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People: A History of Native America / Edition 1

People: A History of Native America / Edition 1

by R. David Edmunds

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ISBN-10: 0669244953

ISBN-13: 2900669244952

Pub. Date: 06/05/2006

Publisher: Cengage Learning

This compelling narrative takes an ethnohistorical approach to American Indian history from the arrival of humans on the continent to the present day. Balanced coverage of the political, cultural, and social aspects of Indian history provides students with a broad understanding of Eastern, Midwestern, and Western Indians. The authors use photographs and Native


This compelling narrative takes an ethnohistorical approach to American Indian history from the arrival of humans on the continent to the present day. Balanced coverage of the political, cultural, and social aspects of Indian history provides students with a broad understanding of Eastern, Midwestern, and Western Indians. The authors use photographs and Native artifcacts to examine the impact each object had on Native life while capturing the lives of Native people through their written and spoken testimony. The People: A History of Native America demonstrates that the active participation of American Indians in a modern, democratic society has shaped-and will continue to shape-national life.

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Cengage Learning
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New Edition

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 American History Begins: Indian Peoples Before the Advent of Europeans 1

The Peopling of America 2

Farmers in the Desert Southwest 6

Indian Voices: Akimel O'odham Speaker (1775) 7

People, Places, and Things: Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon 9

Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands 11

Villagers of the Far West 18

Band Societies of the Western Interior and Far North 22

Conclusion 25

Suggested Readings 26

2 Strangers in Indian Homelands, 1490-1600 27

Indian-Spanish Encounters Beyond North America, 1492-1536 28

Southeastern Chiefdoms Confront Imperial Adventurers 31

Indian Voices: A Timucua Chief Defies De Soto, 1539 34

Encounters in the American West 41

People, Places, and Things: Spaniards Entering the Southwest: A Navajo View 44

Early Contacts in the Northeast 45

Conclusion 51

Suggested Readings 51

3 Native Peoples and the Founding of European Colonies, 1600-1660 53

Struggling for Power in the Northeastern Interior: The Iroquois vs. New France 55

Indian Voices: Kiotseaeton, Mohawk Iroquois Diplomat, 1645 60

Coastal Indians and Early European Settlements 64

People, Places, and Things: Powhatan's Mantle 73

Confronting Spanish Expansion in the Southeast and Southwest 75

Conclusion 79

Suggested Readings 79

4 Worlds in Upheaval, 1660-1720 81

The Northeast: Iroquois Power and European Expansion 83

People, Places, and Things: Onondaga Iroquois Artifacts Made from European Metals 85

