Paris in Despair: Art and Everyday Life under Siege (1870-1871)

Overview

The siege of Paris by Prussians in the fall and winter of 1870 and 1871 turned the city upside down, radically altering its appearance, social structure, and mood. As Hollis Clayson demonstrates in Paris in Despair, the siege took a heavy toll on the city's artists, forcing them out of the spaces and routines of their insular prewar lives and often thrusting them onto the ramparts. But the crisis did not halt artistic production, as some have suggested. In fact, as Clayson argues, the siege actually encouraged ...
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Overview

The siege of Paris by Prussians in the fall and winter of 1870 and 1871 turned the city upside down, radically altering its appearance, social structure, and mood. As Hollis Clayson demonstrates in Paris in Despair, the siege took a heavy toll on the city's artists, forcing them out of the spaces and routines of their insular prewar lives and often thrusting them onto the ramparts. But the crisis did not halt artistic production, as some have suggested. In fact, as Clayson argues, the siege actually encouraged innovation, fostering changed attitudes and new approaches to representation among a wide variety of artists as they made art out of their individual experiences of adversity and change-art that has not previously been considered within the context of the siege. Using the visual arts as an interpretive lens, Clayson illuminates the wide range of issues at play during the siege and thereafter. For anyone concerned with life or art in nineteenth-century France, Paris in Despair will be a landmark work.
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Editorial Reviews

Times Literary Supplement
Important and original . . . A beautifully produced (and reasonably priced) book, whose illustrations—more than 200—are the substance of the argument rather than mere decoration.  Clayson's outstanding strength is that she combines the painstaking technical expertise of the art historian with the broad perspectives of an accomplished social and political historian.  This is a much rarer combination than one might wish.

— Robert Tombs

New York Review of Books
[Clayson] uses current methods of cultural history and feminist theory that look behind battles, monuments, and leading politicians in order to evoke the everyday lives of women, children, and men as they were transformed by war and siege. . . . The best part of Clayson’s study is her demonstration that the domestic duties of women were transformed into public service and that, as a result, women generally became heroically identified with the wartime state. As she points out, this central engagement of women with matters of life and death subsequently created the militant and collective consciousness of women in the Commune.”

— Robert L. Herbert

French Review
The numerous illustrations . . . and dozens of anecdotes that highlight what happens to a large, smug, wealthy, and internationally familiar urban center suddenly constrained by catastrophe . . . will leave a vivid impression on readers.”

— Ronald C. Rosbottom

International History Review
Clayson establishes the intellectual and disciplinary context of her study and breaks new ground.  The book is a magisterial work and historians and art historians alike will find it pleasurable and mandatory reading.”

— Gay L. Gullickson

CAA Reviews
The fusion of this focus on artitic agency with a meticulously researched social history of art during the siege of Paris enables Clayton . . . to reap a hefty reward: a richly drawn and revealing study that moves seamlessly between biography, cultural history, and art history, vividly exposing the historical characters and vie quotidienne of the Prussian siege. . . . An important contribuiton not only to the history of nineteenth-century French art, but to the history of France tout court.".

— Patricia Tilburg

The Historian
In her remarkable book, Hollis Clayson fashions a landscape of narratives, offering a fascinating glimpse of everyday life during the siege. Her exhaustive primary research introduces a wide range of voices and convinces the reader of her argument that this short but intense period of political disgrace and cultural restriction did indeed affect the future development of French art and life. . . . The book is beautifully designed.

