PCI Express System Architecture

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Overview

PCI Express is the third-generation Peripheral Component Interconnect technology for a wide range of systems and peripheral devices. Incorporating recent advances in high-speed, point-to-point interconnects, PCI Express provides significantly higher performance, reliability, and enhanced capabilities -- at a lower cost -- than the previous PCI and PCI-X standards. Therefore, anyone working on next-generation PC systems, BIOS and device driver development, and peripheral device design will need to have a thorough understanding of PCI Express.

PCI Express System Architecture provides an in-depth description and comprehensive reference to the PCI Express standard. The book contains information needed for design, verification, and test, as well as background information essential for writing low-level BIOS and device drivers. In addition, it offers valuable insight into the technology's evolution and cutting-edge features.

Following an overview of the PCI Express architecture, the book moves on to cover transaction protocols, the physical/electrical layer, power management, configuration, and more.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321156303
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 9/4/2003
  • Series: PC System Architecture Series
  • Pages: 1120
  • Sales rank: 640,227
  • Product dimensions: 7.37 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 2.12 (d)

Meet the Author

Ravi Budruk is a senior staff engineer and instructor with MindShare, Inc., where he has trained hundreds of engineers. He is an industry expert on such topics as Intel Processor and PC architecture, as well as such bus architectures as PCI Express, PCI, PCI-X, HyperTransport, IEEE 1394, and ISA. Before working at MindShare, Mr. Budruk was a PC chipset architect and designer at VLSI Technology, Inc.

Don Anderson is the author of many MindShare books. He passes on his wealth of experience in digital electronics and computer design by training engineers, programmers, and technicians for MindShare.

Tom Shanley, president of MindShare, Inc., is one of the world's foremost authorities on computer system architecture. In the course of his career, he has trained thousands of engineers in hardware and software design.

MindShare, Inc. is one of the leading technical training companies in the hardware industry, providing innovative courses for dozens of companies, including Intel, IBM, and Compaq.

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Read an Excerpt

The MindShare Architecture Series

The MindShare Architecture book series currently includes the books listed below. The entire book series is published by Addison-Wesley.

  • Books about Processor Architecture:
    • 80486 System Architecture, Third Edition, 0-201-40994-1
    • Pentium Processor System Architecture, Second Edition, 0-201-40992-5
    • Pentium Pro and Pentium II System Architecture, Second Edition, 0-201-30973-4
    • Power PC System Architecture, 0-201-40990-9
  • Books About Bus Architecture:
    • PCI System Architecture, Fourth Edition, 0-201-30974-2
    • PCI-X System Architecture, 0-201-72682-3
    • EISA System Architecture, 0-201-40995-X—Out-of-print
    • Firewire System Architecture, Second Edition: IEEE 1394a, 0-201-48535-4
    • ISA System Architecture, Third Edition, 0-201-40996-8
    • Universal Serial Bus System Architecture 2.0, 0-201-46137-4
    • HyperTransport™ System Architecture, 0-321-16845-3
    • PCI Express System Architecture, 0-321-15630-7
  • Books About Network Architecture:
    • Network Architecture Infiniband Network Architecture, 0-321-11765-4
  • Books About Other Architectures:
    • PCMCIA System Architecture, Second Edition: 16-Bit PC Cards, 0-201-40991-7
    • CardBus System Architecture, 0-201-40997-6
    • Plug and Play System Architecture, 0-201-41013-3
    • Protected Mode Software Architecture, 0-201-55447-X
    • AGP System Architecture, 0-201-37964-3
Cautionary Note

The reader should keep in mind that MindShare's book series often details rapidly evolving technologies, as is the case with PCI Express. This being the case, it should be recognized that the book is a "snapshot" of the state of the technology at the time the book was completed. We make every attempt to produce our books on a timely basis, but the next revision of the specification is not introduced in time to make necessary changes. This PCI Express book complies with revision 1.0a of the PCI Express™ Base Specification released and trademarked by the PCI Special Interest Group. Several expansion card form-factor specifications are planned for PCI Express, but only the Electro-mechanical specification, revision 1.0 was released when this book was completed. However, the chapter covering the Card Electromechanical topic reviews several form-factors that were under development at the time of writing.

