This narrative takes an ethnographic approach to American Indian history from the arrival of humans on the American continent to the present day. The text provides balanced coverage of political, economic, cultural and social aspects of Indian history. While conveying the effects of European invasion on American Indian communities, the text gives greater attention to the impact of Native actions on the American environment. The authors' Indian-centered point of view treats Indians as actors in their own right, existing in a larger society. As a result, some events in American history loom larger than they would in a general survey, while others, such as Reconstruction, receive minimal coverage. The People demonstrates that the active participation of American Indians in a modern, democratic society has shaped--and will continue to shape--national life.
R. David Edmunds, Watson Professor of American History at the University of Texas at Dallas, received his PhD from the University of Oklahoma. He has written or edited nine books, including The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire (1987), which won the Francis Parkman Prize, and The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France (1993), which won the Alfred Heggoy Prize. He has held Ford Foundation, Newberry, and Guggenheim fellowships and has advised documentary filmmakers, tribal governments, foundations, and museums. In 2003, Dr. Edmunds served as President of the American Society for Ethnohistory.
Frederick E. Hoxie, Swanlund Professor of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, received his Ph.D. degree from Brandeis University. His publications include A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians (1984), Parading Through History: The Making of the Crow Nation in America, 1805-1935 (1995), and Talking Back to Civilization: Indian Voices from the Progressive Era (2001). He is general editor of The American Indians, a 23-volume series of books published by Time-Life, and series editor (with Neal Salisbury) for Cambridge Studies in American Indian History. He has served as a consultant both to Indian tribes and government agencies. He has received fellowships from the Rockefeller Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities, and has served as president of the American Society for Ethnohistory.
Neal Salisbury, Barbara Richmond 1940 Professor Emeritus in the Social Sciences (History), at Smith College, received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles. He is the author of MANITOU AND PROVIDENCE: INDIANS, EUROPEANS, AND THE MAKING OF NEW ENGLAND, 1500-1643 (1982), editor of THE SOVEREIGNTY AND GOODNESS OF GOD, by Mary Rowlandson (1997), and co-editor, with Philip J. Deloria, of THE COMPANION TO AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORY (2002). With R. David Edmunds and Frederick E. Hoxie, he has written THE PEOPLE: A HISTORY OF NATIVE AMERICA (2007). He has contributed numerous articles to journals and edited collections and co-edits a book series, CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORY. He is active in the fields of colonial and Native American history and has served as president of the American Society for Ethnohistory and on the Council of the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.
Note: Each chapter includes a Conclusion and Suggested Readings. 1. American History Begins: Indian Peoples Before the Advent of Europeans The Peopling of America Farmers in the Desert Southwest Indian Voices: Akimel O'odham Speaker (1775) People, Places, and Things: Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands Villagers of the Far West Band Societies of the Western Interior and Far North 2. Strangers in Indian Homelands, 1490-1600 Indian-Spanish Encounters Beyond North America, 1492-1536 Southeastern Chiefdoms Confront Imperial Adventurers Indian Voices: A Timucua Chief Defies De Soto, 1539 Encounters in the American West People, Places, and Things: Spaniards Entering the Southwest: A Navajo View Early Contacts in the Northeast 3. Native Peoples and the Founding of European Colonies, 1600-1660 Struggling for Power in the Northeastern Interior: The Iroquois vs. New France Indian Voices: Kiotseaeton, Mohawk Iroquois Diplomat, 1645 Coastal Indians and Early European Settlements People, Places, and Things: Powhatan's Mantle Confronting Spanish