Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea / Edition 4

Hardcover (Print)
Buy Used
Buy Used from BN.com
$118.12
(Save 32%)
Item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging.
Condition: Used – Good details
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $98.56
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 43%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (12) from $98.56   
  • New (4) from $139.01   
  • Used (8) from $98.56   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 2
Showing 1 – 10 of 12 (2 pages)
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$98.56
Seller since 2005

Feedback rating:

(49559)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

Very Good
Ships same day or next business day via UPS (Priority Mail for AK/HI/APO/PO Boxes)! Used sticker and some writing and/or highlighting. Used books may not include working access ... code or dust jacket. Read more Show Less

Ships from: Columbia, MO

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$139.01
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(18019)

Condition: New
Brand New, Perfect Condition, Please allow 4-14 business days for delivery. 100% Money Back Guarantee, Over 1,000,000 customers served.

Ships from: Westminster, MD

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$139.02
Seller since 2007

Feedback rating:

(23678)

Condition: New
BRAND NEW

Ships from: Avenel, NJ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$142.37
Seller since 2009

Feedback rating:

(10819)

Condition: New
New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since 2000.

Ships from: Secaucus, NJ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$152.59
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(18019)

Condition: Acceptable
Used, Acceptable Condition, may show signs of wear and previous use. Please allow 4-14 business days for delivery. 100% Money Back Guarantee, Over 1,000,000 customers served.

Ships from: Westminster, MD

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$152.59
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(18019)

Condition: Like New
Brand New, Perfect Condition, Please allow 4-14 business days for delivery. 100% Money Back Guarantee, Over 1,000,000 customers served.

Ships from: Westminster, MD

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$179.95
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(25)

Condition: Acceptable
New York, NY 2001 Hard cover 4th Revised ed. Fair. Sewn binding. Cloth over boards. 664 p. Contains: Unspecified.

Ships from: Pueblo West, CO

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$191.22
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(1)

Condition: Good
Hardcover Good 0471358371 Good condition books may have signs of cover wear and/or marks on corners and page edges. Inside pages may have highlighting, writing and underlining. ... Supplemental materials such as CDs, Access Codes, and Course Packs are not guaranteed to be included. Ships fast from Ontario, delivery is between 5-10 business days. Satisfaction guaranteed! Read more Show Less

Ships from: Ottawa, Canada

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$239.94
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(244)

Condition: New
Hardcover New 0471358371 New Condition *** Right Off the Shelf | Ships within 2 Business Days ~~~ Customer Service Is Our Top Priority! -Thank you for LOOKING: -)

Ships from: Geneva, IL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$998.01
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(17)

Condition: Good
New York, NY 2001 Hard cover 4th Revised ed. Good. Sewn binding. Cloth over boards. 664 p. Contains: Unspecified.

Ships from: Braselton, GA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 2
Showing 1 – 10 of 12 (2 pages)
Close
Sort by

Overview

Need-to-know information on the classification and identification of aquatic invertebrates

This Fourth Edition of the standard reference used by generations of professionals and students is the source for authoritative information on the natural history, ecology, and taxonomy of free-living American freshwater invertebrates. Completely revised and updated, this professional field guide features a wealth of new knowledge on invertebrate animal phyla covered in the previous edition as well as fully modified sections on the preparation of materials.

Other important features of Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, Fourth Edition include:
* Current taxonomical arrangements of all freshwater invertebrate animals, excluding insects
* Improved graphical treatments and keys to identification, several provided by specialists
* Photographs and color plates to aid identification
* More than 300 line drawings, many new to this edition
* Taxonomic keys carried uniformly to genus level in all but two phyla, with frequent references to species

Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, Fourth Edition is an indispensable resource for biologists, ecologists, graduate students, and anyone who needs to acquire the thorough knowledge of aquatic invertebrates that is essential to understanding the community structure of freshwater environments.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"I recommend this book to all freshwater ecologists" (Freshwater Forum, No.18 2002)

"The 4th Edition Continues to be an excellent treatise about the adaptation of invertebrates to freshwater environments." (Journal of the North American Benthological Society, June 2002)

"...The book is beautifully produced, will be a boon to North American users, and a means of broadening the knowledge of students everywhere." (The Naturalist)

"Such a practical writing style makes the book easy to use and a perfect, one of its kind, laboratory manual." (Quarterly Review of Biology, September 2002)

