Particle Physics / Edition 3

Particle Physics / Edition 3

5.0 1
by Brian R. Martin, Graham P. Shaw
     
 

View All Available Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 0470032944

ISBN-13: 9780470032947

Pub. Date: 12/09/2008

Publisher: Wiley

Particle Physics is the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the forces between them.

Particle Physics, Third Edition, provides a short introduction to particle physics, which emphasizes the foundations of the standard model in experimental data, rather than its more formal and theoretical aspects. It is intended for undergraduate students who have

Overview

Particle Physics is the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the forces between them.

Particle Physics, Third Edition, provides a short introduction to particle physics, which emphasizes the foundations of the standard model in experimental data, rather than its more formal and theoretical aspects. It is intended for undergraduate students who have previously taken introductory courses in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and special relativity.

The structure of the book is simple. The first three chapters give a brief overview of the subject. They introduce some of the basic ideas that are used extensively throughout the rest of the book and discuss leptons, quarks and hadrons and the interactions between them. The remaining chapters discuss a wide selection of important topics in more detail. These include experimental methods; space-time symmetries; the quark model of hadrons; quantum chromodynamics and jet physics; the weak interaction, including its unification with the electromagnetic interaction, and CP-violation and related symmetries; and a brief account of some of the important open questions ‘beyond the standard model’ that are currently being investigated in laboratories around the world. Problems to aid student study are given at the end of each chapter, with solutions given in an Appendix.

Particle Physics 3rd Edition features:

  • Expanded coverage of neutrino physics, including recent experimental result on neutrino mixing and neutrino masses.

  • A revised and updated discussion of modern particle detectors and experiments.

  • A fuller treatment of the Higgs mechanism and experimental searches for the Higgs boson.

  • A more extensive discussion of CP violation, including new results B decays their implications for the standard model.

  • An updated treatment of physics beyond the standard model, including the expanding field of particle astrophysics and cosmology.

  • Product Details

    ISBN-13:
    9780470032947
    Publisher:
    Wiley
    Publication date:
    12/09/2008
    Series:
    Manchester Physics Series
    Edition description:
    New Edition
    Pages:
    460
    Product dimensions:
    6.60(w) x 9.50(h) x 1.10(d)

