Prize-winning journalist Storozynski pulls military strategist and engineer Thaddeus Kosciuszko (1746-1817) back from the brink of obscurity by including almost every documented detail to create the first comprehensive look at a man who once famously symbolized rebellion. His were the plans sold to the British by Benedict Arnold. And Kosciuszko's years of devotion to the American cause framed his efforts to transform Poland into a self-governing republic freed from the oversight of Russia's interests. He antagonized Catherine the Great and, later, Napoleon. Kosciuszko rallied the first Jewish military force since biblical times to fight for Polish independence, and consistently supported equality and education for peasants, Jews, Muslim Tatars and American slaves-which earned him the devotion of the masses and lectures by the upper classes. Readers of military and American history should take note: the minute details will enthrall devotees. Casual readers will benefit from Storozynski's expert crafting of a readable and fact-filled story that pulls readers into the immediacy of the revolutionary era's partisan and financial troubles. (May)Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Peasant Prince: Thaddeus Kosciuszko and the Age of Revolutionby Alex Storozynski
The stirring biography of one of the modern world's most inspiring and dashing revolutionary heroes.
The stirring biography of one of the modern world's most inspiring and dashing revolutionary heroes.
One of the largely forgotten heroes of the American Revolution was a Polish immigrant with a virtually unpronounceable last name-Thaddeus (Tadeusz) KosA´ciuszko (kosh-chew-sko). A brilliant military engineer, KosA´ciuszko arrived in Philadelphia in August 1776 and, on Benjamin Franklin's doorstep, volunteered his services to the Revolution. He proceeded to construct defenses for Philadelphia, helped devise a successful battle plan at Saratoga, and designed the defenses at West Point-the plans that Benedict Arnold was so interested in selling to the British. Much to the chagrin of his French counterparts, he was appointed chief engineer of the army and participated in the final campaign at Yorktown. KosA´ciuszko returned to Poland eager to emulate the American independence movement there, leading the Polish army against the Russian invasion. Unfortunately, that cause was lost, and he was captured but later pardoned by Tsar Paul I. For the rest of his life, he championed human rights. Using new archival sources in Switzerland and Poland, Storozynski has written a complete biography of a truly great republican. Strongly recommended for both lay readers and specialists.
David Lee Poremba
“Despite his heroic efforts, Kosciuszko's fatherland had to wait a century after his death before regaining independence from Russia. The world would have to wait even longer for an accessible, soundly researched, English-language biography. With "The Peasant Prince," Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Alex Storozynski has filled the void. And what a tale he has to tell. A melodramatic, foiled elopement deprived the young Kosciuszko of the love of his life and led him to cross the Atlantic and sign up with George Washington's ragtag rebel army. The Polish émigré engineered the network of fortifications around West Point that Benedict Arnold unsuccessfully tried to betray to the British and that he lped keep the main British army bottled up in New York City. Kosciuszko also played a key role in the wilderness campaigns that ended in the crucial American victory at Saratoga. And he made a triumphal return to his native Poland in time to lead a doomed but heroic national struggle against Russia and overwhelming odds. All this and a supporting cast that amounts to a Who's Who of 18th-century American and European history. In America, those who knew Kosciuszko included Benjamin Franklin (who helped recruit him); George Washington (who had trouble getting Kosciuszko's name right but hailed him as a military "engineer of eminence"); Thomas Jefferson (who called him "as pure a son of liberty as I have ever known"); and Thomas Paine (who, like Kosciuszko, was granted honorary French citizenship by the revolutionary regime but spoke out against its brutal excesses). In Europe, Kosciuszko's acquaintances included Napoleon Bonaparte (who tried--and failed--to use him as a pawn in European power politics) and Catherine the Great (who, after ruthlessly suppressing the Polish insurrection, kept Kosciuszko a political prisoner in Russia until her death in 1796).” Wall Street Journal
“Alex Storozynski has just published "The Peasant Prince: Thaddeus Kosciuszko and the Age of Revolution," a sweeping, colorful, and absorbing biography that should restore Kosciuszko to his proper place in history. President of the Kosciuszko Foundation, which promotes Polish-American educational exchanges, Storozynski is also a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who knows how to tell a good story. In his account, Kosciuszko--as soldier in America and then a revolutionary in his homeland-- exemplified some of the best ideals of his era. He also experienced some of its worst betrayals and disappointments. ... Emancipation was 'a controversial idea ahead of his time,' Storozynski writes--just, as this stirring biography makes clear, like the man himself.” Newsweek.com
“In The Peasant Prince Alex Storozynski fills a gap in our picture of the American Revolution, and relates it to the worldwide struggle for freedom. Thaddeus Kosciuszko was a noble soul with few options, a friend of liberty in an age of aggression and tyranny. Storozynski shows how he navigated a life of romance and realpolitik, keeping his principles intact.” Richard Brookhiser, senior editor of the National Review, and author of What Would the Founders Do? Our Questions, Their Answers
“Prize-winning journalist Storozynski pulls military strategist and engineer Thaddeus Kosciuszko (1746–1817) back from the brink of obscurity by including almost every documented detail to create the first comprehensive look at a man who once famously symbolized rebellion. His were the plans sold to the British by Benedict Arnold. And Kosciuszko's years of devotion to the American cause framed his efforts to transform Poland into a self-governing republic freed from the oversight of Russia's interests. He antagonized Catherine the Great and, later, Napoleon. Kosciuszko rallied the first Jewish military force since biblical times to fight for Polish independence, and consistently supported equality and education for peasants, Jews, Muslim Tatars and American slaves--which earned him the devotion of the masses and lectures by the upper classes. Readers of military and American history should take note: the minute details will enthrall devotees. Casual readers will benefit from Storozynski's expert crafting of a readable and fact-filled story that pulls readers into the immediacy of the revolutionary era's partisan and financial troubles.” Publishers Weekly
“The Peasant Prince is an objective history that is needed in today's America and Poland. The hero of Alex's book is one of the fathers of modern democracy in the same mold as Washington, Jefferson, Madison and Lincoln.” Adam Michnik, Solidarnosc activist and editor in chief of Gazeta Wyborcza
“In a meticulously researched work, Storozynski greatly enhances our understanding of Kosciuszko's personality and motivations by investigating the Pole's relationship and feelings toward Africans, Jews, and peasants. His contribution advances our knowledge of this complex character whom Jefferson considered the ‘purest son of liberty' he ever knew.” James Pula, Purdue University
“Tapping new sources in archives in Poland and Switzerland, Alex Storozynski provides a fresh perspective on Thaddeus Kosciuszko, the Polish engineer most responsible for the construction of Fortress West Point, General Washington's ‘key of America.'” Colonel James M. Johnson, U.S. Army (Ret.), military historian of the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area, and former chief of Military History, U.S. Military Academy at West Point
“The Peasant Prince is a testament to a great man and an important addition to world history.” Byron E. Price, Texas Southern University
The Peasant Prince is an objective history that is needed in today's America and Poland. The hero of Alex's book is one of the fathers of modern democracy in the same mold as Washington, Jefferson, Madison and Lincoln.