From The Critics
Smith (evolutionary and organismic biology, U. of Massachusetts at Amherst) presents the newest edition of a biological overview of a number of freshwater invertebrates, and also the first not to be penned by its original author, Robert Pennak. With the growth of knowledge of more taxonomic groups, Smith has dropped the chapter on protozoa, as Pennak dropped insects in the preceding edition. After discussing the general ecology of freshwater fauna, separate chapters discuss the biology of the porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nemertea, gastrotricha, rotifera, nematoda, nematomorpha, tardigrada, entoprocta, ectoprocta, annelida, mollusca, arachnida, and a number of crustacea. Chapters provide information on general characteristics; digestive, nervous, reproductive, and other systems, feeding habits; ecologies; and taxonomies. Descriptive illustrations are included throughout and bibliographies are included for each chapter. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471358374
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/28/2001
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 664
  • Product dimensions: 7.13 (w) x 10.16 (h) x 1.53 (d)

Meet the Author

DOUGLAS GRANT SMITH, MS, is a lecturer and curator of invertebrates in the Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Evolutionary and Organismic Biology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States

Porifera to Crustacea
By Douglas Grant Smith

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-35837-1


Chapter One

INTRODUCTION

It is estimated that the freshwater invertebrate fauna of the United States consists of over 11,000 described species. Ten years ago the figure was 10,000 species. Probably no aquatic biologist is of the opinion that this fauna is well known; certainly the total is bound to increase markedly in coming years, especially when the aquatic fauna of the western half of the country is more thoroughly studied. Although a few groups are fairly well known and reasonably stabilized, such as the Rotifera, Ectoprocta, and Pelecypoda, the majority of American freshwater invertebrate groups are in the process of taxonomic refinement. In expanding taxa composed mostly of noncosmopolitan species we are lagging behind European freshwater taxonomy by about 10 to 20 years. All taxonomic questions aside, we are seriously lacking in our understanding of geographic distribution patterns, physiology, natural history, and ecology of freshwater invertebrates in the United States. In a few groups, however, some remarkable progress has been made since the publication of the first edition of this book.

I (RWP) shall not recite long lists of taxa inhabiting freshwaters, comparing them with those found in saltwaters, but remember that only aquatic spiders, mites, insects, pulmonate gastropods, and perhaps the rotifers, cladocerans, and phyllopodus branchiopods are not derived directly from the sea. Rather I (RWP) am interested in considering the morphological and physiological adaptations that have appeared on a grand scale within the freshwater kingdom. In other words, what are the major evolutionary problems that have been solved as prerequisites to an existence within the rigorous freshwater environment, and how do they operate? Some of these items are obvious; others are more subtle and obscure. Furthermore, I (RWP) am restricting my remarks to the "true" freshwater invertebrate fauna, on the one hand, and the "true" marine invertebrate fauna, on the other hand, even though the brackish environment is the site where freshwater adaptations begin and where saltwater adaptations may be lost. A discussion of these comparative and complicated marine-brackish-freshwater faunal relationships and ecological transitions must await another effort. Some such material has already been brought together in several classical works (Green 1968; Newell 1970; Remane and Schlieper 1971). Incidentally, these authors emphasize the fact that the number of "true" brackish species, that is, those that complete their entire life cycles in brackish water, is insignificantly small compared with the numbers of true marine and true freshwater species.

Most of my remarks are centered around north temperate and midlatitude conditions as found in the United States. The reference list is selected and intentionally modest.

MAGNITUDE OF THE FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

Compared with the massive marine environment, the freshwater environment of the world is almost trivial. According to Todd (1970), the waters of the world are distributed as shown in Table 1.1. The oceans, in relation to lotic and lentic habitats together, constitute an unusual ratio of 97.3:0.0091. This means that the mass of saltwater is more than 10,000 times the mass of inhabitable freshwater. In terms of surface area, inland waters cover less than 2% of Earth's surface (Wetzel 1983), compared with the saltwater environment, which covers about 71%. Nevertheless, this small fraction of Earth's water has been thoroughly colonized by freshwater invertebrates.

This brings us to another point. Excluding the atmosphere, saltwaters constitute our finest example of a physically continuous environment. That is, any (small) part of the seas is theoretically accessible to any other part. There are no formidable dry land barriers-only other ecological barriers, such as temperature, distance, food conditions, substrate, and competition, which, I (RWP) submit, can often be at least temporarily tolerated.

The freshwaters of the world, on the other hand, are hopelessly fragmented into an enormous array of isolated habitats. To be sure, a large river system or a large lake is a considerable habitat mass, though not without internal ecological barriers, but consider the millions of reservoirs, small lakes, and ponds of the world, ranging down to such restricted habitats as a stock tank completely isolated on our short grass plains, 10 km from its nearest neighboring stock tank or water hole, and dependent on a windmill and well for its source of water. This, of course, is an extreme example of the environmental situation to which a segment of the freshwater fauna must be adapted. The small pond as an isolated microcosm is a neglected concept that was first emphasized a century ago in a classical paper by Forbes (1887).

