People of the Earth: An Introduction to World History / Edition 13

People of the Earth: An Introduction to World History / Edition 13

by Brian M. Fagan
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0205735673

ISBN-13: 9780205735679

Pub. Date: 08/17/2009

Publisher: Pearson

This internationally renowned text provides the only truly global account of human prehistory from the earliest times through the earliest civilizations. Written in an accessible way, People of the Earth shows how today's diverse humanity developed biologically and culturally over millions of years against a background of constant climatic change.

Overview

This internationally renowned text provides the only truly global account of human prehistory from the earliest times through the earliest civilizations. Written in an accessible way, People of the Earth shows how today's diverse humanity developed biologically and culturally over millions of years against a background of constant climatic change.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205735679
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
08/17/2009
Series:
MyAnthroKit Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
576
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 10.80(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

CONTENTS:

Preface

Author’s Note

About the Author

CHAPTER 1 Introducing World Prehistory

Archaeology and Prehistory

< Site: The Amesbury Archer

The Beginnings of World Prehistory

Who Needs the Past?

< Science: Dating the Past

Cyclical and Linear Time

Written Records, Oral Traditions, and Archaeology

Studying Culture and Culture Change

Primary Cultural Processes

Theoretical Approaches: Culture as Adaptation

Climatic Change

Culture as Adaptation

Cultural Evolution and Cultural Ecology

Multilinear Evolution: Prestate and State-Organized Societies

Theoretical Approaches: Evolutionary Ecology and Hunter-Gatherers

Theoretical Approaches: People as Agents of Change

External and Internal Constraints

Interactions

Gender: Men and Women

Trade and Exchange

Ideologies and Beliefs

Summary

PART I BEGINNINGS

7 MILLION TO 40,000 YEARS AGO

CHAPTER 2 Human Origins

7 MILLION TO 1.9 MILLION YEARS AGO

The Great Ice Age

The Origins of the Human Line

Aegyptopithecus

Miocene Primates

Molecular Biology and Human Evolution

The Ecological Problems Faced by Early Hominins

Adaptive Problems

Fossil Evidence: 7 to 3 MYA

< Dating the Past: Potassium-Argon Dating

Toumaï: Sahelanthropus tchadensis

Ardipithecus ramidus

Australopithecus anamensis

Australopithecus afarensis

Laetoli: Footprints of A. afarensis

Fossil Evidence: 3 to 2.5 MYA

Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus

Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus

Australopithecus garhi

Early Homo: 2.5 to 2.0 MYA

Homo habilis

A Burst of Rapid Change?

Who Was the First Human?

Early Hominin Evolution: 7 to 1 MYA

Archaeological Evidence for Early Human Behavior

Evidence for “Central Places”?

< Site: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, East Africa

Hunting and Scavenging

Plant Foraging and “Grandmothering”

Toolmaking

The Oldowan Industry

The Mind of the Earliest Humans

The Development of Language

Social Organization

Summary

Chapter 3 Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens

1.9 MILLION TO 40,000 YEARS AGO

Pleistocene Background

Lower Pleistocene (1.6 Million to c. 780,000 Years Ago)

Middle Pleistocene (c. 780,000 to 128,000 Years Ago)

Homo ergaster in Africa

The Radiation of Homo ergaster

The Archaic World

Fire

Homo erectus in Asia

Southeast Asia

China

Early Asian Technology

The Settlement of Temperate Latitudes

Earliest Human Settlement in Southwest Asia and Europe

Southwest Asia

Europe

Archaic Human Technology

Hand Axes and Other Tools Hand Axes and the Evolution of the Human Mind

Evidence for Behavior: Boxgrove, Schöningen, and Torralba

< Site: A 400,000-Year-Old Hunt at Schöningen, Germany

Language

The Neanderthals

< Dating the Past: Radiocarbon Dating

A More Complex Technology

Levallois and Disk-Core-Reduction Strategies

Tool Forms and Variability

The Origins of Burial and Religious Belief

The Origins of Modern Humans

Continuity or Replacement?

Homo sapiens in Africa

Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens

Ecology and Homo sapiens

The Spread of Homo sapiens

The Issue of Cognitive Ability

Homo sapiens in East Asia

Summary

PART II THE GREAT DIASPORA: THE SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANS

45,000 YEARS AGO TO MODERN TIMES

Chapter 4 Europe and Eurasia

c. 40,000 TO 8000 B.C.

The Spread of Modern Humans to 12,000 Years Ago

The Upper Pleistocene (c. 126,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.)

Modern Humans in Southwest Asia

The Upper Paleolithic Transition

A Cultural Explosion?

Modern Humans in Europe

European Hunter-Gatherers (45,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.)