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Read an Excerpt
Broken Hearts and Greek Role Models
The horse buggy raced over a bumpy dirt road as the two passengers were jostled from side to side. It was a chilly autumn night, clouds hiding most of the stars, while the moonlight peeked through the dimness to expose a village in the distance. The couple wanted to find a priest who would marry them.1
Before the wagon reached town several horse men galloped up and latched on to the steeds, dragging them to a stop at the side of the road. Twenty-nine-year-old Capt. Thaddeus Kosciuszko leaped to the ground from his seat at the reins and drew his sword, ready to fight. The talented alumnus of the king's royal military academy could have fought off the first two or three of Lord Sosnowski's rural guards.2
On the passenger side was Sosnowski's daughter Louise, who wanted to elope with the captain after her father arranged for her to marry Prince Lubomirski to forge a dynasty between two clans of rich land magnates. While her lover was also part of the landed gentry, his family estate was small and struggling, in part because the Kosciuszkos were much easier on the serfs who farmed their land. Feudalism served these children of the nobility well, but the idealistic pair opposed the bondage of peasants. Lord Sosnowski denied Kosciuszko's request for Louise's hand, saying, "Pigeons are not meant for sparrows and the daughters of magnates are not meant for the sons of the common gentry."3
As Kosciuszko held his sword between himself and Sosnowski's guards, he looked past its long blade and saw that the lord was among them. Rather than engage in a clash that could harm Louise's father before her eyes, he stood down. When he slid the saber back into its sheath, the sentries attacked and knocked him unconscious.4 They dragged Louise, kicking and screaming, back to the estate. When he came to several hours later, he found a white handkerchief that Louise had dropped in the scuffle. He stood up, stuffed the piece of linen into his pocket, and began the long walk home.5
Such was the legend of Kosciuszko's failed elopement with the love of his life. While historians question the circumstances of just how far the escape plan actually went, three men who knew Kosciuszko, from three different countries, wrote similar accounts of his attempt to run off with Louise.6
It was one of the first days of fall 1775, and the hats of peasants would have been visible through tall stalks of golden grains as their scythes swished back and forth through tall spires of grain swaying and bending over from the weight of the blond hulls that were ready to harvest. The blades made a rustling sound as they sliced through the slender shoots that tumbled to the ground. All around, vast flelds of wheat, rye, and hops stretched as far as the eye could see across the flat pole, or prairie lands, from which Poland gets its name.
The greedy land barons of the eighteenth century got rich off the brawn and sweat of the peasants who toiled in these fertile plains. These lords established a plutocracy to elect a king, and dictated the terms of government to him and to the rest of society.
European serfdom was not as vicious as American slavery, but peasants were bought and sold with the land they tilled. Troublesome serfs were whipped and hanged if they tried to revolt. British colonies exploited slaves for tobacco, rice, indigo, sugar, and cotton, while Poland capitalized on serf labor to drive the grain trade. These vassals slogged away in the fields and lived in abject poverty, while the land magnates who abused them grew fat off the land. The peasants were subject to the whims of landowners such as Lord Sosnowski, who could beat them for infractions.7
This was the world into which Thaddeus Kosciuszko was born on February 12, 1746.8 He grew up on a midsize estate where 31 peasant families worked the land that belonged to his family. His father, Ludwig Kosciuszko, was well off but not wealthy.9
Their comfortable wooden manor house had fireplaces and a tile stove where Kosciuszko's mother, Tekla, would serve a typical Sunday dinner (prepared by the servants) of pork chops and peas, chicken soup, or borscht and kielbasa, accompanied by a mead-honey wine and, on special occasions, coffee. The elder Kosciuszko was easier on his farmhands than most landlords and taught his sons, Joseph and Thaddeus, and his daughters, Anna and Catherine, that treating the peasants fairly and providing them with a greater share of the fruits of their labor would make them more productive.10 Ludwig was a loving husband, father, and landlord who believed that all people were entitled to hope and happiness.
Thaddeus, the youngest child, was idealistic and took his father's philosophy to heart. He played with peasant children, sometimes leading them to his favorite perch, a huge boulder where he would squat and observe the world around him.11 When he turned nine he was sent to the Catholic Piarist Fathers College at Lubieszow, near Pinsk.
There he followed a new syllabus set up by Father Stanislaw Konarski, the Piarist leader of a cadre of reformist priests who were revolutionizing Poland's school system. They instituted a curriculum that included lessons about British philosopher John Locke's theory of a social contract, in which the people of a nation consent to be governed in exchange for social order.12 The Poles had already experimented with their own form of democracy, but Father Konarski's educational reforms were laying the groundwork for a political enlightenment in Poland.
Consumed by the Piarist teachings, Kosciuszko was fascinated by the ancient Greeks and the Roman Empire. The works of Tacitus, Plutarch, and Aristides engrossed him and he was riveted by a biography of Timoleon, the Greek statesman and general who freed his fellow Corinthians and the Sicilians from the tyranny of Carthage. Kosciuszko explained his hero worship saying, "He overthrew tyrants, set up republics and never demanded any power for himself."13
The quixotic student drew parallels between Timoleon's Greece and Poland's subjugation by czarist Russia, whose army was growing more assertive in controlling Polish affairs. He saw in Timoleon a lesson in freeing his own people from Russian domination. Kosciuszko realized early on that Europe's unjust class structure and agrarian economy allowed the rich to get richer by exploiting the peasants. To him the notion of happiness meant self-determination.
