Peer-to-Peer Leadership: Why the Network Is the Leader

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Updating Leadership for the Information Age

Our leadership models are stuck in an Industrial Age, top-down mentality. But in our complex, data-drenched, 24/7 world, there is simply too much information coming from too many different directions too quickly for any one leader or group to stay on top of it. Hierarchy is breaking down everywhere—why should leadership be any different?

Inspired by the peer-to-peer model of computing used in social ...

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Updating Leadership for the Information Age

Our leadership models are stuck in an Industrial Age, top-down mentality. But in our complex, data-drenched, 24/7 world, there is simply too much information coming from too many different directions too quickly for any one leader or group to stay on top of it. Hierarchy is breaking down everywhere—why should leadership be any different?

Inspired by the peer-to-peer model of computing used in social networking and crowdsource technologies, Mila Baker shows a new way to lead. Organizations, she says, must become networks of "equipotent" nodes of power—peer leaders. The job of the leader is now to set the overall goals and direction and optimize the health of that network, not tell it what to do. In these organizations, leadership roles shift rapidly to fit the needs of any given situation. Information flows freely so those who need it can find it easily and act on it immediately. Feedback becomes an organic part of the workflow, enabling rapid course corrections.

Baker shows how companies like Gore and Herman Miller have achieved long-term success practicing these principles and provides a structure that any organization can adapt to build flexibility, resiliency, and accountability.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"A thought-provoking approach to leadership and organizational design for our twenty-first-century, hyper-digitally-connected world."
— Mary Whaley, Booklist

“This will be an important and very timely addition to the leadership literature. Peer-to-peer leadership is the main issue of the future.”
—Edgar H. Schein, Professor Emeritus, MIT, and author of Humble Inquiry

“Old-school leaders can still use their authority to command others to shut up and row, but their boats will never be as agile or fast as the ships led using Mila Baker’s principles.”
—Vince Hudson, General Manager, Beauty Care Asia, Procter & Gamble

“Mila Baker completely reconceptualizes the relationship between leaders and followers as a dynamic exchange that will enable organizations to be more nimble, resilient, and resistant to change.”
—Betty King, United States Representative to the United Nations and Other International Organizations in Geneva

“Baker captures exactly what we all see happening in organizations. The power of relationships enables positive change regardless of existing systems, processes, and hierarchy. Baker has a keen eye for spotting these trends, investigating the data, and drawing cogent insights.”
—Joanna B. Miller, cofounder, Miller Black Associates, LLC

“Baker captures powerful forces overlooked by old-school leadership and management models. Dismiss them at your peril!”
—Christopher Whitfield, CEO, Batswadi Pharmaceuticals

“Mila Baker challenges us to rethink all of our basic assumptions about how business enterprises are managed. She very convincingly argues that the hierarchical structure of leadership and management that characterized organizations in the Industrial Age not only has lost its relevance in today’s world but might actually be a hindrance and a handicap. Be prepared to unlearn the conventional wisdom of a bygone era.”
—Emmy Miller, President, Liberty Business Strategies, Ltd.

“Mila Baker challenges traditional modes of leadership in all institutional and organizational settings—corporate, civic, religious, and political. Technology now brings information at the same time to all participants in an enterprise. Therefore, the leader’s role must shift—he or she must now manage the process of bringing shared information into the decision-making center and collectively arriving at a course of action where all participants have shared responsibility for outcomes. This book is indeed revolutionary.”
—Enith Williams, international business consultant and Member, World Ladies Group

“Peer-to-Peer Leadership may make for uncomfortable reading in organizations reliant on hierarchy. Mila Baker describes and ably exemplifies an organizational peer-to-peer archetype requiring fundamental changes to organizations: to their leadership and their design. Thought provoking—the debate the book is sure to raise is exactly what a peer-to-peer organization would want to start to remodel itself.”
—Patricia Cichocki, founder, Design to Change, and coauthor of Organization Design

“Mila Baker’s new peer-to-peer model of leadership is designed from the viewpoint that individuals are autonomous, collaborative, self-reliant, and able and willing to deal with changing circumstances to forward the purpose of their organization. Treat everyone as a leader and the organization will strengthen and grow—Baker’s book shows how.”
—Peter Roche, cofounder and Managing Partner, The London Perret Roche Group