Settlement Strategies and Lifeways

Social Life and Group Size

Upper Paleolithic Art

< Site: Grotte de Chauvet, France

Paintings and Engravings

Explaining Upper Paleolithic Art

Human Settlement in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

Siberia (?33,000 to 13,000 Years Ago)

The Settlement of Far Northeast Asia

Bifaces, Microblades, and the First Americans

Summary

Chapter 5 The First Americans

14,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

The First Settlement of the Americas

Ice Sheets and the Bering Land Bridge

The First Settlement of Alaska

Biological and Linguistic Evidence for the First Americans

The Earliest Sites South of the Ice Sheets

Settlement Routes: Ice-Free Corridors and Seacoasts

Late Wisconsin Settlement in North America?

Central and South America?

A Scenario for First Settlement

The Paleo-Indians: Clovis and Others

Big-Game Extinctions

Later Hunters and Gatherers

Plains Hunters

The Desert West

Eastern North America

< Site: Koster, Illinois

Specialized Foraging Societies in Central and South America

Aleuts and Inuit (Eskimo)

Summary

Chapter 6 Africans and Australians

45,000 YEARS AGO TO MODERN TIMES

African Hunter-Gatherers, Past and Present

Sunda and Sahul: The First Settlement of Island Southeast Asia

< Site: Exotic Islanders: Homo floresiensis

New Guinea and Adjacent Islands

Australia

Ice Age Wallaby Hunters in Tasmania

Later Australian Cultures

Summary

Chapter 7 Intensification and Complexity

BEFORE 10,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

The Holocene (After 10,000 B.C.)

Coping with Environmental Variation

Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in Europe

< Site: Star Carr, England

Mesolithic Complexity in Scandinavia

The Maglemose Period (7500 to 5700 B.C.)

The Kongemose Period (5700 to 4600 B.C.)

The Ertebølle Period (4600 to 3200 B.C.)

Hunter-Gatherer Complexity

Conditions for Greater Complexity

Attributes of Greater Complexity

Debates About Social Complexity

Hunter-Gatherer Societies in Southwest Asia

Summary

PART III FIRST FARMERS 211

c. 10,000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

Chapter 8 A Plenteous Harvest

THE ORIGINS

Theories About the Origins of Food Production

Early Hypotheses

Multivariate Theories

< Site: Guilá Naquitz, Mexico

Differing Dates for Food Production

Studying Early Food Production

< Dating the Past: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Radiocarbon Dating

Why Did Food Production Take Hold So Late?

Consequences of Food Production

Nutrition and Early Food Production

Herding: Domestication of Animals

Plant Cultivation

Technology and Domestication

Early Food Production

Summary

Chapter 9 The Origins of Food Production in Southwest Asia

A Scenario for Early Agriculture

The First Farmers: Netiv Hagdud, Abu Hureyra, and Jericho

Netiv Hagdud

Abu Hureyra

Jericho

Diverse Farming Economies and Trade

The Zagros and Mesopotamia

Zawi Chemi Shanidar

Ganj Dareh

Jarmo

Ali Kosh and the Lowlands

< Site: Ritual Buildings in Southeastern Turkey

Early Farmers in Anatolia

Haçilar and Çatalhöyük

Two Stages of Farming Development

Summary

Chapter 10 The First European Farmers

Mesolithic Prelude

The Transition to Farming in Europe

Farming in Greece and Southern Europe

The Spread of Agriculture into Temperate Europe

The Balkans

Bandkeramik Cultures

Frontiers and Transitions

Social Changes, Lineages, and the Individual

The Introduction of the Plow

Plains Farmers: Tripolye

Mediterranean and Western Europe

The Megaliths

< Site: Easton Down and the Avebury Landscape

Summary

Chapter 11 First Farmers in Egypt and Tropical Africa

Hunter-Gatherers on the Nile

Agricultural Origins Along the Nile

Saharan Pastoralists

Early Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa

Summary

Chapter 12 Asia and the Pacific

Rice, Roots and Ocean Voyages

The Origins of Rice Cultivation

Early Farming in China

Southern and Eastern China

Northern China

Jomon and Early Agriculture in Japan

Early Agriculture in Southeast Asia

< Site: The Princess of Khok Phanom Di, Thailand

Rice and Root Cultivation in Island Southeast Asia

Agriculture in the Pacific Islands

The Lapita Cultural Complex and the Settlement of Melanesia and Western Polynesia

Long-Distance Voyaging in the Pacific

< Science: Indigenous Pacific Navigation

The Settlement of Micronesia and Eastern Polynesia

The Settlement of New Zealand

Summary

Chapter 13 The Story of Maize: Early Farmers in the Americas

The First Plant Domestication

The Origins of Maize Agriculture

Beans and Squash

Early Food Production in the Andes

The Highlands

The Peruvian Coast

Early Farmers in Southwestern North America

Hohokam

Mogollon

Ancestral Pueblo

< Site: The Chaco Phenomenon

Preagricultural and Agricultural Societies in Eastern North America

Moundbuilder Cultures

Early Woodland (Adena)

Hopewell

Mississippian

Human Settlement in the Caribbean

First Settlement (Preceramic Cultures)

