Particle Field Holography

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Overview

This is the first book to provide a thorough and systematic description of the entire subject of particle field holography. The use of holography to study very small objects in a dynamic volume is a technique of importance for scientists and engineers across a variety of disciplines for obtaining information about the size, shape and velocity of small objects, such as dust particles, fuel droplets, raindrops, pollen, and bubbles. Professor Vikram has made major contributions to the field, and here provides a coherent, comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the theory, practice and applications. The volume is written to satisfy the needs of researchers in the technique, practicing engineers dealing with applications, and advanced students in science or engineering departments. All the necessary mathematical formulations, figures and photographs, experimental procedures and results, and literature citations are therefore included.
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Product Details

Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Historical background 1
2 Introduction to holography 6
2.1 Recording and reconstruction with plane holograms 6
2.2 The in-line approach 12
2.3 Image-object position relationships 14
3 General theory of in-line Fraunhofer holography 18
3.1 Recording process 18
3.2 Reconstruction 20
3.3 Image form in the far-field case 25
3.4 Collimated beams of the same wavelength 27
4 System design considerations 32
4.1 Recording irradiance distribution 32
4.2 Film resolution requirements 38
4.3 Recording range 42
4.4 Film format 43
4.5 Recording source coherence requirements 45
4.6 Object velocity and exposure time 50
4.7 Coherence requirements during reconstruction 59
4.8 Diffraction-limited resolution and depth-of-focus 60
4.9 Reconstructed image magnification 64
5 Practical considerations 67
5.1 Density of microobjects 67
5.2 Application of relay lenses 71
5.3 Test-section with single window opening 77
5.4 Very small objects 79
5.5 Factors associated with recording materials and their processing 85
5.6 Spatial frequency filtering 91
5.7 Exposure controls during recording 101
5.8 Controls during reconstruction 102
5.9 Transparent objects 104
5.10 Finite aperture effects 110
5.11 Other developments 114
6 Analysis of reconstruction 116
6.1 Relationships between object and image points 117
6.2 Image analysis with fixed hologram 119
6.3 Image analysis with hologram on translation stage 122
6.4 Effect of different media 134
6.5 Effect of hologram magnification 135
7 Aberrations and their control 138
7.1 Primary aberrations 138
7.2 Tolerance limits 141
7.3 Hologram center and related parameters 141
7.4 Limitations of collimated beams without scaling 148
7.5 Control of aberrations 150
7.6 Cylindrical test-sections 159
7.7 Other developments 166
8 Hologram fringe-contrast and its enhancement 167
8.1 Fringe-contrast in Fraunhofer holography 167
8.2 Object shape and fringe visibility 169
8.3 Object shape and noise 174
8.4 Techniques to enhance the visibility 174
9 Non-image plane analysis 187
9.1 Analysis of the far-field pattern 187
9.2 Analysis by misfocusing 192
9.3 Fourier transform analysis 202
9.4 Related developments 205
10 Velocimetry and high speed holography 209
10.1 Multiple-exposure holography 209
10.2 Displaced diffraction pattern analysis 214
10.3 Direct analysis from far-field patterns 215
10.4 Fraunhofer plane analysis 217
11 The off-axis approach 223
11.1 Basic recording and reconstruction arrangements 223
11.2 Relay lenses and related magnifications 226
11.3 Diffused subject illumination 228
11.4 Film resolution requirements 229
11.5 Allowable subject movement 231
11.6 Very small or far objects 231
11.7 Specialized techniques 234
References 237
Index 262
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