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Patents, Citations, and Innovations: A Window on the Knowledge Economy / Edition 1

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Overview

Innovation and technological change, long recognized as the main drivers of long-term economic growth, are elusive notions that are difficult to conceptualize and even harder to measure in a consistent, systematic way. This book demonstrates the usefulness of patents and citations data as a window on the process of technological change and as a powerful tool for research on the economics of innovation. Patent records contain a wealth of information, including the inventors' identity, location, and employer, as well as the technological field of the invention. Patents also contain citation references to previous patents, which allow one to trace links across inventions.The book lays out the conceptual foundations for such research and provides a range of interesting applications, such as examining the geographic pattern of knowledge spillovers and evaluating the impact of university and government patenting. It also describes statistical tools designed to handle methodological problems raised by the patent and citation processes. The book includes a CD with complete data on 3 million patents with more than 16 million citations and a range of author-devised measures of the importance, generality, and originality of patented innovations.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
"A combination of data and theoretical reasoning leads Symeonidis to focus his study of the impacts of the change in collusive possibilities in Britain on their effect on market structure and non-price aspects of competition, rather than on prices per se. The evidence is compelling, and the insights are important.

This book ought to change the way we analyze collusion."—Ariel Pakes, Professor of Economics, Harvard University

"Laurence Kotlikoff's research has helped the economics profession to understand what really drives saving, bequests and other gifts. Serious students of these subjects will want to read and study the papers in this volume."—Martin Feldstein, President, National Bureau of Economic Research, and Professor of Economics, Harvard University

"Since the time of Galileo, Kepler, and Francis Bacon, it has been recognized that scientific knowledge advances through careful measurement.

Determining how scientific knowledge affects economic well-being has been a tougher nut to crack. This volume collects pioneering essays on the use of citations data to measure knowledge flows among scientists and engineers and the impact of those flows on economic growth."—F. M. Scherer, Professor Emeritus, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

"Jaffe, Trajtenberg, and their several co-authors have provided compelling evidence that patent data, combined with citation analysis, can be made to provide powerful insights into the performance of the knowledge economy. This book is, quite simply, required reading for anyone seeking empirical evidence relating to the determinants of economic growth."—Nathan Rosenberg, Professor of Economics (Emeritus), Stanford University

"The studies here represent the best recent research using patents to measure inventive activity. The availability of this volume will inspire and assist future research on this important subject."—Martin Feldstein, President, National Bureau of Economic Research, and Professor of Economics, Harvard University

"This book is both a major contribution to our understanding of the economic impact of the inventive and innovative activities that underlie economic progress and structural change, and a fitting tribute to the late Zvi Griliches by economists whom he trained. It reports on research based heavily on recent progress in computerizing data on science and technology, and should be read by scholars from all disciplines and all countries who share this endeavor."—Keith Pavitt, R. M.

Phillips Professor of Science and Technology Policy, University of Sussex,England

"Jaffe and Trajtenberg's use of the citation information on patent documents to indicate who gains from the knowledge creation of others, is a true breakthrough in an important measurement problem. It enables a scientific study of the causes and effects of research activity, and the numerous policy issues associated with the research and innovation process. This book both shows how to use this new data, and provides a diskette which enables us all to incorporate that data in our own future research."—Ariel Pakes, Professor of Economics, Harvard University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780262600651
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • Publication date: 3/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 496
  • Sales rank: 1,446,410
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Adam B. Jaffe is Fred C. Hecht Professor in Economics and Dean of Arts and Sciences at Brandeis University.

Manuel Trajtenberg is Chair of the Eitan Berglas School of Economics at Tel Aviv University, Research Associate of the NBER, Research Fellow of the Center for Economic Policy Research in London, and Research Fellow of the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
2 A penny for your quotes : patent citations and the value of innovations 25
3 University versus corporate patents : a window on the basicness of invention 51
4 How high are the giants' shoulders : an empirical assessment of knowledge spillovers and creative destruction in a model of economic growth 89
5 Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations 155
6 Flows of knowledge from universities and federal laboratories : modeling the flow of patent citations over time and across institutional and geographic boundaries 179
7 International knowledge flows : evidence from patent citations 199
8 Universities as a source of commercial technology : a detailed analysis of university patenting, 1965-1988 237
9 Evidence from patents and patent citations on the impact of NASA and other federal labs on commercial innovation 261
10 Reinventing public R&D : patent policy and the commercialization of national laboratory technologies 287
11 Innovation in Israel 1968-1997 : a comparative analysis using patent data 337
12 The meaning of patent citations : report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve survey of patentees 379
13 The NBER patent-citations data file : lessons, insights, and methodological tools 403
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