# Pascal and Probability: Volume 1 in the Scientist and Science Series

### Overview

This book can serve either as an interesting book to read for enjoyment or else as an introductory book on probability theory. It explains how probabilities are involved in daily life and in games off chance. The inauguration of the probability theory is primarily attributed to Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) and Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665). Passages from the writings of Pascal are scattered throughout the book. While contemplating a gambling problem posed by Chevalier de Mere in 1654, Blaise Pascal corresponded with ...
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### Overview

This book can serve either as an interesting book to read for enjoyment or else as an introductory book on probability theory. It explains how probabilities are involved in daily life and in games off chance. The inauguration of the probability theory is primarily attributed to Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) and Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665). Passages from the writings of Pascal are scattered throughout the book. While contemplating a gambling problem posed by Chevalier de Mere in 1654, Blaise Pascal corresponded with Pierre de Fermat, and together they laid the fundamental groundwork of probability theory. One of Pascal's letters discusses the "Problem of Points." Two players each need a given number of points in order to win; if they separate without playing out the game, how should the stakes be divided between them? This book treats the Problem of Points, and goes on to discuss probability models, mathematical formulation, experiments, the notion of probability, and Pascal's arithmetic triangle. Pascal devised the mathematical concept of expectation (or expected value), which is of prime use in the application of probability theory. The expectation explains the features of advantageous, equitable, and disadvantageous games. Applications are made to games of chance and to life insurance. The concepts of events and favorable chances are described in terms of dice games and roulette. The addition rule and the multiplication rule for probabilities are presented. The multiplication rule is displayed graphically by means of tree diagrams. Permutations and combinations are explained. The notion of geometric probability is presented, and a discussion of Bertrand's paradox is given. An abundant collection of problems with solutions appear throughout the book.

### Product Details

• ISBN-13: 9781492722618
• Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
• Publication date: 9/16/2013
• Pages: 214
• Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.45 (d)

### Meet the Author

Enders Anthony Robinson is the Professor Emeritus of Geophysics in the Maurice Ewing and J. Lamar Worzel Chair at Columbia University in City of New York. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts on March 18, 1930. He received from MIT a SB in mathematics in 1950, a SM in economics in 1952 and a PhD in geophysics in 1954.
In 1950 vast areas of the world, including great sedimentary basins and nearly all water-covered regions, were impervious to oil exploration because of intrinsic limitations in analog methods. In 1950-1954 Robinson at MIT, as a research assistant in mathematics and a research associate in geophysics, was the first to apply the methods of digital signal processing to the seismic records used in oil exploration. He used the Whirlwind digital computer at MIT and the Ferranti digital computer at the University of Toronto. His PhD thesis introduced the digital concept of deconvolution, which was successful in opening up every area of the world to oil exploration. The deconvolution process removed the unwanted reverberations that obscured the desired primary reflections.
Robinson is a member of the National Academy of Engineering of the United States and a fellow of the European Academy of Sciences. In 2001, Robinson received the Maurice Ewing Gold Medal from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists with the citation, "For a lifetime of remarkable achievements that began while he was in MIT graduate school, when he in essence invented the field of digital seismic data processing. The progress in our science over the last 50 years in large part has evolved from the work of Enders Robinson."
In 2003, the European Academy of Sciences awarded Robinson the Blaise Pascal Medal for Science and Technology as "the father of digital geophysics." In 2005, the International Astronomical Union, which acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies, named the asteroid Svenders with the citation, "In 1952 Enders Robinson became the first ever to perform signal processing on a digital computer."
In 2010, the European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers awarded the Desiderius Erasmus Award to Robinson with the citation, "His early research laid the groundwork for seismic deconvolution and the widespread use of geophysical digital filters in general. Universally recognized as an eminent scientist, Dr. Robinson has aptly been described as one of the living legends of exploration geophysics."

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