Intended Audience

This book is intended for use by hardware and software design and support personnel. The tutorial approach taken may also make it useful to technical personnel not directly involved design, verification, and other support functions.

Prerequisite Knowledge

It is recommended that the reader has a reasonable background in PC architecture, including experience or knowledge of an I/O bus and related protocol. Because PCI Express maintains several levels of compatibility with the original PCI design, critical background information regarding PCI has been incorporated into this book. However, the reader may find it beneficial to read the MindShare publication entitled PCI System Architecture, which focusses on and details the PCI architecture.

Topics and Organization

Topics covered in this book and the flow of the book are as follows:

  • Part 1: Background and Comprehensive Overview. Provides an architectural perspective of the PCI Express technology by comparing and contrasting it with the PCI and PCI-X buses. It also introduces the major features of the PCI Express architecture.
  • Part 2: PCI Express Transaction Protocol. Includes packet format and field definition and use, along with transaction and link layer functions.
  • Part 3: Physical Layer Description. Describes the physical layer functions, link training and initialization, reset, and electrical signaling.
  • Part 4: Power-Related Topics. Discusses Power Budgeting and Power Management.
  • Part 5: Optional Topics. Discusses the major features of PCI Express that are optional, including Hot Plug and Expansion Card implementation details.
  • Part 6: PCI Express Configuration. Discusses the configuration process, accessing configuration space, and details the content and use of all configuration registers.
  • Appendix:
    • Test, Debug, and Verification
    • Markets & Applications for the PCI Express™ Architecture
    • Implementing Intelligent Adapters and Multi-Host Systems With PCI Express™ Technology
    • PCI Express Class Codes
    • Legacy Support for Locking
Documentation Conventions

This section defines the typographical convention used throughout this book.

PCI Express™

PCI Express™ is a trademark of the PCI SIG. This book takes the liberty of abbreviating PCI Express as "PCI-XP" primarily in illustration where limited space is an issue.

Hexadecimal NotationAll hex numbers are followed by a lower case "h." For example:

89F2BD02h
0111h

Binary Notation

All binary numbers are followed by a lower case "b." For example:

1000 1001 1111 0010b
01b

Decimal Notation

Number without any suffix are decimal. When required for clarity, decimal numbers are followed by a lower case "d." Examples:

9
15
512d

Bits Versus Bytes Notation

This book represents bit with lower case "b" and bytes with an upper case "B." For example:

Megabits/second = Mb/s Megabytes/second = MB/s

Bit Fields

Groups bits are represented with the high-order bits first followed by the loworder bits and enclosed by brackets. For example:

7:0 = bits 0 through 7

Active Signal States

Signals that are active low are followed by #, as in PERST# and WAKE#. Active high signals have no suffix, such as POWERGOOD.

Visit Our Web Site

Our web site lists all of our courses and the delivery options available for each course:

Information on MindShare courses:

  • Self-paced DVDs and CDs
  • Live web-delivered classes
  • Live on-site classes.
  • Free short courses on selected topics
  • Technical papers
  • Errata for a number of our books
All of our books are listed and can be ordered in bound or e-book versions.

www.mindshare.com

We Want Your Feedback

MindShare values you comments and suggestions. Contact us at:

Phone: (719) 487-1417 or within the U.S. (800) 633-1440
Fax: (719) 487-1434 (Fax)
Technical seminars: E-mail nancy@mindshare.com
Technical questions: E-mail don@mindshare.com or tom@mindshare.com
General information: E-mail info@mindshare.com
Mailing Address:

MindShare, Inc.
4285 Slash Pine Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80908
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Table of Contents