The modest Kosciuszko estate was in the Brest region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a confederation of two nations that united in the fifteenth century to defend themselves from foreign invaders, such as the German Roman Catholic order of the Teutonic Knights. In recent years it had been a kingdom in decline because of foreign meddling in legislative affairs.
While the Kosciuszkos were part of the well-heeled top ten percent of society known as the szlachta, there was also the top one percent, the upper echelon of land magnates made up of wealthy families that employed small armies to protect their dynasties. There were clans such as the Czartoryskis, known as Familia, "the Family," who had close ties with the Russians; the Potockis, who were allied with Saxony; and the Radziwills, who had long-standing connections to Lithuania.
The decentralized government and divisive alliances of the aristocrats destabilized Poland, creating a tumult in the Commonwealth. When the last king of the Jagiellonian dynasty died without an heir in the late sixteenth century, the magnates experimented with elections, creating a new system in which the nobility voted on the monarch.
The Polish lords chose a French prince, Henri de Valois, to be king, but they required him and future monarchs to sign the "Henrician Articles." These included a stipulation that the monarchy was not hereditary but elected, and that the king must call a session of the legislature, the Seym, every two years. The king could not declare war or collect taxes without approval of the Seym, and was bound by the Articles of Agreement, in which he promised to abide by his campaign promises.14
This libertarian system hailed its "Golden Freedoms," such as freedom of religion, which could not be taken away by the king. While most Poles were Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Protestants, Jews, and Muslims were also free to build churches, synagogues, and mosques and worship as they pleased. Poland's kings provided sanctuary to Jews who were persecuted elsewhere and stopped priests who wanted to convert them to Christianity. As a result Jews flocked to Poland and formed the core of the merchant class. While Jews were not allowed to own land, they could lease it and own businesses. They ran the royal treasury and the mint and helped establish the banking system. Some early coins had names of Polish princes etched in Hebrew lettering or engraved names of Jewish minters, such as Abraham, son of Isaac Nagid.15 The Catholic magnates used the Jewish bankers and traders to compound their wealth and create an export system that turned Poland into the breadbasket of Europe. While this allowed Jewish culture to thrive, the lords also gave the Jews the unpopular tasks of collecting taxes, tariffs, and interest on loans, helping the magnates to camouflage their exploitation of the serfs.16
This multicultural society was protected by the Hussar Knights, master horsemen whose spooky armor gave them a supernatural appearance that struck fear into the hearts of their enemies and earned them the appellation "Winged Hussars." Attached to the back of their metal vests were wings made of wooden frames covered with eagle, crane, or ostrich feathers. They draped pelts of leopards, tigers, bears, or wolves over their chest plates, and wore steel and brass helmets. The Hussar cavalries stretched the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's borders from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
The country had a small Muslim population of Asian Tatars, who initially arrived as invaders, starting in the fourteenth century. These nomadic horse men, descended from the Mongol army of Genghis Khan, drank horse milk mixed with blood and ate raw meat that they kept under their saddles to cushion their ride and tenderize their steaks. The Hussars defeated the Tatar warriors, and some of the vanquished were allowed to settle in Poland, where they freely practiced their Sunni religion.17
The Winged Hussars once again faced the Muslims in the late seventeenth century, when the Ottoman Empire swallowed Greece, the Balkans, Hungary, and much of Austria. The Turkish Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha and his army surrounded Vienna and were on the verge of capturing the Danube River, the commercial gateway to Europe. With the Muslims on their doorstep, the German-speaking kingdoms, Austria and Prussia, pleaded with King John Sobieski to send the hussars to repel the marauding army.
Sobieski's hussars led an army that routed the Turks in the Battle of Viennain 1683. He was hailed as the savior of Europe who rescued the Christians from Muslim invaders. But after Sobieski's death in 1696, Poland's influence began to dwindle. In the election for king after his demise, three candidates emerged: Sobieski's son Jacob, French prince François Louis, and Friedrich Augustus Wettin of Dresden. Augustus did not win the election but rushed to Poland and, with the support of Austria and Russia, declared himself king, establishing a Saxon dynasty.
Rather than challenge the status quo, the land magnates made perfidious deals and took bribes from foreign agents who meddled in Polish affairs. The result was bedlam, and the gluttonous oligarchs ushered in a period of de cadence with the slogan, "Under the Saxon king, eat, drink, and loosen your belt."18
While the Saxons carted Poland's treasury back to Dresden, the mutual distrust among the Polish nobles in the Seym led to the creation of a parliamentary procedure called the liberum veto. This unitary veto allowed a single representative to block any legislation unless there was unanimous consent. This pleased foreign powers who wanted to tie up the legislature with gridlock.19
In this era of chaos Kosciuszko's life would be influenced greatly by the exploits of a young Polish count who set out abroad in the 1750s in search of adventure. Stanislaw Augustus Poniatowski, the son of a Krakow nobleman and a daughter of the Czartoryski Familia, spent years studying in Berlin, Vienna, Paris, and London before arriving in St. Petersburg, where he became secretary to the British ambassador, Sir Charles Hanbury-Williams. The charming count quoted Shakespeare and became a popular figure on the social circuit in the Russian capital.
One night as he twirled across the dance floor during a party, Poniatowski caught the eye of the German-born Grand Duchess Sophia Augusta Frederica.20 Sophia had been delivered to the royal court to marry the naive and immature heir to the Russian throne, Duke Peter III. Both remained virgins during the first years of the marriage, until the duchess erupted like a sexual volcano bursting through a chain of steamy affairs with paramours discreetly known as her "favorites in the royal court.
The Chevalier d'Eon, a cross-dressing spy sent by French king Louis XV to keep tabs on the Russian court, wrote: "The Grand Duchess is romantic, ardent, passionate; her eyes like those of a wild beast. Her brow is high; and, if I mistake not, there is a long and awful future on that brow. She is kind and affable, but when she comes near me, I draw back with a movement, which I cannot control. She frightens me."21
Another observation likened the grand duchess to a predator with a gaze that was "fixed and glassy, like that of a wild beast tracking down its prey."22
Hanbury-Williams noticed that Sophia lusted after his blond and hazel-eyed assistant and became a matchmaker to advance Great Britain's interests.
On a frigid December night in 1755, the Polish count left his apartment and was picked up by Lev Naryshkin, the gentleman of the royal bedchamber, who whisked Poniatowski through the snow on a sleigh to the side entrance of the Winter Palace, and escorted him past the guards for a secret rendezvous.23 The twenty-six-year-old duchess was tall and thin, with black hair, a porcelain complexion, and pinkish cheeks. She complained that the harsh Russian winters numbed her body and turned her face "blue as a plum."24 Yet underneath this delicate exterior was a red-hot sexual being.