“Mila Baker really nails it in Peer-to-Peer Leadership. She shows leaders how they can unleash the power in their organizations by sharing information openly and freely. This book may make some leaders uncomfortable, but those who will succeed in the 21st century will embrace its cutting-edge ideas and put them to work.”
—Bud Bilanich, “The Common Sense Guy,” author and career mentor

“The paradigm for effective leadership is changing. Companies can no longer rely on single individuals. And teams are not always best suited to address every situation. Fortunately, Mila Baker offers both practical and provocative insights leaders and followers alike can use to lead in an era of globalization, proliferating technology, and nonstop dialogue with customers—what she calls the ‘peer-to-peer approach.’”
—Claudy Jules, Global Lead, Human Capital Strategy, Accenture

“Are you ready to rethink your notions of leadership and organization design? In this thought-provoking book, Mila Baker gets us to examine the way organizations really function and the way leadership works in a world where collaboration is king. Using examples from politics, business, computing, and education, Mila helps you explore what it means to be a leader and a follower in a networked world. Read this book from cover to cover; you will be glad you did.”
—Dick and Emily Axelrod, authors of the forthcoming Time Well Spent

“Equipotency. Take a good look at that word. P2P architecture, as well as your future and mine, is built upon it. Equipotency, node communities, and the ‘new’ relational dynamics you’ll learn about in this book aren’t theory. Far from it. They’re here now. Box up the old gadgets before it’s too late. What an amazing book! I can’t wait to buy a full case to share.”
—David Sanford, author, speaker, consultant, and Director of Institutional Marketing, Corban University

“Mila Baker has conceived a powerful 21st-century model of human organization. Of particular interest is the fluidity of leading and following when team members work in ‘equipotent,’ nonhierarchical relationships. She helps us see and understand the evolution that is occurring in our lifetime and how to harness its full potential.”
—Ira Chaleff, author of The Courageous Follower

“A revolution in the concept of leadership is afoot. Baker’s paradigm-shattering insight into the nature of peer networking redefines the whole field of leadership studies by illustrating that modern leadership is a characteristic of groups that function more like a peer-to-peer computer network than a command-and-control hierarchy.”
—Tom Thomson, Adjunct Professor, New York University

“Applying lessons learned from technology and social media, Mila Baker’s Peer-to-Peer Leadership breaks new ground in presenting how peer-to-peer interactions can fundamentally change organizations. A must-read.”
—Frederick A. Miller, CEO, and Judith H. Katz, Executive Vice President, The Kaleel Jamison Consulting Group, Inc., and coauthors of The Inclusion Breakthrough and Opening Doors to Teamwork and Collaboration

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781609947477
  • Publisher: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
  • Publication date: 1/6/2014
  • Pages: 240
  • Sales rank: 225,907
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Mila N. Baker is associate director, faculty affairs, and clinical associate professor, organization behavior, at New York University. She has served in senior HR and leadership positions at the World Bank and at Fortune 500 companies such as Dana Corporation, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson (at the Ethicon Endo-Surgery unit). She holds a doctorate in organization behavior, clinical psychology, from the University of Cincinnati and studied executive leadership at MIT. She is a board member of Human Resources People & Strategy, past board chair of OD Network, and past treasurer of ASTD.

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Read an Excerpt



By Mila N. Baker

Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Copyright © 2014 Mila N. Baker
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-60994-747-7


The Language of Leadership

The current definitions and historical models of leadership are rooted in the relationship between two entities—leader and follower. Terms such as "leader-member," "in-group and out-group," "power over," talent and workforce, and "power through" highlight the traditional models, while terms such as "empowerment," "subordinates," and "followers" conjure up images of servitude and second-class citizenship. All of them differentiate each entity in terms of status and imply a certain level of inequality. There is no job description for or position called "Follower Specialist." The role of follower is more often than not viewed in negative terms while the role of leader represents a virtuous mantle of aspiration. Leadership was, and largely still is, reserved for a very few while the very many follow. The language of leadership reflects and supports this division between leader and follower, and neither the definition nor the language of leadership is sufficient for the world today.