About This Book
Ch. 1 Architectural Perspective
Ch. 2 Architecture Overview
Ch. 3 Address Spaces & Transaction Routing
Ch. 4 Packet-Based Transactions
Ch. 5 ACK/NAK Protocol
Ch. 6 QoS/TCs/VCs and Arbitration
Ch. 7 Flow Control
Ch. 8 Transaction Ordering
Ch. 9 Interrupts
Ch. 10 Error Detection and Handling
Ch. 11 Physical Layer Logic
Ch. 12 Electrical Physical Layer
Ch. 13 System Reset
Ch. 14 Link Initialization & Training
Ch. 15 Power Budgeting
Ch. 16 Power Management
Ch. 17 Hot Plug
Ch. 18 Add-in Cards and Connectors
Ch. 19 Configuration Overview
Ch. 20 Configuration Mechanisms
Ch. 21 PCI Express Enumeration
Ch. 22 PCI Compatible Configuration Registers
Ch. 23 Expansion ROMs
Ch. 24 Express-Specific Configuration Registers
App. A Test, Debug and Verification
App. B Markets & Applications for the PCI Express Architecture
App. C Implementing Intelligent Adapters and Multi-Host Systems With PCI Express Technology
App. D Class Codes
App. E Locked Transactions Series
Index
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Preface

The MindShare Architecture Series

The MindShare Architecture book series currently includes the books listed below. The entire book series is published by Addison-Wesley.

  • Books about Processor Architecture:
  • 80486 System Architecture, Third Edition, 0-201-40994-1
  • Pentium Processor System Architecture, Second Edition, 0-201-40992-5
  • Pentium Pro and Pentium II System Architecture, Second Edition, 0-201-30973-4
  • Power PC System Architecture, 0-201-40990-9
  • Books About Bus Architecture:
  • PCI System Architecture, Fourth Edition, 0-201-30974-2
  • PCI-X System Architecture, 0-201-72682-3
  • EISA System Architecture, 0-201-40995-X--Out-of-print
  • Firewire System Architecture, Second Edition: IEEE 1394a, 0-201-48535-4
  • ISA System Architecture, Third Edition, 0-201-40996-8
  • Universal Serial Bus System Architecture 2.0, 0-201-46137-4
  • HyperTransport™ System Architecture, 0-321-16845-3
  • PCI Express System Architecture, 0-321-15630-7
  • Books About Network Architecture:
  • Network Architecture Infiniband Network Architecture, 0-321-11765-4
  • Books About Other Architectures:
  • PCMCIA System Architecture, Second Edition: 16-Bit PC Cards, 0-201-40991-7
  • CardBus System Architecture, 0-201-40997-6
  • Plug and Play System Architecture, 0-201-41013-3
  • Protected Mode Software Architecture, 0-201-55447-X
  • AGP System Architecture, 0-201-37964-3
Cautionary Note

The reader should keep in mind that MindShare's book series often details rapidly evolving technologies, as is the case with PCI Express. This being the case, it should be recognized that the book is a "snapshot" of the state of the technology at the time the book was completed. We make every attempt to produce our books on a timely basis, but the next revision of the specification is not introduced in time to make necessary changes. This PCI Express book complies with revision 1.0a of the PCI Express™ Base Specification released and trademarked by the PCI Special Interest Group. Several expansion card form-factor specifications are planned for PCI Express, but only the Electro-mechanical specification, revision 1.0 was released when this book was completed. However, the chapter covering the Card Electromechanical topic reviews several form-factors that were under development at the time of writing.

Intended Audience

This book is intended for use by hardware and software design and support personnel. The tutorial approach taken may also make it useful to technical personnel not directly involved design, verification, and other support functions.

Prerequisite Knowledge

It is recommended that the reader has a reasonable background in PC architecture, including experience or knowledge of an I/O bus and related protocol. Because PCI Express maintains several levels of compatibility with the original PCI design, critical background information regarding PCI has been incorporated into this book. However, the reader may find it beneficial to read the MindShare publication entitled PCI System Architecture, which focusses on and details the PCI architecture.