    Table of Contents

    Suggested Short Course

    Editors' Preface to the Manchester Physics Series xiii

    Authors' Preface xv

    Notes xvii

    1 Some Basic Concepts 1

    1.1 Introduction 1

    1.2 Antiparticles 3

    1.2.1 Relativistic wave equations 3

    1.2.2 Hole theory and the positron 6

    1.3 Interactions and Feynman Diagrams 9

    1.3.1 Basic electromagnetic processes 9

    1.3.2 Real processes 10

    1.3.3 Electron-positron pair production and annihilation 14

    1.3.4 Other processes 17

    1.4 Particle Exchange 18

    1.4.1 Range of forces 18

    1.4.2 The Yukawa potential 19

    1.4.3 The zero-range approximation 20

    1.5 Units and Dimensions 22

    Problems 1 24

    2 Leptons and the Weak Interaction 27

    2.1 Lepton Multiplets and Lepton Numbers 27

    2.1.1 Electron neutrinos 28

    2.1.2 Further generations 31

    2.2 Leptonic Weak Interactions 34

    2.2.1 W[superscript plus or minus] and Z[superscript 0] exchange 34

    2.2.2 Lepton decays and universality 36

    2.3 Neutrino Masses and Neutrino Mixing 38

    2.3.1 Neutrino mixing 39

    2.3.2 Neutrino oscillations 41

    2.3.3 Neutrino masses 46

    2.3.4 Lepton numbers revisited 48

    Problems 2 49

    3 Quarks and Hadrons 51

    3.1 Quarks 52

    3.2 General Properties of Hadrons 53

    3.3 Pions and Nucleons 57

    3.4 Strange Particles, Charm and Bottom 60

    3.5 Short-Lived Hadrons 66

    3.6 Allowed Quantum Numbers and Exotics 71

    Problems 3 73

    4 Experimental Methods 75

    4.1 Overview 75

    4.2 Accelerators and Beams 77

    4.2.1 Linear accelerators 77

    4.2.2 Cyclic accelerators 78

    4.2.3 Fixed-target machines and colliders 80

    4.2.4 Neutral and unstable particle beams 82

    4.3 Particle Interactions with Matter 83

    4.3.1 Short-range interactions with nuclei 83

    4.3.2 Ionization energy losses85

    4.3.3 Radiation energy losses 88

    4.3.4 Interactions of photons in matter 90

    4.3.5 Ranges and interaction lengths 92

    4.4 Particle Detectors 92

    4.4.1 Introduction 93

    4.4.2 Gas detectors 93

    4.4.3 Semiconductor detectors 99

    4.4.4 Scintillation counters 100

    4.4.5 Cerenkov counters 101

    4.4.6 Calorimeters 103

    4.5 Detector Systems and Experiments 106

    4.5.1 Discovery of the W[superscript plus or minus] and Z[superscript 0] bosons 106

    4.5.2 Some modern detector systems 112

    Problems 4 115

    5 Space-Time Symmetries 117

    5.1 Translational Invariance 118

    5.2 Rotational Invariance 120

    5.2.1 Angular momentum conservation 121

    5.2.2 Classification of particles 124

    5.2.3 Angular momentum in the quark model 125

    5.3 Parity 127

    5.3.1 Leptons and antileptons 129

    5.3.2 Quarks and hadrons 131

    5.3.3 Parity of the charged pion 132

    5.3.4 Parity of the photon 133

    5.4 Charge Conjugation 134

    5.4.1 [pi superscript 0] and [eta] decays 136

    5.5 Positronium 138

    5.5.1 Fine structure 139

    5.5.2 C-parity and annihilations 141

    5.6 Time Reversal 142

    5.6.1 Principle of detailed balance 144

    5.6.2 Spin of the charged pion 144

    Problems 5 145

    6 The Quark Model 147

    6.1 Isospin Symmetry 148

    6.1.1 Isospin quantum numbers 148

    6.1.2 Allowed quantum numbers 150

    6.1.3 An example: the sigma ([Sigma]) baryons 151

    6.1.4 The u, d quark mass splitting 153

    6.2 The Lightest Hadrons 154

    6.2.1 The light mesons 154

    6.2.2 The light baryons 156

    6.2.3 Baryon mass splittings 159

    6.2.4 Baryon magnetic moments 160

    6.3 Colour 162

    6.3.1 Colour charges and confinement 163

    6.3.2 Colour wavefunctions and the Pauli principle 165

    6.4 Charmonium and Bottomium 168

    6.4.1 Charmonium 169

    6.4.2 Bottomium 172

    6.4.3 The quark-antiquark potential 172

    Problems 6 176

    7 QCD, Jets and Gluons 179

    7.1 Quantum Chromodynamics 179

    7.1.1 The strong coupling constant 183

    7.1.2 Screening, antiscreening and asymptotic freedom 185

    7.1.3 The quark-gluon plasma 187

    7.2 Electron-Positron Annihilation 190

    7.2.1 Two-jet events 190

    7.2.2 Three-jet events 193

    7.2.3 The total cross-section 194

    7.3 Elastic Electron Scattering: The size of the proton 196

    7.3.1 Static charge distributions 197

    7.3.2 Proton form factors 198

    7.3.3 The basic cross-section formulas 200

    7.4 Inelastic Electron and Muon Scattering 202

    7.4.1 Bjorken scaling 203