THE CHEMICAL DIVERGENCE

The most obvious marine-freshwater distinction lies, of course, in the salt content of these two regimes. The great bulk of marine habitat mass ranges between only 3.30 and 3.70% salt, of which 80% consists of sodium chloride. The vast majority of "true" marine species, therefore, are restricted to a chemically monotonous environment (Fig. 1.1), and they may be said to constitute the "chloride fauna."

Most freshwater species, on the other hand, tolerate and occur naturally over a surprising range of total dissolved solids (TDS). From a chemical standpoint, and unlike the oceans, there is no such thing as an "average" freshwater habitat (Table 1.2). Each lotic or lentic situation has its own chemistry, but customarily the higher the altitude and the nearer a body of water is to the headwaters of its flowage system, the lower the TDS. Nevertheless, the dominant and most distinctive ions are the carbonate-bicarbonate complex, which usually accounts for more than 55% of the TDS. We may thus refer to freshwaters generally and collectively as "carbonate" waters, and to the fauna as the "carbonate fauna." It must be acknowledged, however, that a significant minority of freshwaters are dominated by sulfates, rather than by the carbonate complex. Sodium chloride is present only in small quantities in most freshwaters, seldom exceeding 5% of the TDS.

Aside from the carbonate and sodium chloride situation, I (RWP) have long felt that another major ionic and biological distinction between the two types of aquatic environments is centered around potassium as a key element. The average potassium content of seawater is about 380 mg/L, while freshwaters usually contain less than 10 mg/L, and often only traces. Large quantities of potassium salts in freshwaters are known to be toxic to many invertebrates, and, conversely, marine groups making the evolutionary passage into freshwaters must have made an extreme physiological potassium adjustment.

The freshwater fauna is clearly distinguished by its occurrence in waters that, while dilute, have a wide range of dissolved salts, and thus it is, relatively speaking, a euryhaline fauna (Fig. 1.1). The true marine fauna, on the other hand, cannot reproduce and complete life cycles over wide ranges of salinity (Dorgelo 1976).

In general, we may arbitrarily set 1000 mg/L as the usual upper limit of TDS for the freshwater fauna and 10 mg/L as the lower limit. Within this wide range are permanent populations of many common species that tolerate, for example, a 10-fold range of 50 to 500 mg/L.

Running waters are especially notable for their annual variations in dissolved materials, depending on the local geochemistry and seasonal changes in discharge. Generally, an annual variation of ± 50% in dissolved load is typical (Pennak 1977), and in exceptional cases ± 80%. Most stream invertebrates endure such variations without difficulty.

Seawater seldom exceeds a range of pH 7.8 to 8.3 in surface samples, but the "normal" biological range for most freshwaters is about pH 4.4 to 8.6. A single habitat, during the course of a year, may vary as much as two full pH units, depending on the vagaries of photosynthesis, light, current, respiratory processes, biota, circulation, and so on. The extensive literature on this subject shows that many common species adjust to such variations with no difficulty.

ORIGINS OF THE FRESHWATER FAUNA

The generalization that most major freshwater invertebrate groups originated from marine ancestors is firmly established. Only a few groups, such as insects, mites, and pulmonate snails, are presumed to have clearly originated from terrestrial habitats. The freshwater fauna is therefore appropriately termed an immigrant fauna.

The fundamental problem that must be solved before any marine animal can make its way into freshwater involves major physiological readjustments. Body fluids of most marine invertebrates are roughly isotonic with seawater; that is, the internal dissolved salt concentrations are similar to or slightly higher than the 3.5% average salt concentration of seawater. It is further true that the majority of marine invertebrates cannot endure much dilution of seawater. Freshwaters commonly contain about 0.01 as much salts as the ocean, and the internal fluids of freshwater invertebrates usually contain 0.03 to 0.40 as much salts as the ocean. From an osmotic standpoint, water therefore tends to pass into the hypertonic tissues of freshwater animals. Consequently, any successful freshwater animal must have developed physiological mechanisms for maintaining a proper salt and water balance against this strong gradient.

It is difficult to imagine the appearance of such mechanisms de novo, and it is assumed that the transitions from marine to freshwater environments were not sudden and rapid processes, but rather series of slow evolutionary processes occurring by way of psammolittoral and phreatic waters, littoral zones, marshes, swamps, and river estuaries where there are transition zones between salt and fresh water.