Topics and Organization

Topics covered in this book and the flow of the book are as follows:

  • Part 1: Background and Comprehensive Overview. Provides an architectural perspective of the PCI Express technology by comparing and contrasting it with the PCI and PCI-X buses. It also introduces the major features of the PCI Express architecture.
  • Part 2: PCI Express Transaction Protocol. Includes packet format and field definition and use, along with transaction and link layer functions.
  • Part 3: Physical Layer Description. Describes the physical layer functions, link training and initialization, reset, and electrical signaling.
  • Part 4: Power-Related Topics. Discusses Power Budgeting and Power Management.
  • Part 5: Optional Topics. Discusses the major features of PCI Express that are optional, including Hot Plug and Expansion Card implementation details.
  • Part 6: PCI Express Configuration. Discusses the configuration process, accessing configuration space, and details the content and use of all configuration registers.
  • Appendix:
  • Test, Debug, and Verification
  • Markets & Applications for the PCI Express™ Architecture
  • Implementing Intelligent Adapters and Multi-Host Systems With PCI Express™ Technology
  • PCI Express Class Codes
  • Legacy Support for Locking
Documentation Conventions

This section defines the typographical convention used throughout this book.

PCI Express™

PCI Express™ is a trademark of the PCI SIG. This book takes the liberty of abbreviating PCI Express as "PCI-XP" primarily in illustration where limited space is an issue.

Hexadecimal NotationAll hex numbers are followed by a lower case "h." For example:

89F2BD02h
0111h

Binary Notation

All binary numbers are followed by a lower case "b." For example:

1000 1001 1111 0010b
01b

Decimal Notation

Number without any suffix are decimal. When required for clarity, decimal numbers are followed by a lower case "d." Examples:

9
15
512d

Bits Versus Bytes Notation

This book represents bit with lower case "b" and bytes with an upper case "B." For example:

Megabits/second = Mb/s Megabytes/second = MB/s

Bit Fields

Groups bits are represented with the high-order bits first followed by the loworder bits and enclosed by brackets. For example:

7:0 = bits 0 through 7

Active Signal States

Signals that are active low are followed by #, as in PERST# and WAKE#. Active high signals have no suffix, such as POWERGOOD.

Visit Our Web Site

Our web site lists all of our courses and the delivery options available for each course:

Information on MindShare courses:

  • Self-paced DVDs and CDs
  • Live web-delivered classes
  • Live on-site classes.
  • Free short courses on selected topics
  • Technical papers
  • Errata for a number of our books
All of our books are listed and can be ordered in bound or e-book versions.

www.mindshare.com

We Want Your Feedback

MindShare values you comments and suggestions. Contact us at:

Phone: (719) 487-1417 or within the U.S. (800) 633-1440
Fax: (719) 487-1434 (Fax)
Technical seminars: E-mail nancy@mindshare.com
Technical questions: E-mail don@mindshare.com or tom@mindshare.com
General information: E-mail info@mindshare.com
Mailing Address:MindShare, Inc.
4285 Slash Pine Drive Colorado Springs, CO 80908

0321156307P08262003

Read More Show Less

Introduction

The MindShare Architecture Series

The MindShare Architecture book series currently includes the books listed below. The entire book series is published by Addison-Wesley.

  • Books about Processor Architecture:
  • 80486 System Architecture, Third Edition, 0-201-40994-1
  • Pentium Processor System Architecture, Second Edition, 0-201-40992-5
  • Pentium Pro and Pentium II System Architecture, Second Edition, 0-201-30973-4
  • Power PC System Architecture, 0-201-40990-9
  • Books About Bus Architecture:
  • PCI System Architecture, Fourth Edition, 0-201-30974-2
  • PCI-X System Architecture, 0-201-72682-3
  • EISA System Architecture, 0-201-40995-X--Out-of-print
  • Firewire System Architecture, Second Edition: IEEE 1394a, 0-201-48535-4
  • ISA System Architecture, Third Edition, 0-201-40996-8
  • Universal Serial Bus System Architecture 2.0, 0-201-46137-4
  • HyperTransport™ System Architecture, 0-321-16845-3
  • PCI Express System Architecture, 0-321-15630-7
  • Books About Network Architecture:
  • Network Architecture Infiniband Network Architecture, 0-321-11765-4
  • Books About Other Architectures:
  • PCMCIA System Architecture, Second Edition: 16-Bit PC Cards, 0-201-40991-7
  • CardBus System Architecture, 0-201-40997-6
  • Plug and Play System ArchitectureSoftware Architecture, 0-201-55447-X
  • AGP System Architecture, 0-201-37964-3