After the Great Depression of the 1930s in the United States and the post-World War II era when people returned to work, loyal followership often guaranteed lifelong employment and ensured that one could care for and feed one's family (and, upon retirement, get a watch as a token of appreciation). Employers could almost guarantee that subordinates would do whatever was necessary to earn their pay and small rewards. The negative connotation of the word "follower" was far less painful to swallow than the inability to care for oneself or one's family. Even as the informal and unwritten employment contracts began to erode and change in the latter part of the twentieth century, only to be rendered completely obsolete in the twenty-first century, there were many instances where employees felt compelled to follow blindly—even in situations of blatant abuse and illegal behavior. The economic conditions of the time helped support the divide and distinctions between leaders and followers. The landscape has changed quite a bit since the 1930s, but the language we use remains a remnant of a bygone past. Our responses to and the visceral images created by that language linger. Instead of reinforcing age-old divisions, we need a mindset and language of leadership that maintains equilibrium between leading and following—a conception of leadership that is agile and stateless in its composition. Like the U.S. constitution guides and influences the nation's trajectory without stifling the rights and freedoms of its populace, organizations' designs need to facilitate leading and following on an equal platform. Neither leaders nor followers can achieve success without the other, and both can render an organization noncompetitive or cause it to underachieve its mission.

Leadership and the Tech Revolution

The rapid advancement of technology and the proliferation of mobile and other network-attached devices have been the catalyst and tipping point for all types of changes in how we consume media, organize data, and communicate with each other. The medium and the messages are shifting. Conversely, our views of leadership and organizational life have been slow to change. These fundamental shifts in technology and media consumption have blurred the boundaries of communication within organizations, which has in turn blurred the distinction between leaders and followers and also the media and messages they use to communicate. Traditional leadership models and prevailing paradigms based on these roles are no longer suited for the world we live in today. A digital revolution is driving complexity and pace. It presents enormous challenge and opportunity. There are new computational tools and voluminous data of all types.

One of the most profound shifts has been an erosion of individual power and authority, with an unearthing of collective power enabled through social media. Historically, power and authority have been granted to or taken by a few and reinforced through organizational hierarchy and structure. Today, informal, social networks like Twitter and Facebook are usurping the power of some formal, hierarchical networks. We need to challenge ourselves and ask the question, What is the rationale for maintaining the outmoded and cumbersome organizational layers and vertical hierarchies? Why haven't we embraced Fritz Capra's notion that all learning systems are coordinated by network? We have been discussing the notion of the organization as a social system for quite some time.

While the focus on informal networks is generally discussed in terms of social networks and social relationships—not related to power and authority within networks—each of these shifts challenges the notion of command-and-control leadership and the clearly delineated roles of leader and follower. In the case of the Arab Spring, informal networks allowed individuals to organize more efficiently. The power of subordinates and followers was significantly elevated, and traditional, hierarchical leadership was overthrown in a very concrete way.

Technology has also disrupted structural boundaries within organizations. Like an earthquake fault line that releases energy associated with rapid movement and structural shifting, there is a leadership fault line that has fractured and resulted in discontinuity and a permanent fracture in our traditional leadership formations. The organization is flattened, matrixed, and decentralized as it incorporates tools and emerging technologies into many areas of operation (e.g., enterprise systems, social media for customers and potential employees, etc.). The structural boundaries within organizations have been permanently altered as a result of technological eruptions and explosions and to accommodate some of the shifts, leaders and followers move into these new forms of organizational structure.

Too often, organizations see technological advances as, primarily, the Information Technology department's responsibility. External forces, customer demands, or security concerns often drive how an organization responds to shifts in landscape, be they technological or otherwise. Organizations rarely integrate internal organizational changes in advance of a specific cause-and-effect event. This lack of planning places an organization in a perpetual cycle of reactionary change and, frequently, behind the curve. Rather than temper or hedge the effect of technology on an organization's infrastructure, the desired action should be to embrace new developments and leverage them to their fullest potential.

The shift to power of the masses within organizations is unleashing the grip of command-and-control leadership. More specifically, command-and-control leadership is losing its grip on the organizational clutch. Where hierarchy and traditional organizational structures either intentionally or unintentionally acted as a barrier to equality, new technological advances erase those barriers. Even when leaders within traditional models make attempts to treat everyone as an equal and genuinely see the value of doing so, the traditional organizational structures and lexicon stand as impermeable, and often invisible, barriers. Leading in the twenty-first century requires a new structure and design that is more suited to the realities of today. This is a journey that many organizations have begun, and they are taking steps forward.

Individuality and Equality

In recent years, there has been a shift in the balance between organizational leadership and individuality evidenced by the disparity between pay among senior leaders and pay for the average worker. The justification for the increase in CEO compensation and the huge severance packages for senior executives who leave underperforming organizations are reflections of the focus on the value of the individual.