The Southeast: Slaves, Confederacies, and War 95

West of the Mississippi: Native Resistance and Cultural Transformation 102

Indian Voices: Pedro Naranjo, San Felipe Pueblo, 1681 104


Suggested Readings 109

5 Native Americans in Peace and War, 1716-1754 110

Indians and Empires: The East 113

Exiles in Their Own Homelands: Indians in the English Colonies 119

Native Americans and French Expansion in the Mississippi Valley 124

Indian Voices: Stung Serpent, Natchez, 1723 126

Horses and Guns on the Plains 129

People, Places, and Things: Spanish Slave-Raiding Expedition, c. 1720 131

Conclusion 133

Suggested Readings 133

6 Native Peoples and Imperial Crises, 1754-1821 135

Eastern Indians and the Seven Years' War, 1754-1761 137

Eastern Indians and the American Revolution, 1761-1783 141

Indian Voices: Joseph Brant (Mohawk), 1789 150

Struggles for Power in the Southern Plains and Southwest, 1754-1810 151

Neophytes, Gentiles, and Colonizers on the Pacific, 1769-1833 155

People, Places, and Things: Ohlones Gambling at Mission Dolores, 1816 159

Conclusion 162

Suggested Readings 162

7 The Defense of the Trans-Appalachian Homelands, 1795-1815 164

The Struggle for Autonomy 166

People, Places, and Things: Captives 169

American Indian Policy 175

Revitalization Movements 179

Indian Voices: Tecumseh Demands That the British Honor Their Promises!, 1813 183

Conclusion 186

Suggested Readings 187

8 Western Tribes Meet the Long Knives, 1800-1820 189

Indian Voices: A Piegan (Blackfoot) Describes the Arrival of Horses 190

Before Lewis and Clark 192

The Tribes Encounter Lewis and Clark 194

People, Places, and Things: Mandan Earth Lodges 199

The Western Fur Trade 204

Conclusion 211

Suggested Readings 212

9 Indian Removal, 1820-1845 213

Indian Country in the New Republic 214

People, Places, and Things: Native American Women as Entrepreneurs 219

Jacksonian Indian Policy 220

Indian Removal: The Southeast 222

Indian Voices: Cherokee Leaders Denounce the Injustices of Removal 229

Indian Removal: The Old Northwest 230

Fighting Removal: Armed Resistance 233

Conclusion 238

Suggested Readings 238

10 Strangers Invade the West, 1845-1861 241

Indian Territory 243

People, Places, and Things: The Cherokee Female Seminary 248

Texas 250

California 253

Indian Voices: William Joseph (Nisenam Tribesman) Describes a Lynching 258

The Northwestern Tribes 260

The Southwest 263

Conclusion 266

Suggested Readings 267

11 Indian People in the Civil War Era, 1850-1868 268

Civil War in Indian Territory 269

Reconstruction in Indian Territory 272

Eastern Indians in the Civil War 276

Violence in the West 277

The Desert Southwest 280

Indian Voices: Herrero (Navajo Headman) Testifies About Conditions at Bosque Redondo 285

The Plains Tribes During the Civil War Era 286

People, Places, and Things: Teepees: "Exceedingly Picturesque and Beautiful" 291

Conclusion 292

Suggested Readings 293

12 Warfare in the West, 1867-1886 295

Cultural Change on the Plains 296

The Warfare Continues 298

The Northern Plains, 1868-1881 301

Indian Voices: Two Moons (Cheyenne War Chief) Recounts the Battle of Little Big Horn 305

Rebellions Against Reservation Life 308

The Apaches, 1865-1886 315

People, Places, and Things: Lozen: Shield to Her People 318

Conclusion 320

Suggested Readings 320

13 "Kill the Indian, Save the Man": Survival in a Shrinking Homeland, 1878-1900 322

Assaults on Indianness 322

"Raising Up" the Indians: Schools, Missionaries, and Government Agents 331

Prophets, Inventors, and Writers: Indian Resistance in an Age of Oppression 336

People, Places, and Things: Teton Lakota Parasol 342

Indian Voices: Sarah Winnemucca 343

Conclusion 345

Suggested Readings 345

14 Survival and Renewal, 1900-1930 347

Finding New Places to Be Indian 347

The Native American Church 348

People, Places, and Things: Monroe Tsa Toke (1904-1937) 349

Indian Voices: Charles Eastman Criticizes "Civilization" 351

Fighting for the Indian Cause 357

Facing Economic Hardship 365

Conclusion 371

Suggested Readings 372

15 Reorganization and War, 1930-1945 373

Pressures Mount for Drastic Change 374

Indian Voices: D'Arcy McNickle Reveals His Hopes for Indians in the Future 376

People, Places, and Things: Crow Indian Round Hall 389

World War II 390

Conclusion 394

Suggested Readings 396

16 Fighting to Be Indians, 1945-1970 397

Indians on the Move 398

People, Places, and Things: Chicago American Indian Center 402

Termination Takes Shape 406

Battling Back 410

Indian Voices: Alice Jemison Speaks Out Against Termination 411

Gaining Recognition 415

New Voices 421

Conclusion 423

Suggested Readings 423

17 Acting Sovereign, 1970-1990 425

Red Power 426

Indian Voices: Russell Means Advocates Reviving Indian Traditions 431

Victories in Congress and the Courts 435

Sovereignty on the Ground 444

People, Places, and Things: Indian Governments at Work 451

Conclusion 452

Suggested Readings 452

18 Indians in the New Millennium 454

Indian Voices: Joy Harjo Writes About Indian Life 457

Tribe or Nation? 459

Indian Health 462

Struggling Economies 464

Who Is an Indian? 470

People, Places, and Things: National Museum of the American Indian 472

Conclusion 473

Suggested Readings 473

Appendix A Chronology 475

Appendix B State and Federally Recognized Tribes 481

Appendix C Most Populous Tribes 488

Appendix D Largest Landholding Tribes 489

Appendix E Suggested General Reference Works 490

Appendix F Films and Videos 492

Appendix G List of Tribal Gaming Operations 495

Photo Credits 501

Index 503

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