Cautionary Note

The reader should keep in mind that MindShare's book series often details rapidly evolving technologies, as is the case with PCI Express. This being the case, it should be recognized that the book is a "snapshot" of the state of the technology at the time the book was completed. We make every attempt to produce our books on a timely basis, but the next revision of the specification is not introduced in time to make necessary changes. This PCI Express book complies with revision 1.0a of the PCI Express™ Base Specification released and trademarked by the PCI Special Interest Group. Several expansion card form-factor specifications are planned for PCI Express, but only the Electro-mechanical specification, revision 1.0 was released when this book was completed. However, the chapter covering the Card Electromechanical topic reviews several form-factors that were under development at the time of writing.

Intended Audience

This book is intended for use by hardware and software design and support personnel. The tutorial approach taken may also make it useful to technical personnel not directly involved design, verification, and other support functions.

Prerequisite Knowledge

It is recommended that the reader has a reasonable background in PC architecture, including experience or knowledge of an I/O bus and related protocol. Because PCI Express maintains several levels of compatibility with the original PCI design, critical background information regarding PCI has been incorporated into this book. However, the reader may find i beneficial to read the MindShare publication entitled PCI System Architecture, which focusses on and details the PCI architecture.

Topics and Organization

Topics covered in this book and the flow of the book are as follows:

  • Part 1: Background and Comprehensive Overview. Provides an architectural perspective of the PCI Express technology by comparing and contrasting it with the PCI and PCI-X buses. It also introduces the major features of the PCI Express architecture.
  • Part 2: PCI Express Transaction Protocol. Includes packet format and field definition and use, along with transaction and link layer functions.
  • Part 3: Physical Layer Description. Describes the physical layer functions, link training and initialization, reset, and electrical signaling.
  • Part 4: Power-Related Topics. Discusses Power Budgeting and Power Management.
  • Part 5: Optional Topics. Discusses the major features of PCI Express that are optional, including Hot Plug and Expansion Card implementation details.
  • Part 6: PCI Express Configuration. Discusses the configuration process, accessing configuration space, and details the content and use of all configuration registers.
  • Appendix:
  • Test, Debug, and Verification
  • Markets & Applications for the PCI Express™ Architecture
  • Implementing Intelligent Adapters and Multi-Host Systems With PCI Express™ Technology
  • PCI Express Class Codes
  • Legacy Support for Locking

Documentation ConventionsPCI Express™

PCI Express™ is a trademark of the PCI SIG. This book takes the liberty of abbreviating PCI Express as "PCI-XP" primarily in illustration where limited space is an issue.

Hexadecimal Notation

All hex numbers are followed by a lower case "h." For example:

89F2BD02h
0111h

Binary Notation

All binary numbers are followed by a lower case "b." For example:

1000 1001 1111 0010b
01b

Decimal Notation

Number without any suffix are decimal. When required for clarity, decimal numbers are followed by a lower case "d." Examples:

9
15
512d

Bits Versus Bytes Notation

This book represents bit with lower case "b" and bytes with an upper case "B." For example:

Megabits/second = Mb/s
Megabytes/second = MB/s

Bit Fields

Groups bits are represented with the high-order bits first followed by the loworder bits and enclosed by brackets. For example:

7:0 = bits 0 through 7

Active Signal States

Signals that are active low are followed by #, as in PERST# and WAKE#. Active high signals have no suffix, such as POWERGOOD.

Visit Our Web Site

Our web site lists all of our courses and the delivery options available for each course:

Information on MindShare courses:

  • Self-paced DVDs and CDs
  • Live web-delivered classes
  • Live on-site classes.
  • Free short courses on selected topics
  • Technical papers
  • Errata for a number of our books
Read More Show Less

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