

No longer do we question whether parents should collaborate with schools. Now we try to design an appropriate and successful partnership that meets the needs of individual schools and school districts.

When I wrote the first edition of Parents as Partners in the late 1970s, I did so because of my great interest in parent-school collaboration. This developed from my roles as a parent, a public school teacher, and a college professor, as well as my experience as director of a Parent Education and Preschool Program in the early 1960s. It was my aim to project this enthusiasm for parent-school partnerships to preservice students, school personnel, and parents.

Now, writing this sixth edition, I am overwhelmed by the proliferation of reports, books, and journals filled with suggestions for collaboration and successful partnerships. The U.S. Department of Education has focused on the home and parents as necessary components in education. I visited with school principals and teachers and found exciting programs that include parents.Parents as first teachers and continuing partners in education are becoming accepted by the education community.

This edition, like its predecessors, includes a comprehensive look at parent-school partnerships, and it also updates the national emphasis on home-school participation. Professional and commercial organizations have responded with articles, materials, and programs that offer suggestions for enhancing parent involvement. With its comprehensive coverage, this book offers practical information that enhances school-parent collaboration, and it includes an annotated bibliography in the Appendix to serve as a reference to the new national emphasis.


Interdisciplinary. The text studies parent involvement from an interdisciplinary approach and looks at home-school collaboration using historical, educational, psychological, ethnic-social diversity, and sociological perspectives. In this edition there was a strong effort to include immigration patterns and the history of diversity in the United States, as well as recognition of the original inhabitants, the Native Americans. It is hoped that this will make all diverse groups feel recognized as contributing members of society.

Theory and Research. Theory and research underpin each chapter of the text. New research emphasizes the need for collaboration between families and schools.

Practical Application. A teacher, administrator, parent, or student can pick up this book and find suggestions and descriptions of specific programs that will enable collaboration between families and schools.

Readability. Reviewers and students have commented on the readability of the text. It is written in an easy-to-read style.

Illustrations. More than a hundred photographs enrich the narrative. Classical paintings from leading art museums illustrate Chapter 2, "Historical Overview of Family Life and Parent Involvement."

Drawings and Graphs. Many drawings and graphs are included in the text. Enlargements of these figures are included in the instructor's manual so that transparencies can be made easily.

Comprehensive Coverage. The text moves beyond the typical discussion of parent involvement to include history and current research on parent involvement and a look at diverse families. There are activities and programs to enrich parent-school collaboration, communication necessary for partnerships, leadership for parent programs, school-based and home-based programs, child abuse detection, the exceptional child's education, and elucidating the rights and responsibilities of schools and parents. Previous reviewers and users of the text consistently comment on its comprehensive coverage.


Instructor's Manual. The instructor's manual includes multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions help instructors compose tests.

Activities. Each chapter suggests activities that enhance the opportunities for learning about parents and schools.

Situational Vignettes. Vignettes bring alive situations that typically occur in parent-school relationships.

Advocacy. Preparation and suggestions for advocacy, plus facts about children in the United States, give parents and educators the knowledge they need to help them encourage active involvement in issues.

Annotated Bibliography. A comprehensive annotated bibliography describes resources, books, and associations for parent information, family diversity, and parent-school collaboration.

Historical Outline. An outline in Chapter 2 of historical dates of parent education and education highlights succinctly illustrates parent involvement.

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