Sophia's confidant Naryshkin would signal by meowing like a cat outside her bedroom door, waiting for her whispered reply when the coast was clear. The twenty-three-year-old Poniatowski was led into the royal chambers, shivering at the thought of exile in a frozen Russian prison if he was caught. Poniatowski recalled in his memoirs that the sight of Sophia in a simple white gown trimmed with lace and pink ribbons was so enticing as to "make one forget the very existence of Siberia."25
Poniatowski spent many nights dressed incognito, tiptoeing through the corridors of St. Petersburg's Winter Palace on his way to and from secret trysts with the grand duchess. Sophia wrote in her memoirs, "Count Poniatowski always put on a blonde wig and a cloak before leaving my room and when the sentries asked him: 'Who goes there?' he replied: 'The Grand Duke's musician.' "26
He visited Sophia's chambers so often that her dog betrayed their relationship to a visitor who noticed that the pet greeted Poniatowski. Poniatowski's friend, the Swedish count Horn, told him, "My friend, there is no worse traitor than a little Bolognese dog. The first thing I always did with the women I loved was give them one, and it was from these dogs that I always knew if there was someone more favored than I. The dog wanted to eat me, whom it did not know; where as it only rejoiced when it saw you again, surely this is not the first time it has seen you here."27
Poniatowski fell head over heels in love with Sophia, writing in his memoirs that her "eyes were bluest and merriest in the world, subjugating all who came within her orbit," she had "a mouth that seemed to beg to be kissed."28
The affair was one of the most political sexual liaisons in history. After a trip home Poniatowski returned to Russia as "ambassador" of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The count continued his dalliance with the grand duchess, and wrote, "Such was the mistress who would become the arbiter of my destiny."29
Poland's destiny was also determined between the sheets warmed by these political bedfellows. Eventually the dissolute duchess grew tired of Poniatowski, and he returned to Poland. She continued hiding her liaisons until Duke Peter became czar. The new monarch grew tired of his wife, but was assassinated in a coup staged by her supporters, who installed her as czarina. She became known as Catherine the Great and no longer lurked in the shadows with her love affairs.
Catherine continued the expansion of Russia begun years earlier by Ivan the Terrible. One month after ascending to the throne, she wrote to Poniatowski, "I am sending at once Count Keyserling as Ambassador to Poland to declare you king after the death of the present monarch."30
By the time the last Wettin king died in 1764, the Poles were fed up with foreign intervention. The oligarchs agreed to restore a Pole to the throne. The leading candidate was Poniatowski's maternal cousin, Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski, a Renaissance man who studied eighteen languages and traveled throughout Europe conducting research in the sciences, literature, history, politics, military history, and the arts. But the prince was reluctant to wear the crown, preferring to occupy himself with intellectual pursuits. Eventually Kosciuszko would be caught up in the politics between Poniatowski and Prince Czartoryski.
In a twisted web of intrigue, Catherine conspired with the Polish aristocrats to prop her infatuated lover on the throne in Warsaw so that she could pull his strings from the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. To ensure that the election went her way, Catherine sent sixty thousand troops into the woods surrounding the fields outside Warsaw, where the wealthy landowners gathered to choose their king. With Russian soldiers watching, the Poles elected Poniatowski king. He would rule as Stanislaw Augustus.
The czarina sent another of her "favorites," Prince Nikolai Repnin, to Warsaw as her ambassador to keep an eye on Stanislaw. But from his lofty perch the new king did not dance on the marionette strings as well as Catherine had hoped, especially after she made it clear that their love affair was over. Pining for the czarina, the jilted king went on a sex spree through the salons of Warsaw, making sure that his bed was never cold. The Polish capital became a lascivious party town under Stanislaw, and the promiscuous king lived out his fantasies, setting up chambers in his palace and nearby residences for various ladies of the nobility, actresses, and women of lesser prominence.31
The game of rotating bedfellows took a strange turn when Prince Czartoryski, busy with his own affairs, drove his wife, Princess Isabella, into the arms of the king. Using Catherine the Great's bedroom tactics, Stanislaw treated members of the opposite sex as pawns. He encouraged Princess Isabella to seduce Minister Repnin and to whisper pillow talk into his ear that would help persuade the czarina to allow Poland to change its laws and expand its military. The patriotic princess did it for her country.
The king was not the only Pole to go through a sexual awakening as the libertine era heated up Europe and French literature and tales of l'amour and erotic theater gained popularity in Warsaw.32 The elite held risqué costume balls and salacious carnivals in the Saxon Gardens near the royal castle that lured the legendary Venetian lothario Giacomo Casanova to carouse Warsaw's racy nightlife with the Polish king. In his memoirs Casanova wrote, "The carnival was a brilliant one. All Europe seemed to have assembled at Warsaw to see the happy being whom fortune had so unexpectedly raised to a throne."33
The infamous playboy had a grand time in Poland and took advantage of all the cold and brutal practices that feudal society had to offer. Impoverished serfs had to slave away in the fields, but they also suffered indignities for their families. The loathsome droit de seigneur, the lord's right to deflower virgins, was still common practice in Europe. Visiting one of the Czartoryski palaces, Casanova wrote, "A peasant girl who came into my room pleased me, and she ran away crying out one morning when I tried to do something with her."34
The caretaker came running to check on the commotion and told Casanova to go about it in "the straightforward way." When Casanova asked what he meant by "the straightforward way," the caretaker replied, "Talk to her father, who is here, and ask him amicably if he will sell you her maidenhead."
The go-between suggested a price of fifty florins, to which Casanova replied, "You are jesting. If she is a maiden, and gentle as a lamb, I will give him a hundred."
Casanova paid the peasant girl's father the fee, but the would-be sex slave was not willing to succumb to the oppression forced on her and "ran away like a thief."
In addition to satisfying the carnal desires of his court, Stanislaw invested in universities and invited foreign artists and scholars to Warsaw to stimulate a renaissance in Poland. Italian painters such as Marcello Bacciarelli and Canaletto's nephew, Bernardo Bellotto, filled canvases with scenes of Warsaw's castles and churches.
