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The presidential campaign of 1848 saw the first strong electoral challenge to the expansion of slavery in the United States; most historians consider the appearance of the Free Soil Party in that election a major turning point of the nineteenth century. The three-way race capped a decade of political turmoil that had raised the issue of slavery to unprecedented prominence on the national stage and brought about critical splits in the two major parties.
In the first book in four decades devoted to the 1848 election, Joel Silbey clarifies our understanding of a pivotal moment in American history. The election of Whig Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War, over Democrat Lewis Cass and Free Soiler Martin Van Buren followed a particularly bitter contest, a fierce political storm in an already tumultuous year marked by the first significant attempt by antislavery advocates to win the presidency.
Silbey describes what occurred during that election and why it turned out as it did, offering a nuanced look at the interaction of the forces shaping the direction of politics in mid-nineteenth century America. He explains how the Free Soilers went about their reform movement and why they failed as they ran up against the tenacious grip that the existing two-party structure had on the political system and the behavior of the nation's voters.
For Whigs and Democrats it was politics as usual as they stressed economic, cultural, and ideological issues that had divided the country for the previous twenty years. Silbey describes the new confrontation between the force of tradition and a new and different way of thinking about the political world. He shows that ultimately, when America went tothe polls, northerners and southerners alike had more on their minds than slavery. Nevertheless, while Van Buren managed to attract only 10 percent of the vote, his party's presence foreshadowed a more successful challenge in the future.
Emphasizing both persistent party commitments and the reformers' lack of political muscle, Silbey expertly delineates the central issues of an election framed by intense partisanship and increasing sectional anger. If 1848 did not yet mark the death rattle of traditional politics, this insightful book shows us its importance as a harbinger of change.
This book is part of the American Presidential Elections series.
1 Troubled Political Times 1
2 "A Northern No!" 30
3 "The Sore-Headed Leaders in the State of New York" - and Some Others - Nominate a President 45
4 "The Work to Be Done": The Parties Organize 86
5 "There Never Was an Election ... of Greater Importance": The Parties Define What Is at Stake 103
6 "The Presence of Every Man Is Necessary": Zachary Taylor Is Elected 129
7 "A Conspicuous Milestone in the Antislavery Tourney" - or Not 147
App. A Democratic National Platform, 1848 157
App. B Whig Party Statement of Principles Passed at a Mass Meeting after the National Convention 162
App. C Free Soil National Platform, 1848 164
App. D Zachary Taylor's Inaugural Address, March 5, 1849 167
Bibliographic Essay 193