Since the founding of the United States, the balance between individuality and equality has, over time, shifted toward one pole or the other. Where power was once concentrated in the hands of few at the top of traditional hierarchies, the revolutions in technology have abruptly swung the pendulum back toward equality of the masses. The influence of power and authority has diminished.

Today, new books have surfaced that discuss the rise of the power of followers, the need for more empowerment, or how to make leaders act like followers and followers act like leaders. There have been calls to de-emphasize command-and-control leadership in favor of a more matrixed or hybrid organization structure. In spite of all the adjustments—command-and-control tweaks and redesign, ultimately—the language and message is still rooted in a model dominated by traditional hierarchy.

What Is Peer-to-Peer Computing Technology and How Is It Related to Leadership?

Today, computer technology is no longer just a tool, but a social and structural phenomenon that makes information readily accessible and more transparent. In an environment where communication comes in real time and from closer to the source (if not the source itself), anyone can take the lead. In its classic sense, peer-to-peer (P2P) computing is network architecture for data sharing. Its use began more than thirty years ago and moved onto the center stage of computing with the introduction of distributed music file sharing at the turn of the twenty-first century. For our purposes, peer-to-peer is a type of architecture that influences the transfer of information, social exchange, and discourse.

The P2P architecture is unique in that its processes are built using dynamic and changing structures that adapt themselves as needed. Where older, client-server systems required information to be centralized and then distributed from that center, the dynamic structures within P2P comprise a network of peer nodes (computers, phones, and other devices) used for communication and collaboration. Information is decentralized, and all nodes can send and receive information within a P2P network. The interaction or exchange between peer nodes is a relational dynamic that reflects an egalitarian network. All nodes within a P2P network are equal and function as equally privileged participants in the larger whole—a concept known as equipotency.

Equipotency is based on an operational premise that the P2P network does not know where a needed resource or asset will be located, and that any node may be capable of being a resource to any other node in that network. The architectural structure is designed so that every available node can be ready to fulfill a need as it arises. In their dual roles, all peer nodes are both suppliers and consumers of resources (assets). Each node supplies or shares assets and each node consumes resources based on need.

In traditional, client-server models, formal rules dictate the role of client and the role of server—information flows from the centralized server out to the client. The P2P architecture is a departure from the traditional client-server model in that there are no formal rules or advance decisions made to determine whom the participatory members are or how they must relate to each other. All rules are generated from within, and there is no central coordinator or dedicated master server.

The P2P model can be used to reframe the concept of organizational leadership and organizational architecture. It enables us to take a fresh new look at the authoritarian and centralized notions of current organizational leadership approaches. While traditional hierarchies place emphasis on a certain chain of command, P2P architecture places emphasis on the organizing and indexing of data (both archival, real-time inputs), so that nodes in the organization act as both servers and clients (senders and receivers) of the data. In this model, the network itself becomes the leader as it constantly computes raw data and turns it into actionable information.

In a P2P organization, layers are flattened, and spans are spherical. Each node is interdependent on the next, making each node responsible and accountable to the whole and allowing the question of what should be done to supersede the question of who is in charge. Cooperation and collaboration among and between equals to achieve common tasks in pursuit of a common good then becomes far more important than an individual's traditional status as a "leader" or "follower."

The Difference between a New Theory and a Paradigm Shift

Traditional organizational structures are based on mechanical models of organizations from the Frederick Taylor days of industrial management and leadership. As late as the 1960s, the literature surrounding organizational structure described it using mechanical language—cogs on a wheel. While the mechanical command-and-control leadership models are still alive and thriving, technology has forced us to confront a new reality—organization structures cannot be understood in purely mechanical terms. There is a natural order to the flow and structure within an organization that now calls for correction and a fundamental shift in the understanding of leadership. It is a shift to a model where knowledge and intelligence is distributed throughout the organization from the periphery of the system to the center of the system—a shift that allows us to look at a more integrative model between individuals, work units, and the organization. Rather than seeing each as separate, mechanical entities or organizational silos, the shift to P2P allows us to see combinations of natural, organizing entities.

Those of us who practice or teach leadership have lulled ourselves into a false sense of security with the proliferation of new theories and new books on leadership, but these theories are largely remiss in detailing the fundamental change in landscape sculpted by the rise of informal networks. This failure to see the P2P future threatens to push organizations who embrace traditional leadership structures into a reactionary corner rather than a position of being able to leverage the powers of this new, natural order.