The king, longing to restore the glory of the Hussar Knights, established a military academy known as the Knights' School to educate and instill chivalry and patriotism in a new generation of officers. Stanislaw chose his cousin Prince Czartoryski to develop a curriculum and head the new military academy, which was the perfect job for the erudite Czartoryski. The king and the prince began a nationwide search for intelligent and patriotic cadets for their new academy.
When word spread that Poland had opened a new military academy, another colorful character to show up in Warsaw was British colonel Charles Lee. Lee was a restless British officer who lived in the American colonies where he fought in the French and Indian War, the American theater of the Seven Years' War. He was adopted by the Mohawk tribe and married the daughter of a Seneca chief and was dubbed Ounewaterika, meaning "boiling water," or "the spirit that never sleeps."35
Upon returning to London, Lee was denied his petition to become a general in the British army, so he sought greater experience by obtaining a post in the Polish army. The Poles were in no position to expand their military, so Lee agreed to serve as Stanislaw's aide-de-camp. Starting in 1764, he served for several years in the royal court in Warsaw. Lee was given a seat at the king's table and an apartment in Prince Czartoryski's palace. The English officer was so taken by Stanislaw that he wrote home asking that his prized possession, a sword once owned by Oliver Cromwell, be delivered to Warsaw so he could present it to the king as a gift.36
When Lee returned to London, King George III still deemed his foreign experience and social status insufficient to merit promotion in the British army. So before the outbreak of the American Revolution, the disappointed Lee again sailed for the colonies, where he enlisted in the Continental Army and was finally commissioned as a general.
Like Lee, King Stanislaw was also upset about the chain of command that forced his hand. Outwardly it appeared as though the king was in charge, but in reality he was trapped between Poland's wealthy land magnates, the Catholic Church, idealistic political reformers, and the Russian agent in Warsaw, Prince Repnin, who was calling the shots.
While the richest nobles were living it up in Warsaw, the rest of the nation was floundering. The Kosciuszkos were among those who struggled financially. Originally of Lithuanian-Ruthenian stock, their tongue-twisting name came from "Konstanty [Constantine] son of Teodora," and evolved into Kost-iuszko, the diminutive of "small bone." They spoke Polish and identi.ed with Poland's culture to earn acceptance by the nobility, becoming so patriotic that in 1509 the Polish monarch presented them with an official coat of arms, dubbing them the Roch clan and later granting them the villages of Mereczowszczyzna and iechnowicze.37
Ludwig Kosciuszko had the ceremonial rank of colonel and the title "Sword-bearer of Brest."38 But by the mid-eighteenth century the Hussar Knights were merely a memory of Poland's former glory, and much like the historical war reenactments of modern times, on holidays the Polish nobles would dust off the Hussar armor and weapons in museums and dress up and parade around.39 These reenactors and their woebegone celebrations of the nation's military heritage stirred the imagination of Thaddeus Kosciuszko, who dreamed of joining the military.
After his father's death the family's financial difficulties forced Kosciuszko to leave the Piarist school and his studies of ancient Greece, to return to the family estate for homeschooling.
Kosciuszko's mother, Tekla Ratomska, ran the homestead after the death of her husband. She managed the work of the peasants on the Kosciuszko estate, which was spread out across several hamlets, and had to ensure the peasants made optimal use of the numerous plows and farming tools to get the most out of the plantation's fruit orchards, vegetable gardens, wheat fields, bakery, brewery, malt house, grain silos, dairy, cheese-making cribs, chicken coops, pigsties, and barns stocked with horses and cows.40
As her elder son would receive the largest inheritance, Tekla made sure her younger son kept up his studies with an uncle and a priest who was a friend of the family. Kosciuszko excelled in geometry and in drawing, and his artistic talents were noticed early on by the priests in his school.
Kosciuszko was eighteen when Stanislaw Augustus Poniatowski became king of Poland. He lived far from the excitement of the Polish capital, but got the chance of a lifetime when he learned that Prince Czartoryski was looking for talented recruits for the Royal Knight School. The priests and local noblemen recommended Kosciuszko, and Prince Czartoryski arranged for a scholarship to send him to Warsaw, where he enrolled in the military academy's inaugural class.
The cosmopolitan Czartoryski used his foreign contacts to recruit talented scholars to teach at the academy, such as the famous barrister from Oxford, John Lind, the French military tactician Le Roy de Bosroger, and Prus sian military experts Friedrich Gunther, and Antoni Leopold Oelsnitz. Oelsnitz lectured on the ancient treatise of Roman warfare written by Flavius Vegetius Renatus during the waning days of the Roman Empire. It was a manual for military training, logistics, and supply lines.
And while two centuries earlier the Catholic Church had denounced as heresy the heliocentric theory developed in Poland by astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, Czartoryski pushed for more scientific research by purchasing a "planetary machine" in Britain that showed how the planets orbit around the sun.41
Kosciuszko was so eager to get a jump on his studies that before going to bed he tied a string to his hand, leaving the other end out in the hallway. He asked the night watchman to tug on it to wake him at 3:00 a.m. during his rounds to stoke the furnaces.42 In addition to learning about fort construction and topography, his classes included practical geography for mapmaking, trigonometry, drawing, and engineering.
The ambitious student dedicated his mind and body to becoming a Sobieski-type Hussar Knight. He aggressively practiced swordsmanship with his classmates, sometimes even drawing blood. Although he was one of the most physical students at the academy, rather than bullying the weaker students, he became one of the most popular cadets because he was unpretentious and likable. He studied with equal gusto. One lesson was about Swedish king Charles XII, the savvy tactician whose success fighting the Russian troops of Peter the Great made him a popular role model for the officer corps. Kosciuszko's physical endurance and identification with the Scandinavian leader earned him the nickname "the Swede" among the cadets.43
When a pompous governor from one of the provinces insulted a cadet at a reception in Warsaw, it was "the Swede" who was chosen by his school chums to visit the royal castle and restore their honor by informing the king of the slight. Kosciuszko was so persuasive that the king ordered the arrogant official to apologize to his cadets. King Stanislaw was impressed with Kosciuszko and invited him to visit the castle periodically to provide progress reports about the new school.