    7.4.2 The parton model 205

    7.4.3 Parton distributions and scaling violations 207

    7.5 Inelastic Neutrino Scattering 210

    7.5.1 Quark identification and quark charges 213

    Problems 7 215

    8 Weak Interactions: Quarks and Leptons 217

    8.1 Charged Current Reactions 219

    8.1.1 W[superscript plus or minus]-lepton interactions 220

    8.1.2 Lepton-quark symmetry 224

    8.1.3 W boson decays 229

    8.1.4 Selection rules in weak decays 231

    8.2 The Third Generation 234

    8.2.1 More quark mixing 235

    8.2.2 Properties of the top quark 238

    8.2.3 Discovery of the top quark 240

    Problems 8 245

    9 Weak Interactions: Electroweak Unification 249

    9.1 Neutral Currents and the Unified Theory 250

    9.1.1 The basic vertices 250

    9.1.2 The unification condition and the W[superscript plus or minus] and Z[superscript 0] masses 253

    9.1.3 Electroweak reactions 256

    9.1.4 Z[superscript 0] formation: how many neutrinos are there? 258

    9.2 Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson 263

    9.2.1 Unification and the gauge principle 264

    9.2.2 Particle masses and the Higgs field 265

    9.2.3 Higgs boson decays 269

    9.2.4 The search for the Higgs boson 273

    Problems 9 276

    10 Discrete Symmetries: C, P, CP and CPT 279

    10.1 P Violation, C Violation and CP Conservation 279

    10.1.1 Muon decay symmetries 281

    10.1.2 Left-handed neutrinos and right-handed antineutrinos 283

    10.1.3 Pion and muon decays revisited 286

    10.2 CP Violation 288

    10.2.1 CP eigenstates 288

    10.2.2 The discovery of CP violation 291

    10.2.3 CP-violating K[subscript L superscript 0] decays 294

    10.2.4 CP violation in B decays 296

    10.3 Flavour Oscillations and the CPT Theorem 299

    10.4 CP Violation in the Standard Model 303

    Problems 10 305

    11 Beyond the Standard Model 307

    11.1 Grand Unification 308

    11.1.1 Quark and lepton charges 310

    11.1.2 The weak mixing angle 311

    11.1.3 Proton decay 311

    11.2 Supersymmetry 314

    11.2.1 CP violation and electric dipole moments 315

    11.2.2 Detection of superparticles 317

    11.3 Strings and Things 318

    11.4 Particle Cosmology 320

    11.4.1 Dark matter: WIMPs and neutrinos 320

    11.4.2 Matter-antimatter asymmetry 323

    11.5 Neutrino Astronomy 324

    11.6 Dirac or Majorana Neutrinos? 327

    11.6.1 The seesaw mechanism 328

    11.6.2 Double-beta decay 329

    Problems 11 333

    A Relativistic Kinematics 335

    A.1 The Lorentz Transformation for Energy and Momentum 335

    A.2 The Invariant Mass 337

    A.2.1 Beam energies and thresholds 337

    A.2.2 Masses of unstable particles 339

    A.3 Transformation of the Scattering Angle 339

    Problems A 341

    B Amplitudes and Cross-Sections 343

    B.1 Rates and Cross-Sections 343

    B.2 The Total Cross-Section 345

    B.3 Differential Cross-Sections 346

    B.4 The Scattering Amplitude 348

    B.5 The Breit-Wigner Formula 351

    B.5.1 Decay distributions 352

    B.5.2 Resonant cross-sections 355

    Problems B 357

    C The Isospin Formalism 359

    C.1 Isospin Operators 360

    C.2 Isospin States 362

    C.3 Isospin Multiplets 363

    C.3.1 Hadron states 364

    C.4 Branching Ratios 366

    C.5 Spin States 367

    Problems C 368

    D Gauge Theories 369

    D.1 Electromagnetic Interactions 370

    D.2 Gauge Transformations 371

    D.3 Gauge Invariance and the Photon Mass 372

    D.4 The Gauge Principle 374

    D.5 The Higgs Mechanism 376

    D.5.1 Charge and current densities 376

    D.5.2 Spin-0 bosons 377

    D.5.3 Spontaneous symmetry breaking 379

    D.6 Quantum Chromodynamics 380

    D.7 Electroweak Interactions 384

    D.7.1 Weak isospin 385

    D.7.2 Gauge invariance and charged currents 386

    D.7.3 The unification condition 388

    D.7.4 Spin structure and parity violation 391

    Problems D 392

    E Tables of Particle Properties 395

    E.1 Gauge Bosons 395

    E.2 Leptons 396

    E.3 Quarks 396

    E.4 Low-lying Baryons 397

    E.5 Low-lying Mesons 399

    F Solutions to Problems 403

    References 433

    Index 435

    Customer Reviews

    Average Review:

    Write a Review

    and post it to your social network

         

    Most Helpful Customer Reviews

    See all customer reviews >

    Particle Physics 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
    Anonymous 3 months ago
    Ever