— Patricia Mathews

Times Literary Supplement - Robert Tombs
"Important and original . . . A beautifully produced (and reasonably priced) book, whose illustrations—more than 200—are the substance of the argument rather than mere decoration.  Clayson's outstanding strength is that she combines the painstaking technical expertise of the art historian with the broad perspectives of an accomplished social and political historian.  This is a much rarer combination than one might wish."
New York Review of Books - Robert L. Herbert
“[Clayson] uses current methods of cultural history and feminist theory that look behind battles, monuments, and leading politicians in order to evoke the everyday lives of women, children, and men as they were transformed by war and siege. . . . The best part of Clayson’s study is her demonstration that the domestic duties of women were transformed into public service and that, as a result, women generally became heroically identified with the wartime state. As she points out, this central engagement of women with matters of life and death subsequently created the militant and collective consciousness of women in the Commune.”
French Review - Ronald C. Rosbottom
“The numerous illustrations . . . and dozens of anecdotes that highlight what happens to a large, smug, wealthy, and internationally familiar urban center suddenly constrained by catastrophe . . . will leave a vivid impression on readers.”
International History Review - Gay L. Gullickson
“Clayson establishes the intellectual and disciplinary context of her study and breaks new ground.  The book is a magisterial work and historians and art historians alike will find it pleasurable and mandatory reading.”
CAA Reviews - Patricia Tilburg
"The fusion of this focus on artitic agency with a meticulously researched social history of art during the siege of Paris enables Clayton . . . to reap a hefty reward: a richly drawn and revealing study that moves seamlessly between biography, cultural history, and art history, vividly exposing the historical characters and vie quotidienne of the Prussian siege. . . . An important contribuiton not only to the history of nineteenth-century French art, but to the history of France tout court."."
The Historian - Patricia Mathews
"In her remarkable book, Hollis Clayson fashions a landscape of narratives, offering a fascinating glimpse of everyday life during the siege. Her exhaustive primary research introduces a wide range of voices and convinces the reader of her argument that this short but intense period of political disgrace and cultural restriction did indeed affect the future development of French art and life. . . . The book is beautifully designed."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780226109510
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • Publication date: 9/28/2002
  • Series: Phoenix Poets Ser.
  • Edition description: 1
  • Pages: 520
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Hollis Clayson is professor of art history and the Patricia Koldyke Outstanding Teaching Professor at Northwestern University. She is the author of Painted Love: Prostitution in French Art of the Impressionist Era and the coeditor of Understanding Paintings: Themes in Art Explored and Explained.

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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
Acknowledgments
I Paris Under Siege
1 The War, the Artists, and the History of Art 3
2 The Binant Series and the Wartime Everyday 18
II Trapped: The City Transformed
3 Claustrophobia: La Ville Lumiere Goes Dark 51
4 Everyone's a Soldier? 89
5 Gender and Allegory in Flux 114
6 The Food Crisis 163
III The Artists' War
Introduction: The Horizon of Response 195
7 Gustave Courbet Saves the Louvre 199
8 Edouard Manet: Restless Modernism 208
9 Henri Regnault: Wartime Orientalism 234
10 Jean-Alexandre-Joseph Falguiere: Sculpting Resistance 273
11 Rosa Bonheur: A Manly Animalier Soldiering On 284
12 Edgar Degas: Portraiture and Empathy 303
IV Commemorating the Siege in the Aftermath of the Paris Commune
13 La Place de la Concorde in War and Peace 329
14 Two Retrospective Concours 343
V Conclusion
15 Summing Up 361
Notes 375
Index 465
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Recipe

The siege of Paris by Prussians in the fall and winter of 1870 and 1871 turned the city upside down, radically altering its appearance, social structure, and mood. As Hollis Clayson demonstrates in Paris in Despair, the siege took an especially heavy toll on the city's artists, forcing them out of the spaces and routines of their insular prewar lives and thrusting them onto the ramparts (as many became soldiers).

But the crisis did not halt artistic production, as some have suggested. In fact, Clayson argues that the siege actually encouraged innovation, fostering changed attitudes and new approaches to representation among a wide variety of artists as they made art out of their individual experiences of adversity and change—art that has not previously been considered within the context of the siege. Clayson focuses especially on Rosa Bonheur, Edgar Degas, Jean-Alexandre-Joseph Falguière, Edouard Manet, and Henri Regnault, but she also covers a host of other artists, including Ernest Barrias, Gustave Courbet, Edouard Detaille, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Albert Robida, and James Tissot. Paris in Despair includes more than two hundred color and black-and-white images of works by these artists and others, many never before published.

Using the visual arts as an interpretive lens, Clayson illuminates the wide range of issues at play during the siege and thereafter, including questions of political and cultural identity, artistic masculinity and femininity, public versus private space, everyday life and modernity, and gender and class roles in military and civilian society. For anyone concerned with these issues, or with nineteenth-century French art in general,Paris in Despair will be a landmark work.
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