After Kosciuszko's visit to the royal palace, the king had a greater interest in the academy. These future military leaders had their intellectual, spiritual, and physical needs catered to at the academy, and in the libertine atmosphere of the era of Stanislaw Augustus, this included allowing them to fulfill their erotic desires. Prostitution was rampant in the capital, and with the blatant sexuality exhibited in the arts, the cadets had a good time, often attending the same bawdy banquets as the noble class.44
While the king's public persona was that of a playboy who was loyal to Catherine the Great, behind the scenes he was trying to build an infrastructure to challenge Russia's dominance. But with the czarina's ambassador-provocateur, Prince Repnin, breathing down his neck, Stanislaw had to show discretion.
Several of the noble families did not see the patriotic side of Stanislaw, however, viewing him as a mere puppet of the Russian czarina. On February 29, 1768, they met in southern Poland in a town called Bar, where they established a confederate government. The Bar confederates were led by Joseph Pulaski, a nobleman whose son, Casimir, led a cavalry in several successful skirmishes against the Russians, taking control of several Polish provinces in the South.
French king Louis XV sent a spy, Charles François Dumouriez, to Poland to help the Bar confederates, and Austria allowed the rebels use of its territory. King Stanislaw was sympathetic with issues raised by the confederates and onsidered making peace, or even joining them, until Dumouriez denounced him as a tyrant and a traitor.45
A civil war erupted, and Poles were forced to take sides. Kosciuszko had worked his way up to lieutenant and was employed at the academy as an instructor, which led to a promotion to captain of the artillery because of his mathematical skills and ability to project accurately the range and line of fire for cannons.
When fighting broke out Kosciuszko had the difficult choice of joining Pulaski's confederates, who wanted to overthrow the king and drive out the Russians, or supporting his patrons, the monarch and the Czartoryski family, who favored a gradual strategy of shaking off Russian domination. In either scenario he would fight his own countrymen in a lost cause. Believing that the king had Poland's best interests at heart, Kosciuszko and his friend Capt. Joseph Orlowski avoided the cross fire between Poles by taking advantage of a scholarship for advanced studies in Paris.
In the autumn of 1769 Kosciuszko and Orlowski arrived in Paris, where they checked in to the Hotel Luxembourg and enrolled at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. Their real goal was to acquire military expertise, but as foreigners they could not officially attend the école Militaire or the military engineering academy at Mézières, so they tracked down professors from the military schools to tutor them privately.
Kosciuszko learned the war strategies of Marshal Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban, Europe's foremost authority on building and besieging forts. He studied architecture with Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, the civil engineer who had built the most beautiful bridges, roads, and buildings in Paris.46 When not in class Kosciuszko spent time in cafés swilling coffee and soaking up the political ideas that were brewing before the French Revolution.47 He read Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose idea of a social contract between government and the people especially influenced him.
But the biggest impact on his life was that of a new philosophy called physiocracy, developed by the economist François Quesnay. Physiocrats held that land was the only true source of wealth, and agriculture the key to prosperity. They believed that only those who owned or leased land should be taxed. They opposed forced labor for serfs and argued that peasants should be able to migrate to find work. They advocated a natural law under which government took a hands-off, laissez-faire approach to economics. They opposed taxes on farmers and their harvest and argued that free markets would bring individual liberty and economic security. Physiocracy had major implications for Poland because it would essentially end feudalism.48
While becoming more cosmopolitan, Kosciuszko never forgot that his real mission was to soak up as much engineering knowledge as the French could offer. "As it pertains to soldiering, as your highness has advised," Kosciuszko wrote to Prince Czartoryski from Paris, he was studying French "construction of bridges, flood gates, roads, dams, canals, etc."49
After his schooling in Paris, Kosciuszko traveled to Holland to learn how the Dutch built dikes so he could help solve the water management issues of the swamps and marshlands in Poland. He also visited En gland, Switzerland, Saxony, and the ruins of ancient Rome before heading home. This added perspective convinced him that his political idealism was well founded. Many years later he said of his early travels, "Throughout my five years in foreign lands I studied in order to become proficient in economics and military matters, for which things I had a native passion, so as to discover what was necessary to attain durable government and the due happiness of all."50
During Kosciuszko's absence from Poland one of the Bar confederates hatched an ill-advised plot to kidnap King Stanislaw and force him to join the fight against Russia. At first Pulaski opposed the plan but changed his mind once he was assured that the king would not be harmed. The rebels hijacked the king's carriage and took him into custody. But before they could move him to a safe place, Stanislaw escaped.
Rumors spread that Pulaski had tried to assassinate the king, and he was convicted in absentia of regicide. A Polish court ruled that the crime was so heinous that if Pulaski was caught, his head was to be chopped off and his body quartered, burned, and the ashes thrown to the winds.
Russia and its Polish puppets crushed the Bar Rebellion, but news of the botched kidnapping sent shivers down the spine of monarchs across Europe. Poland's neighbors took advantage of its internal strife. On February 19, 1772, meeting in Vienna— the city Sobieski's knights had rescued from the Ottoman Empire— Russia, Prussia, and Austria each signed a pact to carve out a piece of the commonwealth's territory for themselves. In August the armies of these nations attacked the Commonwealth from all sides, and each annexed a piece of its land. Poland, weakened by civil war, was in no position to resist. It was the first of three partitions in which Poland would be attacked by its neighbors.
Stanislaw reached out for help to Britain's King George III, who replied, "Misfortunes have reached the point where redress can be had from the hand of the Almighty alone, and I see no other intervention that can afford a remedy."51 A similar call for help to France's King Louis XV was completely ignored, as the French aristocrats ironically refused to help what they called "a country of nobles."52
By the time Kosciuszko returned to Poland in 1774, his two sisters had married and his brother, Joseph, had squandered the inheritance from their parents and mortgaged much of the estate. Frustrated that his knowledge from abroad could not be put to ser vice for his country because officer commissions in the shrinking army had to be purchased, Kosciuszko searched for another career, migrating between the homes of his sisters and his uncle. On occasion he traveled to Warsaw to see his friends. One evening he joined his fellow graduates and the students of the Knights' School, who were invited to a formal ball in honor of the king given by Count Zamoyski. It was there that Kosciuszko met the love of his life.
Excerpted from THE PEASANT PRINCE by Alex Storozynski
Copyright © 2009 by Alex Storozynski
Published in May 2009 by St. Martin's Press
All rights reserved. This work is protected under copyright laws and reproduction is strictly prohibited. Permission to reproduce the material in any manner or medium must be secured from the Publisher.