Expansion in the Southeast and Southwest 4. Worlds in Upheaval, 1660-1720 The Northeast: Iroquois Power and European Expansion People, Places, and Things: Onondaga Iroquois Artifacts Made from European Metals The Southeast: Slaves, Confederacies, and War West of the Mississippi: Native Resistance and Cultural Transformation Indian Voices: Pedro Naranjo, San Felipe Pueblo, 1681 5. Native Americans in Peace and War, 1716-1754 Indians and Empires: The East Exiles in Their Own Homelands: Indians in the English Colonies Native Americans and French Expansion in the Mississippi Valley Indian Voices: Stung Serpent, Natchez, 1723 Horses and Guns on the Plains People, Places, and Things: Spanish Slave-Raiding Expedition, c. 1720 6. Native Peoples and Imperial Crises, 1754-1821 Eastern Indians and the Seven Years' War, 1754-1761 Eastern Indians and the American Revolution, 1761-1783 Indian Voices: Joseph Brant (Mohawk), 1789 Struggles for Power in the Southern Plains and Southwest, 1754-1810 Neophytes, Gentiles, and Colonizers on the Pacific, 1769-1833 People, Places, and Things: Ohlones Gambling at Mission Dolores, 1816 7. The Defense of the Trans-Appalachian Homelands, 1795-1815 The Struggle for Autonomy People, Places, and Things: Captives American Indian Policy Revitalization Movements Indian Voices: Tecumseh Demands That the British Honor Their Promises!, 1813 8. Western Tribes Meet the Long Knives, 1800-1820 Indian Voices: A Piegan (Blackfoot) Describes the Arrival of Horses Before Lewis and Clark The Tribes Encounter Lewis and Clark People, Places, and Things: Mandan Earth Lodges The Western Fur Trade 9. Indian Removal, 1820-1845 Indian Country in the New Republic People, Places, and Things: Native American Women as Entrepreneurs Jacksonian Indian Policy Indian Removal: The Southeast Indian Voices: Cherokee Leaders Denounce the Injustices of Removal Indian Removal: The Old Northwest Fighting Removal: Armed Resistance 10. Strangers Invade the West, 1845-1861 Indian Territory People, Places, and Things: The Cherokee Female Seminary Texas California Indian Voices: William Joseph (Nisenam Tribesman) Describes a Lynching The Northwestern Tribes The Southwest 11. Indian People in the Civil War Era, 1850-1868 Civil War in Indian Territory Reconstruction in Indian Territory Eastern Indians in the Civil War Violence in the West The Desert Southwest Indian Voices: Herrero (Navajo Headman) Testifies About Conditions at Bosque Redondo The Plains Tribes During the Civil War Era People, Places, and Things: Teepees: "Exceedingly Picturesque and Beautiful" 12. Warfare in the West, 1867-1886 Cultural Change on the Plains The Warfare Continues The Northern Plains, 1868-1881 Indian Voices: Two Moons (Cheyenne War Chief) Recounts the Battle of Little Big Horn Rebellions Against Reservation Life The Apaches, 1865-1886 People, Places, and Things: Lozen: Shield to Her People 13. "Kill the Indian, Save the Man": Survival in a Shrinking Homeland, 1878-1900 Assaults on Indianness "Raising Up" the Indians: Schools, Missionaries, and Government Agents Prophets, Inventors, and Writers: Indian Resistance in an Age of Oppression People, Places, and Things: Teton Lakota Parasol Indian Voices: Sarah Winnemucca 14. Survival and Renewal, 1900-1930 Finding New Places to Be Indian The Native American Church People, Places, and Things: Monroe Tsa Toke (1904-1937) Indian Voices: Charles Eastman Criticizes "Civilization" Fighting for the Indian Cause Facing Economic Hardship 15. Reorganization and War, 1930-1945 Pressures Mount for Drastic Change Indian Voices: D'Arcy McNickle Reveals His Hopes for Indians in the Future People, Places, and Things: Crow Indian Round Hall World War II 16. Fighting to Be Indians, 1945-1970 Indians on the Move People, Places, and Things: Chicago American Indian Center Termination Takes Shape Battling Back Indian Voices: Alice Lee Jemison Speaks Out Against Termination Gaining Recognition New Voices 17. Acting Sovereign, 1970-1990 Red Power Indian Voices: Russell Means Advocates Reviving Indian Traditions Victories in Congress and the Courts Sovereignty on the Ground People, Places, and Things: Indian Governments at Work 18. Indians in the New Millennium Indian Voices: Joy Harjo Writes About Indian Life Tribe or Nation? Indian Health Struggling Economies Who Is an Indian? People, Places, and Things: National Museum of the American Indian