As early as 1935, Kurt Lewin wrote of the importance of the interactions between individuals and their environment. More recently, Ira Chaleff spoke of the shift in the balance of power between leaders and followers and how leaders can no longer ignore the influence of internal and external stakeholders. There is now recognition that broader context and all constituents are critical—not just customers, employees, and shareholders; not just founders and donors.

Informal networks have become as powerful as traditional hierarchies—and in some cases, more powerful. Organizations have responded in a variety of ways that range from putting constraints on employees' use of services like Facebook and Twitter to doing nothing at all. In attempts to bring parity between leaders and followers, organizations are beginning to recognize this as a futile effort given the current structure of organizations and many governments, but few if any have tried to harness the power of peer-to-peer architecture in the very structure of their organizations.

In most organizations, relationships and information flow are organized in some form of hierarchical structure, but this doesn't need to be the only model. From popular movements in Tunisia and Egypt to Occupy Wall Street (OWS), the influence of an integrated network of equally privileged participants sharing information is producing a radical paradigm shift in the way we connect and relate to one another. People in social networks act much like "peer nodes" in P2P network architecture. The world no longer must rely on traditional hierarchical order to transmit or receive information.


When Canadian geese migrate, they fly in a V-formation to move quickly and fly longer than they could as individuals. Geese use synergy—the law of nature that recognizes that working together creates a greater result than could be achieved alone. The pendulum has swung such that leadership now requires synergy and an adjustment that better suits the realities of the time. The rationale for the importance of both leading and following is that data moves too quickly. No one has the capacity to know everything they need to know or to convert all the data to information needed to be successful in the twenty-first century.

What we have is not working. The disparity between principle and established practice is transparent to the masses. Elaborate leadership development programs, coaching initiatives, a proliferation of leadership books and "best practice" guidance, and reinforcement from other organizations that only expand on current practice are no longer viable solutions or sufficient for building effective leadership. Barbara Kellerman, a Harvard professor, leadership expert, and author of The End of Leadership has questioned whether the leadership industry—with its myriad of books, articles and training—actually does what it claims to do: that is, grow leaders. She also questions whether leadership can be taught at all. Its demands have certainly shifted. Few organizations have adjusted or adapted to the new reality, and still fewer see the integral connection between organizational leadership and organization design. Informal networks like Facebook and Twitter are becoming more powerful than many organizational structures, and current leadership approaches and organization designs are not aligned to the new reality. To the contrary, we have seen more transparency to failed leadership and more calls for a new approach.

Excerpted from PEER TO PEER LEADERSHIP by Mila N. Baker. Copyright © 2014 Mila N. Baker. Excerpted by permission of Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Part One What is P2P?
Chapter 1 Dynamic  Decision-making
Chapter 2 Interactive Nodes
Chapter 3 Applying P2P within organizations
Part Two  P2 Environments:  A New Organization Dimension
Chapter 4 Motivate the Behemoth
Chapter 5 Internal Audit
Chapter 6 The Nature and Nurture of P2P
Chapter 7 Changing the Organizational Architecture
Part Three  Pp At Work (Deploying Pp)
Chapter 8 Case Studies
Chapter 9 Role of Leadership and Organization Development in P2P
Chapter 10 Profiles in Courage

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  • Posted January 7, 2014

    Equipotency. Take a good look at that word. P2P architecture, an

    Equipotency. Take a good look at that word. P2P architecture, and your future and mine, are built upon it.

    Equipotency is why I immediately handed my brand-new mobile device to my youngest daughter. ‘Have fun! Let me know what it does.’ She came back with a list of 24 gadgets I no longer needed and 6 more ‘you should have bought but now have in your hand.’

    Equipotency is why I recruit an eclectic mixture of trusted friends and colleagues-twice-removed to explore the possibilities of my latest marketing ideas. They can take me farther this afternoon and evening than I could trek in two weeks.

    Equipotency, node communities, and the ‘new’ relational dynamics you’ll learn about in this book aren’t theory. Far from it. They’re here, now. Box up the old gadgets before it’s too late.

    What an amazing book! I've already ordered a case to share with key colleagues. I encourage you to do the same...

    —David Sanford, Author, Speaker, Consultant and Director of Institutional Marketing at Corban University

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