Meet the Author
Alex Storozynski is president and executive director of the Kosciuszko Foundation. Also a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist, he was an editorial board member at the New York Daily News, the founding editor of amNew York, and a former city editor and contributing editor to the The New York Sun. He lives in West Orange, New Jersey.
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What a great biography! That was a real unexpected catch on Saturday shopping. Aside from finding out a lot of unknown information about Kosciuszko I learned great deal about the society and customs of the XVIII and XIX centuries in Europe and America. Some very spicy details! Great writing too!
I usually read mostly contemporary biographies, and was pleasantly surprised at how much I enjoyed reading this story. The writing just flows and keeps you captive from the first chapter until the very end. There's great detail and it's all interesting. I'm sorry that I didn't have this book around when I studied the American Revolution in History - it would have made the course a lot more exciting!
I was amazed at the thorough research conducted by Alex Storozynski, and enjoyed reading the entire work. In the intro Storozynski mentioned that he wanted the true person of Kosciuszko to be portrayed, and not just a eulogized image, and that purpose was most definitely fulfilled. You meet a real a man with a real human nature, someone you can identify with, and also greatly admire because of his nobleness of purpose and his perseverance to his ideals of equality for all humanity, and the freedom he desired for his homeland, Poland. My only problem with the book, was there were a few times that I wanted to know 'more' and I can easily see how the book could be twice its length! I don't know how long Storozynski spent conducting research and writing, but his depth of knowledge of Kosciuszko and Polish history is evident. I also really enjoyed Storozynski's 'word-smithing' that was evident throughout the book, from the chapter titled 'Napoleon comes up short' (gotta love that one!) to "It would be sixty years before the healing powers of the fountains of Lourdes would first mystify southern France, yet when Kosciuszko's ship docked nearby at the port of Bayonne on June 28, 1798, he cast aside his crutches and stood up on his own." Being much more than just a list of facts in chronological order, Storozynski's book brings you face to face with real people. He not only brought the person of Kosciuszko alive to me, but I also enjoyed meeting others. I didn't realize that Niemcewicz was such a blabber mouth and tried to ride Kosciuszko's coat tails. And Chief Little Turtle's advice on having an affair with Catherine was priceless. Jefferson came alive, as did others, like Ludwika his first love. I had no idea that Kosciuszko's will (the purpose of which was to free and educate African slaves in America) never materialized after his death. I also had not realized the Washington/Lafayette vs the Jefferson/Kosciuszko connection and found that thought-provoking as well. And I really enjoyed reading about the last part of his life. In my own studies on Kosciuszko, I had not come across any more than 'he spent the last years of his life in Switzerland with the Zeltner family.' I love the prayer that he wrote during his last years. there was just so much that I enjoyed reading and discovering about Kosciuszko that my own copy of Storoznski's book The Peasant Prince has many 'dog-eared' pages so I could easily find this or that fact that fascinated me about this great man's life. This book will captivate anyone who wants to read the life story of a true hero; his trials, triumphs and temptations: and be inspired!
Kosciuszko was an amazing man, mostly known in America as the military engineer who was key to our defenses during the American Revolution, he is truly much more than that. Alex Storozynski brings this man to life through his research and writing. Like Kosciuszko's life, the writing is non-stop action and allows the reader to look into the eyes of Kosciuszko and discover the man: his visions for freedom and liberty for all on both sides of the Atlantic, his passions, his frustrations... from his heroic character to his frail human attempts - Alex brings this man to life. And this man, Tadeusz Kosciuszko is a man whose life and ideals must continue to be told and never forgotten - a true life hero.
I recently saw the author do a book reading on C-SPANs Book TV and was so impressed that I immediately went out and purchased the book. When I got home I realized that I had actually purchased a signed copy. How lucky can you get? I finished the book while on vacation in 4 days. I live in Troy, NY and have traveled many, many times over the Thaddeus Kosciuszko bridge. I knew very little of the man but one of the engineers who built the bridge was a friend of my father's so for most of my life it was Mr. White's bridge. The opportunity to find out about the man who had a bridge named for him intrigued me. I have read other books on the American Revolution but never learned so much as I did when I read this book. As the book closed on the American Revolution, I had to admit that I wasn't sure the rest of his story would hold my attention. I was wrong. Never before had the story of Poland and Europe been explained in such a way. My history teachers did a poor job of relating such interesting facts and people. I don't think the story of Thaddeus Kosciuszko was ever taught. How could he be left out of any story of the world's history at that time? What a noble and fascinating human being. I often wonder where our great thinkers and leaders are now. We seem overwhelmed with public figures who are all about greed and self promotion. Are our schools presenting history with the attention it should be given in the classroom? Are we presenting the facts and human drama that shaped the course of the world in a way that our young people can make the link between the past, the present and the future? I'm not so sure but I do my part by trying to educate myself and pass on what I learn. This book has done a lot to help me with my very minor effort to enlighten whoever will indulge me as I relate the stories I read. The story of Thaddeus Kosciuszko has given me a lot to talk about as I sit with my children and try to "turn the light on".
If Kosciuszko were alive today, he might well be nominated for "Time" magazine's Man of the Year or even the Nobel Peace Prize. Despite the fact that he fought for US independence and the resurrection of his native Poland, Kosciuszko was a true disciple of the Age of Englightenment; he championed freedom and equality for all ---men, women, African-Americans, Jews, Moslems. Equally at ease with royalty (Tsar Paul I, the Polish king Stanislaw Poniatowski), peasants, slaves and native Americans, he was far ahead of his times in that respect. And throughout his long life he never wavered from his commitment to democracy and freedom. Alex Storozynski has written a well documented history which took ten years to research. Mr. Storozynski included sources from such varied places as Stockbridge and Worcester, Massachusetts to West Point, New York, to Philadelphia, to Warsaw, to Switzerland and other locales. The scholarly research, however, is not dry, boring reading. Instead the book reads like a historical novel, which one can't put down. There are vivid descriptions of battles, especially the Battle of Raclawice in which Kosciuszko and his army of peasants killed approximatelly 800 Russians in the fight to regain Poland's independence in 1794. Mr. Storoznynski's descriptions could easily be pictured as an epic movie comparable to "Ben Hur" or "Gone with the Wind." In addition to being lively and entertaining, the book is also objective in its treatment of Polish history, which is not often the case with some historians. Mr. Storozynski details how the Polish land owners and magnates, as well as some aristocrats helped to subvert the cause of Polish independence with their petty jealous squabbles arising from their fear of democracy and equality. If Kosciuszko appears larger than life in the book, it is based on historical facts on both sides of the Atlantic. "The Peasant Prince" is truly a book for all times. I believe Kosciuszko would be equally at home with President Obama as well as other world leaders today, whether they be Christian, Muslem, Jew, or atheists, of any race or ethnic persuasion.
