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At the end of the Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin rejoiced that the document would "astonish our enemies, who are waiting to hear with confidence . . . that our States are on the point of separation, only to meet hereafter for the purpose of cutting one another's throats."
Usually dismissed as hyperbole, this and similar remarks by other Founders help us to understand the core concerns that shaped their conception of the Union. By reexamining the creation of the federal system of the United States from a perspective that yokes diplomacy with constitutionalism, Hendrickson's study introduces a new way to think about what is familiar to us.
This groundbreaking book tells the story of how thirteen colonies became independent states and found themselves grappling with the classic problems of international cooperation. The founding generation, Hendrickson argues, developed a sophisticated science of international politics relevant both to the construction of their own union and to the foreign relations of "the several states in the union of the empire." The centrality of this discourse, he contends, must severely qualify conventional depictions of early American political thought as simply "liberal" or "republican."
Hendrickson also takes issue with conventional accounts of early American foreign policy as "unilateralist" or "isolationist" and insists that the founding generation belonged to and made distinguished contributions to the constitutional tradition in diplomacy, the antecedent of twentieth-century internationalism. He describes an American system of states riven by deep sectional animosities and powerful loyalties and explains why in such a milieu the creation of a durable union often appeared to be a quixotic enterprise. The book culminates in a consideration of the making of the federal Constitution, here styled as a peace pact or experiment in international cooperation.
Peace Pact is an important book that promises to revolutionize our understanding of the era of revolution and constitution-making. Written in a lucid and accessible style, the book is an excellent introduction to the American founding and its larger significance in American and world history.
This book is part of the American Political Thought series.
About the Author:
David C. Hendrickson is professor of political science at Colorado College in Colorado Springs. He is the coauthor of Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson and The Fall of the First British Empire: Origins of the War of American Independence.
|Preface and Acknowledgments|
|2||The Great Debate of 1788||8|
|3||The Unionist Paradigm||14|
|4||An Experiment in International Cooperation||24|
|Pt. 2||The Lessons of History|
|5||An Age of Inquiry||33|
|6||Greece and Rome||36|
|7||Universal Monarchy and the Balance of Power: The View from the Eighteenth Century||40|
|8||Republiques Federative and Machiavellian Moments||47|
|9||The British Setting: Continental Connections and the Balanced Constitution||55|
|Pt. 3||The British Empire and the American Revolution|
|10||From War to War||67|
|12||Burden-Sharing and Representation||75|
|13||Plans of Union and the Imperial Predicament||80|
|14||"The Great Serbonian Bog"||86|
|15||Rights and Wrongs, Prophets and Seers||90|
|16||Independence and Union||104|
|Pt. 4||Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union|
|17||Problematics of Union||115|
|18||The "Dickinson Plan"||127|
|19||Deadlock and Compromise||138|
|20||The Basis of Congressional Authority||150|
|Pt. 5||A Foreign Policy of Independence|
|21||Foundations of the New Diplomacy||161|
|22||States, Sections, and Foreign Policy||177|
|23||The Armistice of 1783||194|
|Pt. 6||Peace Pact: The Writing and Ratification of the Constitution|
|24||Vices of the Critical Period||211|
|25||To the Great Compromise||220|
|26||Commerce, Slavery, and Machiavellian Moment||232|
|27||"A Feudal System of Republics"||242|
|28||Federals and Anti-Federals||249|
|A Note on Capitalization, Style, and Bibliography||261|
|Appendix: The Argument Diagramed||263|
|Figure 1||Associations of States: Comparative State Systems and Empires||274|
|Figure 2||Constitutional Interpretation: Varieties of Federal Union, 1763-1787||275|
|Figure 3||American Political Thought: The Unionist Paradigm, c. 1776||276|
|Figure 4||Theories of American Politics||277|
|Figure 5||American Diplomacy and Theories of International Relations||278|
|Figure 6||Objectives, Doctrines, and Principles of Early American Diplomacy||279|
|Figure 7||General Map of the Interpretation||280|
|The Constitution in History: A Bibliographical Essay||281|
|List of Short Titles||299|