Saladoid Migrations

Taíno Chiefdoms

Summary

PART IV OLD WORLD CIVILIZATIONS

c. 3000 B.C. TO MODERN TIMES

Chapter 14 The Development of Civilization

Civilization

Cities

Six Classic Theories of the Emergence of States

1. V. Gordon Childe and the “Urban Revolution”

2. Ecology and Irrigation

3. Technology and Trade

4. Warfare

5. Cultural Systems and Civilization

6. Environmental Change

Social Theories

Power in Three Domains

< Site: The Lord of Sicán at Huaca Loro, Peru

Chiefly Cycling: Processes and Agents

Old World Civilizations

The Collapse of Civilizations

Summary

Chapter 15 Early Civilizations in Southwest Asia

Upland Villages

Settlement of the Lowlands

Environmental Change

Archaeological Evidence

< Site: The Temple at Eridu, Iraq

Uruk: The Mesopotamian City

Sumerian Civilization

Exchange on the Iranian Plateau

The Widening of Political Authority

The Akkadians

Babylon

The Assyrians

Summary

Chapter 16 Egypt, Nubia, and Africa

The Origins of the Egyptian State

Ancient Monopoly?

Naqada, Nekhen, and Maadi

Writing

A Scenario for Unification

Intensification of Agriculture and Irrigation

Archaic Egypt and the Creation of the Great Culture (2920 to 2575 B.C.)

The Old Kingdom and the Pyramids (c. 2575 to 2180 B.C.)

< Site: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt

The Egyptian State

The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom (2180 to 1640 B.C.)

The Second Intermediate Period (1640 to 1530 B.C.)

The New Kingdom (1530 to 1070 B.C.)

The “Estate of Amun”

Amarna and Akhenaten

< Mummies and Mummification

The Restoration of Amun

The Late Period (1070 to 332 B.C.)

Egypt and Africa

Nubia: The Land of Kush

Meroe and Aksum

North Africa

Jenne-jeno and the Rise of African States

Ghana

Mali

Songhay

Farmers and Traders in Eastern and Southern Africa

Towns and Trade on the East African Coast

Great Zimbabwe

Europe and Africa

Summary

Chapter 17 Early States in South and Southeast Asia

The Roots of South Asian Civilization

Highlands and Lowlands: The Kulli Complex

A Rapid Transition

Mature Harappan Civilization

Who Were the Harappans?

Harappan Beliefs

South Asia After the Harappans

Southeast Asian States

Dong Son

Trade and Kingdoms

The Rise of the God-Kings

The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430)

< Site: Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Summary

Chapter 18 Early Chinese Civilization

The Origins of Chinese Civilization

Longshan and Liangzhu

Shoulder Blades and Oracles

Xia and Shang

Capitals and Sepulchers

The Shang Royal Burials

The Bronze Smiths

The Warlords

< Site: The Burial Mound of Emperor Shihuangdi, China

Summary

Chapter 19 Hittites, Minoans, and Mycenaeans

Early Towns in Anatolia

Balance of Power: The Hittites

The Sea Peoples and the Rise of Israel

The Phoenicians

The Aegean and Greece

The Minoans

The Mycenaeans 449

< Site: The Mycenaean Shrine at Phylakopi, Melos Island, Greece

Greek City-States After Mycenae

The Etruscans and the Romans

The Etruscans

The Romans

Summary

Chapter 20 Europe Before the Romans

Early Copper Working

Battle Axes and Beakers

< Site: Ötzi the Iceman, Similaun Glacier, Italian Alps

The European Bronze Age

ÿ Site: Stonehenge, England

Bronze Age Warriors

The Scythians and Other Steppe Peoples

The First Ironworking

The Hallstatt Culture

La Tène Culture

Summary

PART V NATIVE AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS

2000 B.C. TO A.D. 1534

Chapter 21 Mesoamerican Civilizations

Village Farming

Native American Civilizations

Preclassic Peoples in Mesoamerica

Early Preclassic

Middle Preclassic: The Olmec

Late Preclassic

The Rise of Complex Society in Oaxaca

Monte Albán

Teotihuacán

Maya Civilization

Maya Origins

Water Management

Kingship: Sacred Space and Time

Political Organization

Classic and Late Classic Maya Political History

< Site: Architecture as a Political Statement: The Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copán, Honduras

The Ninth-Century Collapse

The Toltecs

Aztec Civilization and the Spanish Conquest

Summary

Chapter 22 Andean Civilizations

The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization

Coastal Foundations: The Initial Period

Caral

El Paraíso and Huaca Florida

Chavín de Huántar

Paracas: Textiles and Coastal Prehistory

Complex Society in the Southern Highlands: Chiripa and Pukara

The Early Intermediate Period

The Moche State

< Site: The Lords of Sipán, Peru

The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari

Tiwanaku

Wari

The Late Intermediate Period: Sicán and Chimor

The Late Horizon: The Inca State

Amazonia

The Spanish Conquest (1532 to 1534)

Summary

Glossary of Cultures and Sites

Glossary of Technical Terms

Bibliography of World Prehistory

Credits

Index

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