Finally Polish-American hero has professionally written biography. Kosciuszko was one of those who change the World around him successfully. His visionary mind led him always where people were fighting for freedom. From Poland to France, from France to America than back to Europe and again to America. He was an adventurer what makes book not boring at all. It worth to reed it. Evan in Polish it is hard to find Kosciuszko's biography as good as this one.
The Peasant Price is an absorbing tale of Thaddeus Kosciuszko, Polish freedom fighter and one of the most fascinating figures on the world stage from late 18th and early 19th century. Alex Storozynski introduces us to a man of great character who came to the aide of the United States during the Revolutionary War and against incredible odds never gave up hope for freedom in his home country. This book is thoroughly researched, beautifully written and will leave you inspired and longing for more!
lots of detail about Kosciuszko's part in the United States & later Poland's fight for independence.But to me,his life seemed very sad.He was truly a career military man,fighting for a cause he really believed in.
"The Peasant Prince" is one of the best books I've read on a subject of this nature. The quality of the research and readability of the work have few equals. My impression is that the author has an even handed style, sense of culture and quality of research that recreated the General as a real human being in the context of his times as few others could have done. The author does not hide from General Kosciuszko's human side. But he weaves the tapestry of the facts of his remarkable life into a well paced story that keeps the reader engaged differently than many biographies I've read. In my case, this is particularly true because the author brings into bold relief the profile of a thoroughgoing professional soldier who possessed an unswerving respect for the dignity and right to liberty of all men and women and tempered that love of his fellow man by an unquenchable love of country. Yet, the author makes clear that the General was imbued with an unusually advanced sense of systems and the possible tethered to reality--but not enough that he would not risk everything for what he believed in. As Mr. Storozynski documents, General Kosciuszko put himself at risk of his life more than once for these beliefs. How Mr. Storozynski brings alive the many selfless aspects of the General's character, his philanthropy , especially toward those acts that he as a visionary sensed would advance the liberty, quality of life and creativeness of all men , is a facet of the man too many today may not know. Today's Pole and American do need to have this sense of him. His view of education alone was well beyond his times. There are many beautifully crafted passages of the work that I am reviewing in my mind--but one as a person of Polish heritage that is so poignant it brought quite a personal reaction because it spoke to everything the man was, needs to be mentioned. The little vignette of Poles in a Russian regiment reaching the outskirts of Paris and foraging when confronted by the old peasant who addressed them in Polish admonishing them for taking from the helpless--the officers coming forward and asking who he thought he was to take such liberties and receiving the answer--"I am Kosciuszko." The reaction of the soldiers as the author describes it was to me the essence of the entire book and the man. Even in that humble guise--Kosciuszko would put himself at risk to stop a wrong to those who could not defend or protect themselves. But more to the point--by the immediate response of the soldiers some 21 years after he commanded the Polish Army of the uprising, clearly this man was the Polish nation in spirit. These young Polish soldiers paid instant homage to this selfless hero of Poland. And the French peasants so respected him as a friend and citzen that they would risk themselves to protect him. The sense of Kosciuszko that Mr. Storozynski so beautifully creates in his work once again brings him to a living generation of Poles, Americans and the world in such way that we can appreciate a very brave, good and selfless champion of liberty who is relevant to our times.
The Peasant Prince by Alex Storozynski is an extensively researched yet easy flowing novel which illuminates the life of an American revolutionary general, engineer and hero, Thaddeus Kosciuszko. Ironically, what has long relegated this extremely important personality to the shadows of our colonial American chronicles is precisely what makes this book such a good read. We know our Revolutionary history largely through our various home-spun heroes-- George Washington, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, etc.-and, because of this, our historic understanding tends to be confined to home - that is, our original thirteen colonies. Thaddeus Kosciuszko was not an American, but a Pole, a minor aristocrat in class-stratified society which, like most of Europe, was still trying to break out of the cocoon of feudalism. We see a young man who falls in requited love, but cannot consummate that love in marriage because of class boundaries and is driven from his love and his land by an aristocrat more powerful than himself. This fate set this forlorn hero on a path to America, not to fight the British, but to fight for all the universal principles of liberty as enunciated in our Declaration of Independence. Unlike his American contemporaries, Kosciuszko did not stay in America to enjoy the fruits of victory, though he could have, but returned to Poland to fight for the liberty of his native country. Though the liberty of Poland was not to accomplished in his lifetime, it was a fight he never relinquished, just as he never gave up on his fight for American liberty, which he considered incomplete until slavery was eradicated. Through the life of this "Peasant Prince" as portrayed by Storozynski, I was left with a broader understanding that the American Revolution was merely an isolated part of a much broader Old World struggle for freedom in the eighteenth century.
I was pleasantly surprised to find that I read this book with little effort while it educated me on the historical facts surrounding our revolution and related events in Western AND Eastern Europe. Unexpectedly, the book gave me a good understanding of how history unfolding on both sides of the Atlantic was interconnected. While I was familiar with many of the historical events of Kosciuszko's time, after reading this book I now have a much better feel for their proper sequence and how certain facts or attitudes preceded, prompted or provided inspiration for specific developments occurring elsewhere. The book makes Kosciuszko widely appealing, in that it brings out his experiences which in many ways mirror the experiences of the common people who are frustrated by those who are more powerful, more politically connected, more greedy, cynical, arrogant, and less deserving of merit, position or rewards. By telling the story of Kosciuszko, Storozynski reinforces the notion that kindness, moral courage and hard work do not always bring success and comfort, but yet are values that generate respect, love, gratitude, and admiration, thereby revealing, and re-justifying, to present day Americans, the reason so many of their streets, towns and bridges are named after some guy called Kosciuszko.
An exhilarating read and, at the same time, a very humbling account of a truly remarkable gentleman. He was well ahead of his generation in his views concerning the rights of all men.