Bear in mind, however, that a river estuary is not a constant environment. Salinities, currents, tides, food, temperatures, and other ecological factors vary widely from time to time, and these conditions are by no means favorable to the evolution and gradual development of forms suited to freshwater. Pearse (1950) has stated the problem well: An estuary has been called the doorway by which marine forms have populated freshwater. This statement is perhaps in part true, but an estuarine doorway is not wide open and easily passed through. There are many difficulties to be surmounted. Many animals struggle long ages to get through and fail. Only a few attain freshwater by this route.

Ideal conditions for the invasion of freshwater are afforded by such places as the Baltic Sea, where a large area is involved and where there is a permanent and very gradual transition from the seawater to freshwater. Yet the Baltic has not a single endemic brackish-water species of metazoan that has evolved since the most recent glaciation, although there are a very few subspecies or physiological varieties that may be endemic.

The generalization that marine invertebrates are isotonic with seawater is actually a slight exaggeration. Even pelagic, deep-sea, and the most primitive marine species maintain a dynamic steady state by which a difference in concentration of several ions commonly obtains across external membranes and which must be maintained through physiological regulatory processes. The internal concentrations of magnesium and sulfate ions are often much lower than those in seawater. Potassium concentrations may be considerably higher or lower than in seawater, and calcium and chloride are also variable. Many marine invertebrates have the remarkable ability to concentrate astonishing amounts of elements that are present in the seawater only as traces. Examples are vanadium, iodine, strontium, and bromine.

A wide range in type and degree of osmoregulatory control is found among littoral and estuarine invertebrates. Many species have limited ability to regulate the relative amounts of internal salt and water; their membranes are easily permeable so that the body fluids become more or less isotonic in diluted seawater, and death occurs rather promptly. A few stenohaline species can endure some dilution of seawater by regulating body volume and taking up more water into the tissues. A few other species can regulate their internal osmotic concentration only to a limited degree and venture into slightly brackish water; these species have a slight ability to remain hypertonic in diluted seawater. Many "typical" brackish-water species are euryhaline and frequently invade and persist in habitats containing 30 to 100% freshwater. Most of these invertebrates maintain a more or less hypertonic internal salt concentration, regardless of the degree of brackishness of their surroundings. They include representatives of many groups, especially arthropods, mollusks, and various kinds of worms. The active absorption of salts is an important mechanism, and perhaps in some species there is actually physiological control of the amounts of water absorbed. Marine and brackish species transferred directly to freshwater usually live a few hours at most, but when the transition is made very slowly, over days or weeks, they may live for weeks or months in freshwater.

Figure 1.2 is a diagram showing the relative composition of the aquatic fauna in relation to salinity. It is one of the most striking paradoxes of freshwater, brackish, and marine faunas that animals thrive well in either an environment that is very low in salts or one that is high in salts, but environments of intermediate salinities (brackish) have a poor fauna. From the standpoint of total number of all types of species present, it should be noted that the minimum appears at a salinity of 7‰ (7 parts per thousand), which is well toward the freshwater end of the diagram in Fig. 1.2. This situation results from the fact that the number of freshwater species drops very rapidly with a slight rise in salinity, whereas the number of marine species drops less rapidly with a decrease in salinity.

This diagram also poses a second paradox. It shows that specific brackish-water species, which occur chiefly or exclusively in such environments, are most abundant at salinities of 7 to 10‰ (ca400mg/L) or about the place where the freshwater forms decrease abruptly and where the total number of all species is smallest. This condition is not to be expected since most brackish-water species have obviously been derived from marine relatives and not from freshwater relatives. It would be more logical to expect the maximum number of brackish species much farther toward the right in the diagram.

Continues...


Excerpted from Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States by Douglas Grant Smith Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Magnitude of the Freshwater Environment.

The Chemical Divergence.

Origins of the Freshwater Fauna.

Freshwater Emigrants to the Sea.

Major Distinctions Between Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates.

Evolutionary Shortcomings in Freshwaters.

Atypical Freshwater Habitats.

Dispersal and Barriers.

The Epidemic of Exotics.

Food Webs.

Collecting Ethics.

Comment Porifera.

Cnidaria.

Platyhelminthes.

Nemertea.

Gastrotricha.

Rotifera.

Nematoda.

Nematomorpha.

Tardigrada.

Entoprocta.

Ectoprocta.

Annelida.

Mollusca.

Arachnida.

Introduction to the Crustacea.

Phyllopodous Branchiopoda.

Cladoceran Branchiopoda.

Copepoda.

Branchiura.

Ostracoda.

Minor Malacostraca.

Isopoda.

Amphipoda.

Decapoda.

Appendix: Reagents, Solutions, and Laboratory Items.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)